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Easy 1-3


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1.1 YOu have been asked by your client's attorney to serve as a fact witness in a court proceeding. Your client, the plaintiff, suffered serious phys. injury in wkplace and has since experienced signif. emotional probs as a result of injury. You have bee
1.1 C - Key term is "fact witness". Unlike an expert witness who can offer opinions, fact witness, can only testify about facts. A psyc. while serving as fact witness, cd give an opinion, but only if ordered by court and any opinions shd be qualified by stmt about its ltations.
1.4 An Af-Am adult repeatedly expresses superiority as an Af-Am and expresses contempt for all Caucasians. According to Cross' Nigrescence Theory, this person is most likely in which stage of dvpt?
a. Pre-encounter
b. Encounter
c. Immersio
C - According to Nigrescence Model, during Immersion-Emersion stage of identity dvpt, there is tendency for Af-Ams to idealize other Af-Ams and the culture and denigrate Caucasian indivs and culture.
1.6 A man is referred for psychotherapy by his physician after ruling out sleep apnea and other med. conditions. The pt reports having vivid frightening dreams, restless sleep, chronic fatigue, and hx of alcohol abuse. His dx is most likely:
a. Narc
C Sleep can be disturbed as result of both alc. intoxication and alc. w/drawal. Initially, alcohol usu. produces sedative effect w/ inc'd sleepiness. However, after 3-4 hours of sleep there is inc in wakefulness, restless sleep, and REM, often accompanied by vivid anxiety-laden dreams for remainder of sleep period. Narcolepsy (A) characterized by irresistible attacks of refreshing sleep. Insomnia (B), or in DSM-IV terms "Primary Insomnia" is not due to direct effects of a substance and is not typically assoced w/ vivid frightening dreams. D is not a DSM dx.
1.8 A child is put in "time-out" because he was making other children laugh in class. After 15 mins in time-out he apologized to the teacher and promised not to do that again. The teacher then allowed him to return to his regular seat. Followin
D - Boy's remorse is apparently due to negative reinforcement, that is, removal of aversive stimulus (time-out) led to increase in the probability of his (remorseful) beh. Although negative reinforcement is not offered as a choice in this question, escape conditioning is a type of negative reinforcement. In escape conditioning, an indiv. is able to escape from an aversive stimulus by engaging in a partic. beh. Avoidance conditioning (C) is another form of negative reinforcement in which a cue is presented prior to the aversive stimulus - signaling the indiv to avoid it.
1.17 A 10-yr old child is admined the WISC-III and obts score of 140 Full Scale IQ. If retested at age of 16, her IQ score will most likely be:
a. higher
b. lower
c. the same
d. imposs. to predict
B - This qn appears to be about reliability of IQ scores over time, when it's a stats qn. WISC-III does have good reliaby over time, and if IQ was in normal range, we could predict it wd stay same over time. However, score of 140 is "very superior" and would likely be lower upon retesting due to regression to the mean - which is tendency of extreme scores to be less extreme upon retesting.
1.22 Mother of 9-year old client of yours asks you to testify at upcoming custody hearing. Since you have been wking w/ child for past 6 mths she believes you are best suited to make recommendation regarding custody arrangements. You should:
a. agre
D - APA's Guideliness for Child Custody Evaluations in Divorce Proceedings state that psychologists must avoid multiple relationships. Since you already have a therapeutic relationship with the child you should avoid assuming an evaluative role in the custody case.
1.23 You are psyc. at state mental hospital. One of your colleagues, a psychiatrist, tells you that one of his clients has reported to him that he has sexually abused a child. The perpetrator still has access to the child. The psychiatrist says that he i
D - Psychologists, like most health professionals are mandated reporters. In this instance, since the primary reporter refuses to make the report, you wd be mandated to report the suspected child abuse to approp. child abuse reporting agency. You wd also be obligated to report the identity of the nonreporter to that child abuse reporting agency.
1.27 The incidence of Major Depressive Disorder in adult females compared to adult males is 2:1. This gender difference:
a. is the same for children under 10 years of age
b. is opposite for children under 10 years of age
c. does not become
C - Prior to puberty the incidence of MDD is about equal for boys and girls, however, at puberty the gender differences emerge w/ the disorder occurring twice as often in females than males.
1.32 In a study, Ss are asked to memorize a list of 10 unrelated words. The Ss are then asked to count backwards by 3's from 99. At 5, 15, and 30 sec intervals they are asked to recall the list of words. The reason the Ss are asked to count backwards is
D - Without the opportunity to rehearse newly learned information it cannot be retained for more than a very brief period. This study apparently used counting backwards as way to prevent subjects from rehearsing the list of words in order to eval the duration of STM. Proactive interference (or inhibition) (A) occurs when previous learning interferes with more recent learning. Retrograde amnesia (B) is failure to remember events that occurred prior to a trauma. Retrograde amnesia should not be confused with retroactive interference or inhibition - which occurs when new learning interferes w/ recall of prior learning.
1.35 Studies on efffectiveness of fluoxetine (Prozac) for txing anorexia and bulimia suggests that level of serotonin:
a. may be etiol. factor in anorexia but not in bulimia
b. may be etiol. factor in bulimia but not anorexia
c. is not eti
D - several neurotransmitters have been found to play a role in the etiology of eating DOs, but the preponderance of research has focused on the link b/w low levels of serotonin and anorexia and bulimia. Fluoxetine (Prozac), along w/ several other SSRIs, have also been found effective in the treatment of anorexia and bulimia.
1.37 When a mother leaves her 12-month old child with a stranger, the child becomes very upset, yet, ignores her when she returns. What type of attachment pattern does this indicate?
a. secure
b. avoidant
c. resistant
d. disoriented
C - Babies who have resistant attachment pattern are anxious in the presence of their mother and become more upset when she leaves. They are also ambivalent when she returns and may resist her attempts at phys. contact. Babies w/ an avoidant attachment pattern (B) may also avoid contact w/ their mother when she returns, but will show little distress when she leaves. Babies with a disoriented patter (D) alternate b/w avoidant and resistant patterns and are apprehensive and confused.
1.42 A supervisor realizes that his employees are becoming less productive when wking in a grp. To avoid the effects of social loafing he should:
a. provide clearly defined goals
b. req everyone to proivde an equal amt of effort
c. make th
C - Social loafing often occurs when employees, partic. those in high-level positions, are evaled based on a combined effort of the grp, rather than for their indiv. contributions. It is also more likely to occur when tasks are simple and boring. Thus, to avoid social loafing an employer shd insure that each employee's job is challenging and that they rec. recogn for their indiv. efforts. "A" (providing clearly defined goals) is also useful suggestion but is more reled to goal-setting theory than social loafing.
1.43 An attorney contacts you and requests the raw test data which you collected from a former Pt of yours last yr. The attorney explains that the info is needed in an upcoming court case in which your former client is a plaintiff in a personal injury ca
C - Ethical Standard 2.02 states that "psychologists refrain...from releasing raw test results or raw data to persons, other than to Pts or clients as approp., who are not qualified to use such info." Since attorneys would not usu. be qualified to use raw data, the best course of action would be to advise the attorney to engage the consultation of another psyc. whom you cd send the data to (after getting the approp. consent)
1.48 According to DSM-IV, a dxic (vs. an assoced) feature of Antisocial PD is:
a. inflated sense of self
b. superficial charm
c. lack of remorse
d. lack of empathy
C - lack of remorse is one of the dxic features of Antisocial PD. The other choices are associated features of the DO.
