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Foundations of Ed Final


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scaffolding definition, from whose theory it develops
definition: assistance provided by an expert to help a child move to a higher level of learning. Theory: Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development
National Association for the Education of Young People
Association for Childhood Education International
Developmentally Appropriate Practice
a framework or philosophy for working with young children
Gardner (so many plants)
Multiple Intelligence Theory kinesthetic, existential, interpersonal, inrapersonal, rhythmic, visual, linguistic, logical, naturalist
Nature Defecit Disorder (whose idea?)
From Gardener's theory; we aren't getting enough exposure to outdoors
Skinner (operate on skin)
Behaviorist; we change because outside forces operate on us through operant conditioning. Consequences of our behavior lead to behavior changes because of reinforcement or punishment
Characteristics of High Quality Schooling
trust child to be creator safe environment play time explore time order/discipline materials teacher obs. and ass. sensitivity
What does a good curriculum have?
Covers all areas of development. Concrete, real, relevant materials and act. Active learners. Includes multiculturalism. Indoor/outdoor. Integrated units
4 Dimensions of Professionalism (PEPP!)
Personal characteristics. Educational attainment. Professional practice. Public presentation
3 keys to DAP (just ask the CIA!)
Culturally, individually, age appropriate.
Shaken baby became an issue when?
60s and 70s- prior to then, it was a 'family issue'
Risk factors for being shaken?
Male Less than 6 months Greater demand for care
Shaken Baby Stats: who does it, who dies?
Male family members do it. 1 in 4 babies die
Characteristics of play
Enjoyable Chosen Process, not goal oriented.
4 Kinds of Play
Onlooker Solitary Parallel Cooperative/group
Describe a Montessori Classroom (well-known)
Mixed ages. Low, open shelves. Self-directed most day. Cooperation, not competition. Assessment is observed, not graded. Important to develop individual responsibility.
Comenius (come look!)
Added pictures to the Bible
John Locke (the island will tell us what to do)
We are shaped by the environment and nature; Tabula Rasa
Martin Luther (monk... read and write all day)
Translated the bible, increasing education and literacy
Social play is a must! Development of stages: onlooker, solitary, parallel, cooperative
Pestalozzi (dumb pesty moms)
Mothers should be educated because they are with their children in the beginning and care for them
Froebel (German!)
Kindergarten founder. Children are seeds we plant and cultivate
Montessori (hey pretty lady)
First female in med school. Disappointed in uneducated female teachers. Child-sized classrooms.
Malaguzzi (Italian, much?)
Implemented Reggio Emilia Approach
Reggio Emilia Approach
Flexible curriculum shaped by individual interest. Lots of project work. Teacher and students stay together. Assessment via portfolios. Teachers are researchers who document their work. Interconnectedness; reciprocity with community and peers.
Erikson: dynamic weyker
Development is esp. social and emotional. We travel through stages.
4 Stages of young people, according to Erikson.
Trust vs. mistrust (will you come when I cry) Autonomy vs. shame (yelling during toilet training) Initiative vs. guilt (cut my hair after paper) Industry vs. inferiority (find my strengths and excel)
Piaget (pig)
Cognitive development occurs in stages
4 important stages of cognitive development (It's not the SPCA)
Sensorimotor Preoperational Concrete Formal
Sensorimotor stage of cognitive development
Realizes hidden objects are still there
Preoperational stage of cognitive development
Illogical and symbolic, one-way thinking
Concrete Operations
Logical about the concrete, Conservation & reversibility
Formal Operations
Maslow: low on the ladder
we are driven to fulfill needs; 6 stages of needs, each one must be met before the next
Maslow 6 stages of needs to be met
Self-actualization Esthetics Achievement Belonging and love Safety Essentials
B-3 Emotional Development
Cries easy, unable to control impulses, needs routine
3-4 Emotional Development
Can tolerate some frustration. Some self-control. Fear of the dark and abandonment.
5-6 Emotional Development
Express and label feelings. Able to be away from parents. Conscience develops.
7-8 Emotional Development
Sensitive to teasing and criticism. Expresses more empty. Sees others points of view
B-3 Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor investigation. Object permanence. Uses words without understanding.
3-4 Cognitive Development
Says numbers but doesn't know. Little difference between fantasy and reality. Classifies by function. "Why" Egocentric
5-6 Cognitive Development
Longer attention span. Seriates, groups, objects Conserves number and length
7-8 Cognitive Development
Concrete operational thinking begins. Gets cause and effect. Slang. Awareness of bigger picture.
B-3 Physical Development
Sits and crawls. Grasps and releases things
3-4 Physical Development
Rides a tricycle. Dresses self
5-6 Physical Development
Fine motor skills. Eye-hand coordination. Print letters. Loses teeth.
7-8 Physical Development
High energy. Growth slows. Permanent teeth. More normal body proportions and facial structure. Increase throwing/kicking accuracy.
B-3 Social Development
Imitates others. Begins to parallel play
3-5 Social Development
Becomes aware differences (skin, sexual). Parallel play is common Imaginary playmates.
5-6 Social Development
Best friends for short periods. Can share and take turns. Teachers cool.
7-8 Social Development
More competitive. Plays less often with opposite gender.

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