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Child Psych Final


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Development of Social Cognition
-concrete to abstract
-organized better with age
-cause of behavior goes from simple explanations to complex interacting relationships
-metacognitive understanding
sense of self as the knower/actor - includes self-awareness, self-continuity, self-coherence, and self-agency (understanding that I control myself)
sense of self as an object of knowledge, material and psychological and personality trait evaluation - how others might see and describe you
begins in the early months, understand body as separate, realize their actions cause predictable reactions from people, objects
categorical self
18-30 months, can classify selves on a number of dimensions (age, sex, good/bad)
theory of mind
young preschoolers awareness of self's private thoughts and imaginings
self concept development
set of attributes, abilities, attitudes, and values that an individual believes defines who he/she is - mention observable things, understand psychological characteristics

middle childhood - organized observations, competencies, positives/negatives, personality traits, social comparisons

adolescence - see opposing traits, try to be what people want, what is the real me? Emphasis on social virtues, personal and moral values
self-esteem judgements
we make about our own worth, feelings associated with these judgements
common every day explanations for causes of behavior, "Why did I do that?"
Mastery oriented attribution vs. learned helplessness mastery oriented attribution
success is due to ability and hard work - incremental view of ability -

learned helplessness, attribute failures to ability, successes to external factors (luck, ease of task)

entity view of ability - fixed, not changeable
identity achievement
clearly committed, psychological well being (healthy)
exploring identity - people, clothes, places - active process (healthy)
identity foreclosure
committed to goals without exploring alternatives, ready made identity - die hard, rigid, not necessarily self-defined.
identity diffusion
lack of clear direction, exploration is too threatening and overwhelming - don't know what they stand for, vulnerable to cults
adopting societal standards for what it right as your own
type of discipline which child is encouraged to notice other's feelings, effects of misbehavior pointed out - tells how to behave, applied in future, encourages empathy and sympathetic concern, encourages kids to judge appropriateness - begin to understand logic
Social Learning Theory of Moral Development
Kids learn through modeling

effective models - warmth and responsiveness, competence and power, consistency between assertions and behaviors
process of actively attending to and interrelating multiple perspectives on a situation in which social conflicts arise, thereby developing new moral understandings
Piaget's theory - Heteronomous vs. autonomous
heronomous morality (5-10 years) rules are handed down by authority, they are permanent, unchangeable, and call for strict obedience

autonomous morality - people's perspectives can differ and intentions, not concrete consequences, should serve as basis for judging behaviors
Kohlberg's Stages
preconventional - morality externally controlled, fear of authority, avoidance in punishment - later what is right comes from self-interest

conventional - social rules are important for maintaing positive human relations and societal order - being seen as good by others and being fair are important

postconventional - morality is defined in terms of abstract principles, values that apply to situations, societies - laws are flexible, meant to further human purposes - what is right defined by ethical principles - what is valued for all humanity, respect for worth and dignity for each person
Influences on moral development
personality, peer interaction, child-rearing practices, schooling, culture
gender stereotypes
widely held beliefs about characteristics deemed appropriate for males and females
gender roles
the reflection of gender stereotypes in every day behavior
gender identity
perception of oneself as relatively masculine or feminine in characteristics
instrumental traits
masculine stereotpyed personality traits - competence, rationality, assertiveness
expressive traits
feminine-stereotyped traits - warmth, caring, sensitivity
Developmental gender trends
parents stereotype before birth, 18 months recog. opposite gender toys, 2 y/o absorb messages, preschool. assoc. toys/colors with a gender, characs. assoc. w/ 1 sex determine sex (long hair = girl), age 5 gender stereo. well established - become adultlike by 11
Influences on gender roles and stereotypes
biology, expectations of adults, treatment by parents and teachers, peers, siblings, observational learning
gender constancy
understanding that gender is biologically based and remains the same even if clothing, play, etc. change
gender labeling
stage where preschoolers can label gender of selves and others correctly
gender stability
partial understanding of the permanence of sex, stability over time
gender consistency
children in late preschool/early school master gender constancy
most successful, high in acceptance/involvement, appropriate limits/freedom, consquences
low in acceptance/involvement, focus on control, low in autonomy
warm and accepting, little control, not good w/ decisions
low acceptance and involvement, little control, indifference in autonomy, neglectful
ability/skills for own decisions
general guidelines, choices w/in, builds skills
factors that impact child rearing
SES, poverty, ethnic differences
factors related to adjustment to divorce
custodial parent's psychological health, child's age, temperament, sex, social supports
physical abuse
assaults on children - hitting, kicking, shaking - injuries, pain
sexual abuse
comments, fondling, intercourse, other exploitation
physical neglect
don't receive enough food, clothing, medical attention, supervision
emotional neglect
failure of caregivers to meet child's needs for affection, emotional support
psychological abuse
actions such as ridicule, humiliation, scapegoating, terrorizing - damage cognitive, emotional, or social functioning
physiological systems run higher than resting rate, increases stress hormones
consequences of maltreatment
impaired devlopment of emotional self-regulation, empahty, sympathy, self concept, social skills, academic motivation, serious learning and adjustment problems, hyperarousal, stress hormone increase
common factors for origin of maltreatment
high emotional arousal, low income, low education, unemployment, young age, alcohol/drug abuse, marital conflict, overcrowded living condition, frequent moves, household disorganization, social isolation, overburdened parents, premature infants, colicky babies, special needs kids
rough and tumble play
teaches appropriate limits of aggression
infant/toddler peer relations
looking/touching by 3-4 mths., 6 months directed smiles and babbles
nonsocial play
unoccupied, onlooker behavior, solitary play
parallel play
limited social play near other children, similar materially, does not influence othersÂ’ behaviors
associative play
true social participation, separate activities, interact to exchange toys, comment on otherÂ’s behaviors
cooperative play
true social participation, childrenÂ’s actions toward a common goal
popular/prosocial child
most popular children combine academic and social competence, assertive, ask for explanation
tough boys who are athletically skilled but poor students, peers see them as "cool"
severe conduct problems, no one likes, worst social skills
passive and socially awkward, at risk for being bullied
both positive/negative behaviors
neglected children
usu. well adjusted, can break away from this status when they want - may choose not to join in
small groups, 5-7 people
larger groups, based on reputation and stereotype
secure attachment
parent used as a secure base, may or may not cried, seek contact – 65%
avoidant attachment
Unresponsive to parent, not distressed, slow to greet parent/cling – 20%
resistant attachment
seek closeness before separation, fail to explore, present angry resistive behavior upon return, hitting, pushing – 10-15%
disorganized/disoriented attachment
greatest insecurity, confused behaviors, look away/flat depressed emotion, frozen postures, crying – 5-10%
Vygotsky/Piaget on make-believe play
Piaget- children practice and strengthen newly acquired representational schemes, emotionally integrative function – misjudged power of language

Vygotsky – unique, broadly influential zone of proximal development, children advance selves by trying out a wide variety of challenging skills – has a lot of evidence to back it up
Infancy Arousal
Regular sleep – full rest, little or no body activity (8-9)

Irregular sleep – gentle limb movements, stirring, irregular breathing (8-9)

Drowsiness – falling asleep/waking up, less active, glazed eyes, even but quick breathing (Varies)

Quiet alertness – body inactive, eyes open and attentive, breathing even (2-3)

Waking activity – frequent bursts of uncoordinated motor activity, breathing irregular, face tense, wrinkled or relaxed (2-3)

Crying – waking activity, vigorous motor activity (1-3)
childÂ’s immediate surroundings; immediate family, school, play area
extended family, friends, workplace, community health services, neighbors
customs, laws, values

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