1.49 The presence of which of the following suggests the dx is Social Phobia rather than Agoraphobia?
a. social sitns are avoided due to fear of humiliation or embarrassment
b. an absence of the physiological sxs assoced w/ a panic attack
D - Indivs w/ Agoraphobia typically prefer to be w/ a trusted companion when in the feared sitn, whereas, indivs w/ Social Phobia may feel more anxious due to the potal scrutiny by a companion. Choice "A" does not adeqly diff'ate the DOs since in both Social Phobia and Agoraphobia there is a fear of humilitation or embarrassment and an avoidance of those sitns, altho in Agoraphobia, the fear is not limited to social sitns.
1.51 In a study of memory, a researcher displays the letter "V" on a screen for a brief period of time. After removing the letter, Ss are asked to recall what they saw. The researcher found that several of the Ss reported seeing the wrong lette
B - Studies such as this one have found that altho info is presented visually, the confusion during recall is for letters that sound alike, which supports the theory that info is usu. stored acoustically in STM.
1.52 Research on the effects of normal aging on memory has found that:
a. episodic memory is affected more than semantic or procedural memory
b. semantic memory is affected more than episodic or procedural memory
c. procedural memory is af
A - Normal aging has been found to most affect episodic memory which contains memory for specific events incl one's autobiography. Semantic memory, which is memory for facts and rules and procedural memory - which refers to memory for how to do things are less affected by normal aging.
1.53 Research has generally found that job enrichment:
a. incs job perf. and, to a lesser deg., job satisfn partic. among blue collar wkers
b. incs job satisfn and decs absenteeism, partic. among younger, well-educated employees
c. incs jo
B - Job enrichment involves redesigning a job in order to enable wkers to have more challenge, responsibility, d-making authority, and opportunities for advancement. Although the research findings are mixed, they generally have found that job enrichment leads to inc'd job satisfn, dec's absenteeism and turnover, and in some cases, inc'd job perf. in terms of quality rather than quantity. The benefits of job enrichment are greatest among younger, well-educated, employees who have a high need for Ach.
1.60 Confidence intervals are used in order to:
a. calculate the test's mean
b. calculate the SD
c. calculate the std error of measurement
d. estimate true scores from obted scores
D - Confidence intervals allow us to determine the range within which an examinee's true score on a test is likely to fall, given his or her obted score. The std error of measurement "C" is used to construct CIs, not the other way around.
1.62 During an initial session w/ a new adult client, you realize that you are already txing her mother. The primary prob w/ continuing to see this new client has to do w/:
a. confidentiality
b. multiple relnships
c. conflict of int
C - Altho seeing 2 members of a family in indiv therapy cd pose probs w/ confidentiality (A) and countertransference (D), the primary prob wd be the potal conflict of int. Multiple relnships (B) refers to having more than one type of relnship w/ same person, e.g., psyc. seeing current student in psychotherapy.
1.71 As the result of a selection test used by a logging company, it was found that they hired only 1 woman for every 9 men as loggers. They cd continue to use these tests if:
a. they don't discriminate against ethnic minority groups
b. they pa
D - When the selection rate for any gp is less than 4/5ths or 80% of the group most favored by the selection device, there is adverse impact. However, adverse impact may be permitted if the selection criterion is a "bona fide occupational qualification." This reqs evidence that the procedure is valid and there are no alt. measures which wd have less adverse impact.
1.81 A depressed white middle-aged man is at the highest risk for suicide if he has been:
a. divorced for 1 yr, has somatic complaints, and constriction of affect
b. divorced for 5 yrs, is overtly hostile, and does not wt help
c. divorced
1.81 A - Men are at highest risk for suicide during the 1st yr following divorce. Constriction of affect (rather than overt hostility), as well as, certain illnesses also inc the risk for suicide.
1.89 R-squared is used as an indicator of:
a. The number of values that are free to vary in a stats calcn
b. The variability of scores
c. How much your ability to predict is improved using the regn line
d. The relnship b/w 2 variables
1.89 C - R-squared tells you how much your ability to predict is improved using the regn line, cfed to not using it. The most poss. improvement is 1 and the least is 0. Choice "A" is the defn of df. Choice "B" is defn of variance. And "D" is description of coefficient eta.
1.93 If the predr of a selection test is raised, this will:
a. inc probability of true positives
b. inc probability of false positives
c. dec probability of true positives
d. dec probability of false negatives
1.93 A - "positive" is used to designate those selected or hired. "Negative refers to those not selected or hired. "True" refers to a correct decision and "false" refers to an incorrect decision. When a predr is raised, there are fewer ppl selected overall, that is, there are fewer positives (both true and false). However, the probability that those selected will meet the criteria (i.e., true positives) (e.g., successful job performance) increases.
1.96 Although you have extensive experience in admining the WAIS-R, you have not yet admined the WAIS-III. If you wd like to admin. the WAIS-III you should:
a. obt addnal training
b. obt supervision by a psyc. experienced in the use of the WAIS
1.96 A - Std 2.04 reqs psycs to be familiar w/ the proper use of assessmt techniques which they use. When admining a test, or a new version of a test which you are not familiar with, you shd obt the necessary training.
1.107 About 50% of infants walk well by:
a. 9 months
b. 12 months
c. 14 months
d. 16 months
1.107 B - Children vary considerably in terms of dvpt milestones, but about 50% of children are walking well alone by 12 months and 90% by 14 months.
1.108 Factor analysis has shown that job commitmt has 3 forms. Of these, job satisfn is least correled w/:
a. affective commitment
b. continuance commitment
c. normative commitment
d. instrumtal commitment
1.108 B - Knowing what the 3 forms of job commitment are wd have helped: Affective commitment refers to the employee's psycal attitudes toward the org; normative commitment is the employee's perceived obligation to stay with the company; and continuance commitment refers to the costs of leaving the company. Given these defns, it makes sense that continuance commitment wd be least reled to job satisfn and other job-reled attitudes and more to practical considerations.
1.114 "Backwards conditioning" occurs when:
a. a prevly reinforced response is no longer reinforced
b. acquisition of a behal chain begins w/ the last response and gradually wks toward the 1st response
c. the unconditioned stimul
1.114 - C - for the exam, you wt to have the term backwards conditioning assoced w/ classical conditioning. It occurs when the US is presented before the CS, which is the wrong way to est a CR.
1.131 A shortcoming of most curriculum-based suicide prevention progs for adols is that:
a. they are based on a stress model of suicide
b. they are based on a mental illness model of suicide
c. they tend to stigmatize suicide
d. they
1.131 A - Most curriculum-based progs for adols try to reduce stigmatization of suicide by attributing it to stressful life events rather than (more correctly) to mental illness. Critics argue that this emphasis reduces the effectiveness of the progs since it provides inaccurate info about the causes of suicide.
1.137 Older adults are likely to have more probs than young adults on tasks involving which type of memory?
a. remote
b. primary
c. explicit
d. semantic
1.137 C - the literature on aging and memory is confusing because diff authors focus on diff aspects of memory (recent vs. remote, implicit vs. explicit, etc.), and few make direct comparions b/w the diff aspects. Of the types of memory listed, though, probs in explicit (deliberate) memory have most consisly been linked to advancing age. In contrast, remote LTM, primary (short-term) memory, and semantic memory are not strongly affected by normal aging.
