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individual cells in the nervous system that receive, integrate, and transmit information.
Hold the nervous system together and help maintain the chemical environment of the neurons.
The cell body, contains the cell nucleus and much of the chemical machinery common to most cells.
The parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information.
The long, thin fiber that transmits signals away from the soma to other neurons or to muscles or glands.
An insulating material, derived from glial cells, that encases some axons. Speeds up transmission of signals that move along axons.
Myelin Sheath
Small knobs that secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters. These chemicals serve as messengers that may activate neighboring neurons.
Terminal Buttons
A junction where information is transmitted from one neuron to another.
The _____ of a neuron is its stable, negative charge when the cell is inactive.
Resting Potential
The very brief shift in a neuron's electrical charge that travels along an axon.
Action Potential
The minimum length of time after an action potential during which another action potential cannot begin.
Absolute Refractory Period
A microscopic gap between the terminal button of one neuron and the cell membrane of another neuron.
Synaptic Cleft
The neuron that sends a signal across the synaptic cleft.
presynaptic neuron
The neuron that receives the signal across the synaptic cleft.
postsynaptic neuron
Chemicals that transmit information from one neuron to another.
small sacs with terminal buttons that contain neurotransmitters.
synaptic vesicles
Locations where neurotransmitters arrive at receiving nueron.
receptor sites
A voltage change at a receptor site on a postsynaptic cell membrane. Do not follow all-or-none law. They vary in size and increase or decrease the probability of a neural impulse.
Postsynaptic potentials
A positive voltage shift that increases the likelihood that the postsynaptic neuron will fire the action potentials.
excitatory PSP
A negative voltage shift that decreases the likelihood that the postsynaptic neuron will fire action potentials.
Inhibitory PSP
A procss in which neurotransmitters are sponged up from the synaptic cleft by the presynaptic membrane.
The stimulation of sense organs.
The selection, organization, and interpretation of sensory input.
The study of how physical stimuli ar etranslated into psychological experience.
Describe the factors that limit our sensory experiences.
Motivation: The desire or eagerness to detect a signal.

Absolute Threshold: The minimum amount of stimulation that an organism can detect 50% of the time.

Noise: All the irrelevant stimuli in the environment and the neural activity they elicit.

Sensory Adaptation: A gradual decline in sensitivity to prolonged stimulation.
Name the three physical properties of light and their related perceptions.
Wavelength: Hue

Amplitude: Brightness

Purity: Saturation
The transparent eye structure that focuses the light rays falling on the retina.
Occurs when the curvature of the lens adjusts to alter visual focus. When you focus on a close object, the lens gets fatter. When you focus on distant objects, the lens flattens out.
Name the two most common visual deficiencies.
Nearsightedness- Close objects are seen clear but distant objects appear blurry.

Farsightedness- Far objects are seen clear but close object appear blurry.
The opening in the center of the iris that helps regulate the amount of light passing into the rear chamber of the eye.
The neural tissue lining the inside back surface of the eye; it absorbs light, processes images, and sends visual information to the brain.
A hole in the retina where the optic nerve fibers exit the eye.
Optic disk
Specialized visual receptors that play a key role in daylight vision and color vision
A tiny spot in the center of the retina that only contains cones; visual acuity is greatest at this spot.
Specialized visual receptors that play a key role in night vision and peripheral vision.
The point at which the optic nerves from the inside half of each eye cross and then project to the opposite half of the brain.
Optic Chiasm
involves the simultaneous extraction of different kinds of information from the same input.
Parallel processing
Name the 3 physical properties of sound and their related perceptions.
Wave amplitude: Loudness
Wavelength or Frequency: Pitch
Wave Purity or mixture: Timbre
Describe the parts of the Outer, Middle, and Inner Ear
Pinna: a sound collecting cone
Auditory Canal: funnel