1.139 Locke and Latham's goal-setting theory focuses primarily on:
a. ability and effort
b. perceived effort and perf
c. expectations and effort
d. intentions and effort
1.139 D - Goal-setting theory proposes that, when people accept goals, they intent to achieve them and, therefore, are willing to put forth the effort to do so.
1.140 Research using a "dismantling strategy" suggests that the most critical component of systematic desensitization is:
a. counterconditioning
b. gradual exposure
c. classical extinction
d. operant extinction
1.140 C - A dismantling strategy involves comparing the various components of a tx. Use of this method has demonstrated that counterconditioning and gradual exposure are not the crucial elements in systematic desensitization. Instead, repeated exposure to the CD w/out presence of the US is responsible for its positive effects.
1.142 Central to an understanding of wk-family conflict are the notions of:
a. involvemt and boundary permeability
b. individuation and responsibility
c. instrumtality and rewards
d. costs and benefits
1.142 A - as its name implies, work-family conflict occurs when role expectations and demands at wk and at hm are incompatible. Wk-fam conflict is affected by several factors incl the extent of involvement in wk and fam roles and the deg to which boundaries b/w wk and fam roles are permeable.
1.143 A current trend in the field of personnel mgmt is using selection techniques that ensure a good "person-orgn fit." The research suggests that a gd fit:
a. has positive effects on indiv. satisfaction, commitmt, and productivity as wel
1.143B - Research on person-org fit has focused primarily on indiv outcomes (which seem positive). The few studies that have looked at orgal-level effects are not as supportive and usggest that, in the long run, too dg of a fit b/w the employees and the orgn can reduce creativity, adaptability to change, etc.
1.149 Seven-year old Billy is easily distracted, is always "on the go," talkes excessively, and often interrupts while s-one else is talking, squirms in his seat in class, runs in the schl halls, and in the hse, and can't play quiet games. The
1.149 C - This is a diffc qn because you don't know if thesea re the only sxs Billy has or if they're just some of his sxs. For exam, best strat, is to assume that all the info you need in order to pick the rt answer is given in the qn. Based on this assumption, Billy has 7 sxs of ADHD - one that reflects inattentiveness and 6 that reflect hyperactivity-impulsivity. This is consis. with a DSM-IV dx of ADHD, Predom. Hyperactive-Impulsive Type.
1.152 A psyc uses a 2-grouppretest/posttest design to eval the effects of a new tx. She obts the following data:

The biggest threat to this study's in
1.152 C - in this study the means of the 2 groups are v. diff initially (Pretest), which makes it hard to interp. results. When internal validity is threatened by initial gp diffs, this is called selection. Note that term selection is really assignment. If assignment was random, we wd expect pretest scores for Gps 1 and 2 to be approx. equal, which they are not.
1.156 Asian-Am students often outperform their non-Asian peers on various measures of acad. achievemt. Research suggests that the best predr of higher achievemt in Asian-Americans is:
a. estimate of ability
b. fear of acad. failure
c. self
1.156 B - Asian-Americans and non-Asian students not only differ in terms of Ach but also in their attribns for acad. success. Asian-Ams are more likely to cite fear of failure as the main contributor to acad success, while non-Asians are more likely to attrib successful perf to effort.
1.161 Which of following are all poss. causes of a Mood DO caused by a known organic factor (substance use or med. condition)?
a. hypothyroidism, broken bones, and barbiturate use
b. arthritis, hyperthyroidism, and cerebral palsy
c. catara
1.161 DSM identifies following DOs as poss. causes of an organically-based mood sxs: Substances such as hallucinogens and PCP; endocrine DOs such as hypo- ot hyperthyroidism; carcinoma of the pancreas; viral illness; and structural dz of the brain, such as caused by stroke. Only D contains 3 factors that each fall into these categories.
1.167 Which of the following is most true about the results of research investigating the effects of TV viewing on children?
a. TV violence does not cause or contrib to aggression in children
b. Preschool children cannot discriminate b/w commer
1.167 C - Research has shown that children from low income fams, on average, watch more TV than higher SES children, esp in Af Am low income children. All other choices not true. Many studies confirm that TV violence correled w/ aggn in children; in addition, research demonstrated that prosocial programming can have positive impact on children's beh. And research also shown that children as young as 3 or 4 can correctly distinguish between TV programming and commercials, though they cannot verbalize what a commercial is, what they are shown on TV, and what the diff b/w a prog and commercial is.
1.170 A Pt reports that he is criticized by co-wkers for failing to do his job properly. He can't understnd why they're complaining, esp. because he feels he is being given too much wk and everybody else is to blame for the org's probs. On the basis of t
1.170 B - Passive-Aggressive PD (which is in DSM appendix called "Criteria Sets and Axes Provided for Further Study") characterized by pervasive pattern of passive resistance to demands for adeq. social or occupational perf. Signs of the DO incl. protesting that others make unreasonable demands, believing that one is doing a much better job than others think, and resenting useful suggestions from others. Of the choices avail., it is the most likely dx.
1.172 Which of following stms is most true about results of research investigating the relnship b/w teacher gender and gender bias in evaling students?
a. Male and female teachers both are more likely to negatively evaluate girls than boys.
1.172 B - In general, the research on teacher evals of male and female students has indiced that male and female teachers exhibit similar behs and biases toward male and female students. For instance, male and female teachers both have been found to make more negative evals of male students than female students.
1.173 A new client comes to see you and you find his political view to be distasteful. In this sitn, as an ethical psyc. you shd:
a. refer the client to s-one else
b. discuss your feelings w/ the client and assess to det if his views are reflec
1.173 C - Ethical std 1.09 applies to this sitn. It states that "in their wk-related activities, psycs respect the rights of others to hold values, attitudes, and opinions that differ from their own." Therefore, C is the best answer, since it is most consis. w/ the ethical stds. A consultation or even referral may be necess if your ability to conduct therapy wd be impaired. However, there is no reason why a diff of political opinion alone shd interfere w/ therapy.
1.175 Sxs of memory impairment, faulty judgment, and impaired concn wd most likely result from lesions to the:
a. frontal lobe
b. parietal lobe
c. temporal lobe
d. occipital lobe
1.175 C - Faulty judgment and probs in concn cd be either frontal lobe- or temporal lobe-related. However, since memory imp is included in this qn, the best answer is temporal lobe. The subcortical nuclei implicated in memory lie under the temporal lobes. The parietal lobe is responsible for orientation in space. The occipital lobe is where vision is mediated.
1.179 In the Prisoner's Dilemma Game, it was found that ppl:
a. compete from the beginning
b. cooperate initially by then compete
c. compete initially but then cooperate
d. cooperate from the beginning
1.179 A - famous social psyc research. Ppl are presented w/ sitn where, if they cooperate, they each will rec. moderate rewards. If they compete, one will rec. a big reward and the other will rec. nothing. What happens is that ppl tend to compete straight away. They take a risk. This supports the pessimistic view of human nature: o'side of family and reference group, we tend to be suspicious and hostile.
1.189 In a study of 400 persy variables, it was found that 19 correled at the .05 level of significance w/ a measure of actual beh. The 19 signif. correlations cd be considered valid for:
a. future research
b. future therapy
c. both future
1.189 D - At the .05 level of significance, there is a 5% probability of making Type I error. So, out of 400 relnships, you'd expect 20 or so to be found signif. when they really aren't. Hence, the 19 signif. correlations probably aren't very meaningful. They likely have no application to either research or therapy.
1.190 A consultant gathers descriptions of jobs through direct observation, through published info, and through interviews of incumbents. This process if undertaken for the purpose of:
a. validating a selection procedure
b. esting the content o
1.190 B - Person is undertaking job analysis - studying what the job actually entails. From the job analysis, he or she can go ahead and find approp. tests, or make up a test, to assess ppl's abilities to succeed at the job components identified by the analysis. In short, a job analysis can be used to identify approp content for a job selection measure. The other choices are incorrect because they imply that the person is conducting some kind of statistical validation study, which is not the case here.
1.198 The thermal biofeedback technique of hand warming is used to treat migraine headaches. The therapeutic effects of this technique wd be primarily mediated by:
a. somatic nervous system
b. sympathetic nervous system
c. parasympathetic
1.198 B - Biofeedback seeks to engender control over so-called involuntary processes, which are mediated by the autonomic nervous system. Autonomic nervous sys consists of the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches. Goal of biofeedback in tx of migraine headaches is to reduce pressure on the muscles in the forehead by reducing blood flow to the extracranial arteries. Since blood flow is regulated by body temperature, it is thought that warming the hands, coupled with feedback about finger temperature, can increase blood flow to the fingers, thereby reducting blood flow to the extracranial arteris. The sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system controls the smooth muscles of the blood vessels; thus, it is the target of thermal hand warming biofeedback.

Although biofeedback is used to inc blood flow in sympathetic nervous system, biofeedback can also be used to affect the parasympathetic nervous system for other physiological processes; for example, biofeedback wd be used to induce relaxation by influencing the parasympathetic nervous system.
3.9 If you wt to keep a borderline Pt involved w/ grouptherapy, what wd be the best technique?
a. You have them consult w/ a psychiatrist for a medication eval
b. You help the Pt w/ the defense mechanism of splitting
c. You invite a client
3.9 D - Marsha Linehan (1993) has been achieving success w/ borderline Pts w/ her use of DBT which involves a combo of groups skills training and indiv outpt therapy. This combo has been successful at decing premature dropout rates in group therapy, as well as reducing suicide attempts and inpt hospitalization rates.
3.19 Your client has moved out of state. She has called and left you a voice mail message requesting that you send her records to a new therapist. She leaves her new therapist's number and address but not her own. You have a current written release from
3.19 A - Most conservative approach here is best, which is to try and contact your client and discuss the sitn w/ her. It will be helpful to know the purpose of the request. Your client has a right to a copy of her records and a rt to have them sent to where she chooses, but your best course of action wd be to discuss the sitn w/ her. You wd not send her bill to another therapist.
3.20 You have been court-ordered to eval a prisoner who is being tried for murder. You explain the purpose of the eval and complete it. As you are packing up your testing materials, the prisoner smirks, and says, "I agreed to this but I didn't sign
3.20 A - Because this eval was court-ordered you were not actually req'd to obt informed consent. However, Std IV.E.1 of the Specialty Guildelines for Forensic Psychologists states that "if the client appears unwilling to proceed after rec'ing a thorough notification of the purposes, methods, and intended uses of the forensic eval, the psyc. shd take steps to place the client in contact w/ his or her attorney for the purpose of legal advice on the issue of participation." Remember, you always want to take the most careful and conservative approach if poss. While you may be tempted to choose answer C and add the client's comments to your report, this wd contradict Std V.C. of the Forensic Guidelines which states that, "In sitns where the right of the client to confidentiality is ltd, the forensic psyc makes every effort to maintain confidentiality w/ regard to any info that does not bear dirly upon the legal purpose of the eval." Finally, as a thorough evaluator, you shd have read the case file closely; however, you wd not proceed w/ an eval diffly just because your client is an attorney.
3.27 Hostile pre-schoolers who are aggressive toward their schoolmates exhibited which of the following attachment patterns in infancy?
a. secure attachmt
b. anxious/resistant attachmt
c. disorged/disoriented attachmt
d. anxious/avoid
3.27 C - The strongest single predr of deviant levels of hostile beh toward peers in the classrm is early disorged/disoriented attachmt status. 71% of agg pre-schoolers were classified as disorged in their att relnships in infancy according to Lyons-Ruth, Alpern, and Rapacholi (1993). Ainsowrth (1978) described infants w/ a disorged/disoriented att as "dazed, confused, and apprehensive." According to Ainsworth, securely attached babies are emotionally sensitive and responsive, anxious/resistant attached babies are anxious when their mother is present and distressed when she leaves, and anxious/avoidant attached babies are uninted in their environmt, show little distress when their mothers leave and avoid contact w/ her when she returns.
3.31 The percentage of indivs w/ Alcohol Dependence who experience severe complications from Alcohol Withdrawal is about
a. 5%
b. 20%
c. 50%
d. 66%
3.31 A - According to DSM-IV, severe complications of Alcohol Withdrawal (e.g., delirium, grand mal seizures) are only experienced by 5% of indivs dxed w/ Alcohol Dependence.
3.34 Some studies indic that the rate of ADHD sxs of hyperactivity and impulsivity among identical twins w/ ADHD to be
a. .20
b. .40
c. .60
d. .80
3.34 D - In terms of the role of genetics, some studies indicate higher rates of ADHD among relatives of afflicted indivs. For example, Biederman (1995) found that when a parent had childhood-onset ADHD, the risk for this dx among his or her offspring was 57%. Additionally, a review of twin studies (Stevens, 1994) indiced that the average heritability is .80 for hyperactivity and impulsivity.
3.35 Your client is a 30 year old man who has just discovered he is HIV positive. He wonders what to tell his wife, who knows nothing of his previous sexual hx. Your first intervention shd be:
a. help him wk through how to communic. this info to his
3.35 C - Response C is correct for the first intervention. While you may also wt to eventually do responses A and B, a physician knowledgeable about HIV wd be more approp to explain the risks of infection, and to help the client stay healthy. AIDS infection is not a sitn that calls for a mandated breach of confidentiality as indicated by D. However, you wd certly explore the relev. clinical issues w/ your client.
3.36 Bill comes to session and reports that for the last 5 mths, his wife and employer have been poisoning his food. In addn, his next door neighbor has assisted them by switching lunch boxes w/ him. The local DJ is in on the scheme - telling him over th
3.36 A - Bill's sxs meet the criteria for Sz, Paranoid Type. He has one or more delusions and auditory hallucinations. He does not have the sxs of Disorged Type (answer B), which reqs a prominence of disorged speech, disorged beh, and flat affect. His sxs have lasted more than 1 mth which rules out Brief Psychotic DO (C).
3.52 The most common dx for inpatients in the 18-44 age range is
a. alcoholism
b. mania
c. depn
d. Sz
3.52 D - Sz is the most common dx for inpts in the age 18 to 44 range.
3.55 All of the following are assoced w/ inc'd suicide risk in adols except:
a. depression
b. interpersonal conflict
c. loss of a parent
d. exposure to suicidal behavior
3.55 C - All of other choices assoced w/ inc'd risk. Pagliano (1995) found that depn (answer A) was most freqly reported risk factor in adol. suicides. B, interpers. conflict w/ a parent or boyfriend/girlfriend, often immed. precedes a completed suicide in adolescents (Brent, 1988). And D, Gould (1990) found that exposure to suicidal behs inc'd risk.