Auditory Nerve
A fluid filled, coiled tunnel that contains the receptors for hearing.
Runs the length of the cochlea and hold the auditory receptors.
Basilar membrane
Made up of all those nerves that lie outside the brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous System
Bundles of nueron fibers(axons) that are routed together in the peripheral nervous system.
made up of nerves that connect to voluntary skeletal muscles and to sensory receptors. Lets you feel the world and move around in it.
Somatic Nervous System
axons that carry information inward to the central nervous system from the periphery of the body.
Afferent Nerve Fibers
axons that carry information outward from the central nervous system to the periphery of the body.
Efferent nerve fibers
made up of nerves that connecto to the heart, blood vessels, smooth muscles, and glands. Controls automatic involuntary functions such as heart rate, digestion, and perspiration.
Autonomic Nervous System
the branch of the autonomic nervous system that mobilizes your body's resources for emergencies.
Sympathetic Division
The branch of the autonomic nervous system that generally conserves bodily resources.
Parasympathetic Division
Consists of the brain and spinal cord
Central Nervous System
nourishes the brain and provides a protective cushion for it
Cerebrospinal fluid
A semipermeable membrane-like mechanism that stoops some chemicals from passing between the bloodstream and the brain
blood-brain barrier
Includes the cerebellum and two structures found in the lower part of the brainstem: the medulla and the pons.
Attaches to the spinal cord, has charge of largely unconscious but vital functions, including circulation, breathing, maintaining muscle tone, and regulating reflexes such as sneezing, coughing, and salivating.
includes a bridge of fibers that connects the brainstem with the cerebellum. Contains several clusters of cell bodies involved with sleep and arousal.
A relatively large and deeply folded structure located adjacent to the back surface of the brainstem. The cerebellum is critical to the coordination of movement and to the sense of equilibrium.
The segment of the brainstem that lies between the hindbrain and the forebrain. Concerned with certain sensory processes, such as located where things are in space.
Lying at the central core of the brainstem and running through the hindbrain and midbrain. Contributes to the modulation of muscle relexes, breathing, pain perception, and regulation of sleep and arousal.
Reticular formation
The largest and most complex region of the brain, encompassing a variety of structures, including the thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system, and cerebrum.
A way station, a structure in the forebrain through which all sensory information must pass to get to the cerebral cortex.
A structure found near the base of the forebrain that is involved in the regulation of basic biological needs. Controls the ANS. Link between the brain and the endocrine system
A loosely connected network of structures located roughly along the border between the cerebral cortex and deeper subcortical areas. Involved in the regulation of emotion, memory, and motivation.
Limbic System
Consists of glands that secrete chemicals into the bloodstream that help control bodily functioning.
Endocrine system
The chemical substances released by the endocrine glands.
The "master" gland. Releases a great variety of hormones that fan out around the body, stimulating actions in the other endocrine glands.
Pituitary Gland
in book
Allows you to perceive a familiar object as being the same shape regardless of the angle at which you view it.
Shape Constancy
Enables you to perceive a familiar object as being the same size, regardless of its distance from you.
Size Constancy
A drawing that is compatible with two interpretations that can shift back and forth.
Reversible figure
a readiness to perceive a stimulus in a particular way.
Perceptual set
the process of detecting specific elements in visual input and assembling them into a more complex form.
Feature Analysis
Looking at the big picture then details to identify.
Top-down processing
Looking at the details then the big picture to identify.
Bottom-up processing
Identify and describe the Gestalt principles(Pg 91.)
Subjective Contours
Figure and Ground
Clues about distance based on the differing views of the two eyes.
Binocular depth cues
Refers to the fact that objects within 25 feet project images to slightly different locations on the right and left retinas, so the right and left eyes see slightly different views of the object. The closer the object the greater the disparity.
Retinal Disparity
involves sensing the eyes converging toward each other as they focus on closer objects.
clues about distance based on the image in either eye alone.
Monocular depth cues
involves images of objects at different distances moving across the retina at different rates.
Motion Parallax
Name and describe the pictorial depth cues.
Linear perspective
texture gradients
Relative size
height in plane
light and shadow
Involves an apparently inexplicable discrepancy between the appearance of a visual stimulus and its physical reality.
Optical illusion
Objects that can be represented in two-dimensional pictures but cannot exist in three-dimensional space.
Impossible figures
Any circumstances that threaten or are perceived to threaten one's well-being and that thereby tax one's coping abilities.
Name and describe the four major types of stress
Frustration- occurs in any situation in which the pursuit of some goal is thwarted.

Conflict- occurs when two or more incompatible motivations or behavioral impulses compete for expression

Change- noticeable alterations in one's living circumstances that require readjustment.

Pressure- expectations or demands that make one behave in a certain way.
when a choice must be made between two unattractive goals.
Avoidance-avoidance conflict
when a choice must be made about whether to pursue a single goal that has both attractive and unattractive aspects.
approach-avoidance conflict
Process of deciding whether an event is stressful or not.
Subjective Cognitive Appraisal
Name the emotional responses to stress
Annoyance, anger, rage
Apprehension, anxiety, fear
Dejection, sadness, grief
Behavioral Responses to stress
Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis
Learned Helplessness
Impaired Task Performance
Physiological response to stress
Fight or flight response leads to increased
Name the factors moderating stress
Social Support
(Positive) Imagery
Relaxation techniques
Fight or Flight response
A physiological reaction to threat in which the autonomic nervous system mobilizes the organism for attacking or fleeing an enemy
Describe each stage of the General Adaptation Syndrome
(1) Alarm Stage
Occurs when an organism first recognizes the existence of a threat.

(2) Resistance Stage
Physiological changes stabilize as coping efforts get under way

(3) Exhaustion Stage
When the bodies resources for fighting stress are limited. If the stress canÂ’t be overcome, the bodyÂ’s resources may be depleted.
A relatively deep stage of sleep marked by rapid eye movements, high-frequency, low-amplitude brain waves, and vivid dreaming
REM sleep
Consists of sleep stages 1-4, which are marked by an absence of rapid eye movements, relatively little dreaming, and varied EEG activity.
Non-REM sleep
Describe the effects of sleep deprivation
Memory Lapses
Mood Swings
Attentional deficits
Response time increases

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