3.56 Utilization review, an important component of managed health care, refers to the idea that it is useful to
a. review benefits to eliminate or reduce unnecessary health care resources.
b. det the adequacy of health care stds by cfing them t
3.56 A - Utilization review is concerned w/ conservin g health care monies. It does this thru having a utilization review committee assess the use of benefits and reduce or eliminate inapprop. or unnecessary use of health care resources. Answer B is a description of the concept of quality assurance and answer C is describing a medical team mgmt approach to indiv health care.
3.58 Several therapies have been dvped specifically for elderly clients. These incl. validation therapy which is best described as involving a therapist who
a. reviews and reminisces important life events w/ the client
b. incorporates a variety
3.58 D - This is best description of validation therapy (VT) according to Feil (1982). Answer A is a description of reminiscence therapy (RT) and B and C are descriptions of reality orientation (RO). All of these interventions have been designed specifically for wking w/ the elderly.
3.62 The notion that we tend to overestimate the deg to which others are similar to us is referred to as
a. the negativity bias
b. the false consensus bias
c. the base rate fallacy
d. the primacy effect
3.62 B - the false consensus bias is our tendency to overestimate the deg to which others are similar to us. The negativity bias (A) is the idea that we have more confidence in our negative impressions of others than in our positive impressions. The base rate fallacy (C) is the tendency to ignore the frequncy w/ which an event occurs in the population. The primacy effect (D) refers to the idea that when we are presented w/ conflicting info about another person we are usu. most influenced by the info presented first.
3.64 Patterson's coercive family interactive model wd predict
a. parents who "bribe" their children to act appropriately will meet w/ ltd success.
b. hostile aggressive children change a parent's disciplinary technique.
c. childr
3.64 C - Patterson's model attributes aggressiveness in children to certain parent-child interactions. According to this model, children initially learn aggressive beh from their parents who model aggression through their use of harsh discipline and ignore or reinforce their child's aggressiveness. In addn, these actions become incingly coercive and eventually generalize to school.
3.71 In comparison studies of younger and older adults, it has been found that depn in older adults is least likely to result in
a. difficulties w/ memory probs
b. anxiety feelings
c. feelings of hopelessness
d. expressed sadness
3.71 D - Older adults are less likely than younger adults to express feelings of depn or sadness. They are more willing to express feelings of hopelessness (C) and anxiety (B). They are also more apt to have memory probs (A).
3.74 Which of the following describes animistic thinking?
a. If I spin around 3 times, my wish will come true.
b. The flowers smile when it rains.
c. The flowers talk to me when I walk by.
d. My stomach is upset, so I must be scared.
3.74 B - Animistic thinkiong is attributing human qualities to non-human objects. It is characteristic of the preoperational stage of cog dvpt. A is an example of magical thinking which also is seen in the preoperational stage. C (while viable option) may be better e.g. of paranoid ideation and D is characteristic of James-Lange's theory of emotion.
3.75 The sxs of OCD can be alleviated through cognitive-behal txs and medication interventions that reduce activity in the
a. RAS
b. inferior colliculus
c. caudate nucleus
d. locus coeruleus
3.75 C - The caudate nucleus appears to be overactive in ppl dxed w/ OCD. Baxter reports that both behal interventions and drug therapy affect metabolic rate in the caudate nucleus. The RAS (A), which you shd remember, is involved in attn and arousal. The inferior colliculus (B) controls auditory reflexes, and the locus coeruleus (D) may be assoced w/ Depn and PD.
3.76 One of the highest correlns w/ smoking cessation outcome is reled to
a. gender
b. level of dependence
c. age
d. duration of smoking
3.76 B - The greater the level of dependence on nicotine, the harder it is to stop smoking. In terms of gender (A), and age (C), females and males and older and younger adults generally do equally well in tx. The duration of smoking is not really a factor; it is far more critical to det the amt of smoking in order to det dependence.
3.78 W/ a dx of Sz, the risk of the same dx for a monozygotic twin is how many times greater than the risk for a dizygotic twin?
a. one time
b. two and a half times
c. four times
d. six and a half times
3.78 B - The risk for an identical (monozygotic) twin to be dxed is about 46% and for fraternal (dizygotic) twins it is about 17%. You have to be able to do the basic math here, and realize that 46 is about 2.5 times 17, and thus is the "closest" to correct.
3.83 You are holding your friend's one year old. Your friend leaves the room and her child continues to smile at you happily, and shows no interest in her mother when she returns. Most likely, your friend as a parent has been
a. neglectful
b. s
3.83 D - Your friend's child is exhibiting an insecure/avoidant attachment as described by Ainsworth. Ainsworth found that babies w/ this type of pattern often had mothers who were either very impatient and nonresponsive, or alternatively overstimulating. Neglect (A) is most assoced w/ a disorged/disoriented attachmt pattern.
3.84 A first grade teacher instructs her students to use rehearsal strategies when doing classroom work. She can expect that her students
a. will use these strategies when they complete their h/w at home.
b. will use these strategies at home if
3.84 C - Studies show that children do not consistently use rehearsal strategies until about age 9 or 10. Keeney et al found that while first graders cd be taught to use rehearsal for a specific task, it did not generalize to other tasks.
3.94 Your client comes to session and tells you that he is having trouble recognizing your face and those of others familiar to him. You realize that he may be suffering from prosopagnosia which is believed to be due to damage to the
a. central sulc
3.94 C - Prosopagnosia involves deficits in both visual processing and memory. Since the temporal lobe mediates long term memory and the occipital lobe is involved in visual processing, you may have been able to figure out answer. Central sulcus (A) divides the parietal lobe and frontal lobes. The parieto-occipital sulcus (B) seps the occipital lobes. The optic chiasm (D) is pt at which optic nerve from 1 eye partially crosses to join the other.
3.96 You are completing a court-ordered eval in order to det the person's competency to stand trial and during the admin. of the MMPI-2 your client jumps out of his seat and shouts "OK, OK, I killed her!" Now you are
a. obligated to incl.
3.96 D - Since the qn does not indic that the client has waived consent, the law protects the defendant at this juncture. He is protected by laws that prohibit the use of eval data to det the defendant's guilt. The best course of action is to not incl. any incriminating evidence in the competency report, but instead only info relev to the defendant's competence.
3.99 The most effective intervention for cig smoking involves the use of nicotine replacemt therapy, skills training and
a. social support
b. stimulus control
c. self-help manuals
d. relaxation training
3.99 A - Nicotine replacemt therapy seems to be most effective when it is combined w/ guidance and support, and social skills training that focuses on avoiding relapse.
3.102 The major purpose of Kegel exercises is to
a. enhance marital communication
b. improve sexual functioning
c. reduce pain
d. strengthen the vaginal walls
3.102 D - Kegel exercises entail tightening the pelvic floor muscles (i.e., the muscles around the vagina) as if to stop urination midstream. The woman holds for as long as poss. (up to 8-10 seconds) and then slowly releases the muscles and relaxes. The exercise was orig. dvped by Arnold Kegel as a tx for incontinence. It is now Rxed for a variety of other purposes, such as strengthening the perineum in prep for giving birth and enhancing sexual enjoymt.
3.110 According to the results of meta-analyses, which of the following stms regarding gender and leadership style is true?
a. Men tend to use more of a participatory leadership style, while women tend to use more of an autocratic syle.
b. Wome
3.110 B - results of meta-analyses suggest that there are slight but statistically signif. overall diffs b/w men and women in leadership style. Specifically, women tend to adopt a more democratic or participatory leadership style, characterized by a greater concern w/ maintenance of interpersonal relnships and task accomplishmts. Men, on the other hand, tend to adopt a more autocratic style.
3.111 What is the approx. probability that a person w/ a Schizophrenic brother (not an idential or fraternal twin) wd also have Sz?
a. 60%
b. 45%
c. 10%
d. 0.5%
3.111 C - Concordance rate for Sz among siblings is about 10%. A rate of 60% or 45% probably shd have seemed too high. And 0.5% is at the low end of estimates of the approx. lifetime prevalence rate of Sz and therefore shd have seemed too low to be the concordance rate among related indivs.
3.113 A high achiever wd most likely attribute failures to
a. internal, unstable, and controllable factors
b. internal, stable, and uncontrollable factors
c. external, stable, and controllable factors
d. external, unstable, and uncont
3.113 A - Research by Weiner and others has suggested that ppl who have high expectations for future perf. (such as high achievers) tend to attribute their failure to a lack of effort. Effort is an internal, unstable, and controllable factor. Most research suggests that of these dimensions, stability is the most important in expectations for future achievemt. The idea is that, if you attribute failure to an unstable cause, you must expect that you will not fail in most situations.
3.121 Your mged care company denies to pay for further sessions for a client and requests that you do not tell the client of its decision. In this sitn, you shd
a. terminate w/ the client as requested.
b. continue to prov. tx to the client if y
3.121 C - This qn is not so much about mged care as it is about informed consent procedures. Whether or not a pt's tx is being financed by a mged care company, a psyc. shd inform clients of relev info regarding tx at the outset of the prof. relnship and continue to prov. such info as it arises throughout tx. Due to the nature of mged care companies, there may be more concernts that need to be discussed w/ mged care pts than w/ other clients. But the general informed consent req'mt applies to this sitn as well as many others.
The other choices don't really address the issue raised by the qn. Both choices "A" and "B" describe 2 possibly acceptable responses to this sitn, but neither are req'mts - whether or not you wd continue to see the pt wd depend on a no. of factors, incl. the pt's needs and your policies. "D" implies that the mged care company's actions are illegal and have caused you harm, but the qn does not prov enough info for you to reasonably conclude that this is true.
3.148 Most of the complaints brought against clinical supervisors by their supervisees are reled to
a. lack of feedback
b. unwtd sexual advances
c. dual relnships
d. incompetence
3.148 A - Though research on this issue is scant, experts who have studied it generally agree that probs reled to feedback (or lack thereof) are the cause of most of supervisees' probs w/ or complaints against clin. supervisors.
3.151 Which of the following is a behal tx in the purest sense of the term?
a. guided imagery
b. stress inoculation training
c. self-instructional training
d. social skills training
3.151 D - Cognitive and behal tx are often lumped together into the same category, esp. because cog therapies often involve a behal component, and vice versa. "Pure" beh therapy involves interventions focused dirly on modifying undesired beh and/or its environmtal antecedents and conseqs. Examples incl behal rehearsal, reinforcemt, coaching, modeling, and h/w - all of which are elemts of social skills training. Though some of the other choices incorporate behal interventions, they are primarily aimed at cognitions that are assumed to underlie maladaptive beh.
3.153 An out-of-body experience is an example of
a. derealization
b. dissociation
c. hallucination
d. delusion
3.153 B - Dissociation is a gen. term for sxs that involve a disruption in the usu. integrated fns of consciouness, memory, identity, or perception of the environmt. An out-of-body experience can occur in depersonalization, which is an e.g. of dissociation (if depersonalization were a choice, it probably wd be a better answer than dissociation, because it is more specific). Depersonalization is defined as "an alteration in the perception or experience of the self so that one feels detached from, and as if one is an o'side observer of, one's mental processes."
3.155 If an adol. is evaled for a series of behal probs, which of the following wd have the best concurrent validity in identifying these probs?
a. an intelligence test
b. a test shown to be useful in predicting adult persy fng
c. the scho
3.155 C - Concurrent validity refers to the accuracy of a predr in identifying current outcome or status. By contrast, predictive validity refers to a predr's accuracy in estimating future outcome or status. Of the choices listed, only a schl psyc's clin. impressions cd be valid for making inferences about the adolescent's current behal fning.
3.160 The diff'al dx b/w Schizoid PD and Avoidant PD is based on
a. degree of isolation
b. odd behs
c. self-centeredness
d. fear of rejection
3.160 D - Schizoid PD is characterized by a pattern of indifference to social relns and a ltd range of emotional expression in social sitns. Avoidant PD is characterized by social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaln. Indivs w/ both these DOs are likely to avoid social relnships. However, those w/ Avoidant PD do so due to timidty and fear of criticism, disapproval, or rejection. Indivs w/ Schizoid PD, by contrast, do so out of indifference to social relnships and a preference for solitary activities.
3.170 If you were conducting a clinical eval of an illiterate elderly Spanish-speaking man, the best combo of assessmt techniques wd be
a. clin. interview; fam interview; med hx
b. clin. interview; MMPI-2; med hx
c. MMPI-2, Rorschach, Rave
3.170 A - the pt of this qn is that, w/ many clients, psyc. testing is not indiced as a method of assessmt. Many authors note that objective norm-referenced tests such as the MMPI-2 (which is included as part of all the incorrect answer choices) shd be interpreted w/ caution or not admined at all when the examinee is not acculturated into the dominant American culture. In addn, the fact that the man is illiterate and Spanish-speaking makes it more logistically difficult to administer the MMPI-2 even though the test is avail. in Spanish and tape-recorded versions. However, even if you cd obt the approp. version of the test, the deg to which it cd yield useful info wd be questionable.
3.193 You are wking as a school psyc and you meet w/ a couple who wishes to inspect a copy of their child's complete schl records. In this sitn, which of the following stmts is most applicable?
a. You shd deny the parents' request, since these recor
3.193 D - The Buckley Amendmt gives parents the rt to inspect their child's school records and to challenge their contents. Of course, in this sitn, you shd prov. a summary if necessary and make yourself avail. for a discussion of the records' contents. However, if the parents insist on seeing the complete records, they have that right.
3.197 A Pt who speaks incoherently, displays highly inapprop. affect, and has no orged sys. of delusions or hallucinations is likely to rec. which of the following diagnoses?
a. Sz, Undiff'ated Type
b. Sz, Disorged Type
c. Sz, Catatonic Ty
3.197 B - Disorged Sz, which was once called Hebephrenic Sz, is dxed when the clin pic is dominated by incoherence, marked loosening of assocns, or grossly disorged beh; in addn, flat or grossly inapprop affect must be present. If delusions or hallucinations are present they will not be systematized (i.e., they will not be orged into a common theme).
2.15 Studies on the heritability of intelligence has found a correlation among siblings about:
a. 0.10
b. 0.25
c. 0.50
d. 0.75
2.15 C - Intelligence has been found to have a strong genetic link. The correlation b/w siblings raised together is 0.49 and those raised apart is 0.46. The correlations are even greater among monozygotic (identical) twins: 0.88 for those reared together and 0.75 for those reared apart.
2.23 The risk for suicide attempts is greatest for a:
a. 13 yr old female whose parents recently separated and who has an above-average I.Q.
b. 16 yr-old male whose parents recently separated and who has a below-average I.Q.
c. 14-yr old m
2.23 D - Remembering that females attempt suicide 3 times more often than males shd have helped you eliminate 2 of the choices. You shd also know that among adolescents, suicidal beh incs w/ age (although in recent yrs the rate among younger adolescents has grown, the attempt rate is still greater w/ incing age). Suicide attempts is also reled to parental separation and divorcce, poor social skills, and poor academic achievemt, though, not necessarily low IQ.
2.30 Damage to the medial temporal area of the brain wd least likely cause deficits in:
a. semantic memory
b. short-term memory
c. spatial memory
d. episodic memory
2.30 B - The medial temporal area contains part of the temporal lobe and the hippocampus. This area is assoced w/ LTM. Each of the choices offered in this qn are subtypes of LTM except, of course, STM (B). STM is most assoced w/ the prefrontal cortex.
2.32 In assessing perceptual abilities in a 3 or 4-mth old infant you cd use all of the following indicators except:
a. head turning
b. sucking
c. reaching
d. heart rate
2.32 A - Head turning: does not become an approp. measure of perception in infants until 5.5 months of age.
Sucking: 1 to 4 mths
Reaching: 12 wks or older
Heart rate: any age
2.38 The police inform you that they have a warrant out on one of your clients who is suspected of several felony charges of grand theft auto. They wt you to prov. them w/ the client's address and ph no. You shd:
a. cooperate w/ the police
b. r
2.38 C - Since there is no indication that your client is in imminent danger to self or others, you wd be obligated to protect the confidentaility rights of your client. However, you shd notify your client of this info that you rec'd, and discuss the option of turning himself in to the police.
2.41 Determining test-retest reliability wd be most approp. for which of the following types of tests?
a. brief
b. speed
c. state
d. trait
2.41 D - As the name implies, test-retest reliability involves admining a test to the same grp of examinees at 2 diff. times and thenc orreling the 2 sets of scores. This wd be most approp when evaling a test that purports to measure a stable trait, since it shd not be signifly affected by the passage of time b/w test administrations.
2.51 All of the following are true regarding young children's long-term recall except:
a. children 6 mths old can retain learned responses 14 days later
b. children exposed to an event at 14 mths can remember it 8 mths later
c. preschooler
2.51 D - Contrary to prev. beliefs that children under the age of 3 yrs old are unable to recall events in their lives, more recent research has found early childhd memories to be more enduring. By the end of the 1st yr of life, children have the capacity to recall at least some aspects of past events.
2.62 As an organizational psyc., Dr. Jobb will recommend frame-of-reference training in order to:
a. improve the accuracy of selection decisions.
b. enhance communication among team members.
c. reduce rater biases on perf. appraisals.
2.62 C - Frame-of-reference training is used to improve rater accuracy by teaching raters to focus on the various characteristics and req'mts that contrib. to gd. job perf.
2.66 In their often-cited research study, Sue and his colleagues (1991) found that ethnic matching of therapist and client:
a. improves therapy outcome and reduces premature termination for Af-Am clients but not for Asian-Am or Mexican-Am clients.
2.66B - This qn refers to specific study. One of the things that Sue and his colleagues learned was that the effects of ethnic matching differ for diff. minority grps. Specifically, ethnic matching seems most beneficial for Asian- and Hispanic-Americans, so this response best summarizes the findings.
2.68 Research on the approach-avoidance conflict has found that:
a. the negative and positive qualities of the goal continue to become incingly similar in strength the closer you get to the goal.
b. the closer you get to the goal, the stronger
2.68 D - Thking about your own exper. in sitns where the goal has both +ve and -ve qualities may have helped you answer. As the distance b/w you and the goal decs, the strength of the approach response and avoidance response incs. However, the "avoidance gradient" is steeper than the "approach gradient" so that, eventually, the avoidance response is much stronger.
2.70 A quiet, lonely, introverted, and overly sensitive teenager w/ few friends is at high risk for suicide, w/ this risk incing when these characteristics are combined w/:
a. phys. health probs
b. phobic anxiety
c. antisocial beh
2.70 C - Most studies of adolescent suicide indic. that depn is v. common among those who attempt or complete suicide. In addn, suicide risk is inc'd in the presence of hostile, aggressive, and other antisocial behs and/or substance abuse.
2.71 To use the statistical technique known as trend analysis, you need:
a. a quantitative IV
b. a linear relnship b/w IV and DVs
c. a true exptal research design
d. 2 or more IVs
2.71 A - Trend analysis is what it sounds like, i.e., it is used to identify trends and, therefore, reqs a quantitative IV. You might use trend analysis, e.g., to det if amt of time you spend studying is reled to your score on the licensing exam in a linear or nonlinear fashion.
2.72 Adding more easy to moderately easy items to a difficult test will:
a. dec the test's floor.
b. inc the test's floor.
c. alter the test's floor only if there is an equal no. of diffic. to mod diffic. items.
d. have no effect on t
2.72 B - "Floor" refers to the lowest scores on a test (ceiling refer to highest). A test has adeq. floor when it can discrim. b/w ppl at the low end, which is what adding more easy to mod. easy items wd enable you to do.
2.85 The PDs vary in terms of their specific sxs. However, DSM-IV identifies which of the following as a dxic criterion that they all share in common?
a. an onset of sxs during childhood
b. a decline from prev level of fning
c. signif. dis
2.85 C - When in doubt, "impaired fning" is always a gd guess for qns about the dxic criteria for a DO since it is a req'mt for many of the DOs included in DSM. For the Persy DOs, DSM-IV reqs a hx of sxs by adol. or early adulthd (not childhd), and it doesn't req a decline from a prev. level of fning or a lack of awareness about one's maladjustmt.
2.87 Which of the following is true about the use of biodata as a selection tool?
a. It has low validity apparently because it is so susceptible to faking
b. A drawback of empirically-derived biodata forms is that they often lack face validity.
2.87 B - Biodata is gen. considered 2nd to cog. ability tests in terms of validity for predicting job perf. Although empirically-derived biodata forms are most valid, their qns s-times lack face validity, i.e., they ask for info that doesn't seem to have anything to do w/ job perf. This can be a prob because it decs applicants' motivation to fill out the forms accurately.
2.93 A psyc's best protection against a charge of malpractice is:
a. insurance
b. informed consent
c. licensure
d. documentation
2.93 D - All of the responses describe thgs a psyc. wd wt to do to reduce risk and liability. However, a review of the lit. reveals that documtation (keeping records) is considered the most critical by the experts. In malpractice litigation, courts generally take the pos. "if the pysc. didn't write it down, it didn't happen."
2.95 Masters and Johnson found that their version of sex therapy, which incorporates education about sexuality, training in commun. skills, and the technique known as sensate focus, is most effective for txing:
a. premature ejaculation
b. impot
2.95 A - Masters and Johnson found that close to 100% of indivs w/ premature ejaculation were helped by their progr. which incorped educ. about sexuality, improving commun., and sensate focus.
2.102 An MRI of a pt in the early stages of Huntington's dz wd indic:
a. no abnormalities
b. overactivity in the temporal lobes
c. reduced volume of the BG
d. reduced volume of the ventricles
2.102 C - You need to know that Huntington's dz is due to degeneration in several areas of the brain incl. the BG and that damage can often be detected by an MRI or other brain imaging techniques even before the person exhibits sxs.
2.105 From the perspective of Beck's cog therapy, suicidal indivs are characterized by a high deg of hopelessness coupled w/:
a. maladaptive interpretations
b. poor prob-solving skills
c. the "cognitive triad"
d. impulsivity
2.105 B - Maladaptive interpns and beliefs are, of course, an imp. focus in Cognitive Therapy regardless of the client's prb. However, since this qn is asking specific`ally about suicide, you'd wt to choose the response that fits that prob. According to Beck, suicide risk is heightened by a combo of hopelessness and poor prob-solving skills.
2.108 To save time, a personnel mger interviews 10 job applicants and then picks the best one rather than interviewing all 30 ppl who appllied for the job. This type of d-making is predicted by the:
a. administrative model
b. rational-economic
2.108 A - This is the way that ppl usu. end up making decisions because they don't have the time or resources to consider all poss. alternatives. According to the admin. d-making model, this type of d-making is referred to as "satisficing." (According to the rational-economic model, d-making involes considering all poss. alts.)
2.110 Erikson proposed that psychosocial dvpt continues throughout the lifespan. Successful resolution of the conflict of the final stage of dvpt results in:
a. formation of intimate relnships.
b. participation in activities that promote the we
2.110 D - The final stage in Erikson's theory of p-social dvpt occurs in late adulthood and involves a conflict b/w integrity and despair. Successful resolution occurs when the indiv. gains "wisdom" and finds meaning in life.
2.119 Research on subordinates' satisfaction w/ their leader at wk has found that the strongest determinant is:
a. the leader's level of consideration
b. the leader's use of a participative d-making style.
c. the leader's provision of equi
2.119 A - Factor analyses of leadership qualities has, over the yrs, consistently identified 2 basic factors - task orientation (instrumtality) and consideration. Knowing this wd have helped you pick the answer. Also, consideration is a better choice because it is a more gen. answer and cd be conceived of as encompassing the characteristics listed in the other responses.
2.122 Following a stroke, a pt exhibits right hemiplegia. Other sxs are likely to incl:
a. speech-language deficits and slow-cautious beh style.
b. spatial-perceptual deficits and slow-cautious beh style.
c. speech-language deficits and qu
2.122 A - Note that the indiv. has rt-sided hemiplegia, which makes the left side of the brain the area that has been affected. This shd have helped you narrow the choices down to responses a and c since the left side of the brain is resp. for language. At that pt you may have guessed. Now you know that left hemisphere damage is assoced with a slow-cautious beh style (and that rt hemisphere damage is assoced w/ a quick-impulsive style).
2.124 Research cfing the relnship b/w age and therapy outcome has produced mixed results. However, in their most recent meta-analysis of the research, Weisz and his colleagues (1995) found:
a. no relnship b/w age and outcome.
b. that therapy is
2.124 D - Earlier meta-analyses of the outcome studies for children and adols found either no diff for adols and children or a slight superiority for children. In contrast, the more recent Weisz et al. meta-analysis found that therapy has better outcomes for adols than children, esp. female adols and when the counselor is a prof. or student (vs. paraprofessional). Note that Weisz et al. didn't compare outcomes for children and adols to outcomes for adults, but other meta-analyses suggest that adults do s-what better.
2.126 From the perspective of Bandura's social learning theory, "fnal value" refers to:
a. external reinforcemts
b. anticipated conseqs
c. self-efficacy beliefs
d. relnship to prev. learning
2.126 B - Fnal value is pretty much what it sounds like. According to Bandura, a beh has fnal value when the person antics that perfing it will result in desirable conseqs (i.e., when the beh serves a fn).
2.129 The research suggests that, to control excessive aggression in children, the best approach is:
a. time-out and similar behal techniques
b. opportunities for catharsis
c. explaining the conseqs of aggressive acts
d. social-skills
2.129 D - A no. of techniques have been found useful for reducing aggression in children, but many of them (e.g., catharsis) have only short-term effects. In the long run, the best thg to do is to teach aggressive children alt., nonaggressive, prosocial behs, which is a component of social-skills training.
2.131 For pts who dvp a disturbing degree of hand tremor as the result of taking lithium carbonate, which of the following wd be useful?
a. incing the dosage of lithium
b. admining propranolol (Inderal)
c. admining an SSRI
d. admining
2.131 B - Lowering the dose of lithium ordinarily eliminates tremors, but you're not given that option. Propranolol is a beta-blocker, which reduces the physiol. aspects of anxiety, and, so it makes sense, that it wd be useful for reducing tremors.
2.139 Wkers are likely to find which of the following wk schedules to be the least stressful?
a. fixed shift
b. flextime
c. compressed wk week
d. swing shift
2.139 B - Flextime allows the employees to make their own schedule, as long as they wk the req'd no. of hrs and as long as they are present for the pre-defined "core" hrs (e.g., 10 a.m. to 2 p.m.). As you might expect, research shows that flextime is assoced w/ inc'd job satisfaction, better attitudes toward the job and the wk environmt, and less wker stress.
2.142 Hypnosis wd least likely be used in the tx of:
a. Substance Abuse
b. OCD
c. Specific Phobia
d. chronic pain
2.142 B - Hypnosis is contraindicated in indivs who have difficy giving up control such as obsessive-compulsive pts, or those who have difficy w/ basic trust, wuch as paranoid pts. By contrast, hypnosis if often employed in the tx of the other DOs. In the tx of Substance Abuse, varying degs of success have been reported; however, it continues to be used. It is also commonly used to help induce relaxation and/or gain access to painful memories in txing indivs w/ Anxiety DOs; moreover, according to some, it is partic. effective in txing indivs w/ Specific Phobia because they are highly hypnotizable. Finally, hypnosis is also commonly used in the tx of medical conditions that have a psycal component such as asthma, chronic pain, obesity, etc.
2.143 You have been seeing a client for several mths and believe that tx has been a success. When you suggest termination to the client, he expresses a desire to continue therapy. Both you and the client are unable to come up w/ addnal tx goals; however,
2.143 B - Ethical Std 4.09 reqs that a psyc. terminate a prof. relnship when it becomes "reasonably clear that a client no longer needs the service." Prior to termination, the psy. must "prov. predetermination counseling and discuss the client's views and needs."
2.144 The item difficy ("p") index yields info about the difficy of test items in terms of a(n) ____________ scale of measuremt.
a. nominal
b. ordinal
c. interval
d. ratio
2.144 B - An item difficy index indicx the % of indivs who answer a partic. item correctly. For instance, if an item has a difficy index of .80, it means that 80% of test-takers answered the item correctly. The index reports the difficy of test items in terms of an ordinal scale. This is a scale that is ordered, but lacks the property of equal intervals. For instance, say that 3 items have an item difficy level of .20, .40, and .80. Because this is an ordinal scale, it is not poss. to say that the first item is twice as diffic. as the 2nd, or the 2nd item is twice as diffic. as the 3rd.
2.145 The diff b/w prof. ethics and prof. values is best stated by which of the following?
a. If a psyc is ethical, there shd be no diff b/w ethics and values.
b. Ethics are stds for practice set by the profession, while values refer to judgmts
2.145 B - Response B distings b/w ethics and values. Values are concerned w/ what is gd and desirable and ethics refers to correct or approp practice. Values and ethics are reled in that the latter are usu. derived from the former; for example, privacy is a value that is reflected in the ethical std req'ing psycs to obt. clients' informed consent before releasing info about therapy. Responses A and C are not necessarily true, and answer D is not true since values do not specifically define approp. prof. conduct.
2.146 An Af-Am family presents for family therapy. From a systems perspective, it wd be most advisable to:
a. focus on multi-generational issues.
b. see each family member individually.
c. use behal techniques.
d. educate family membe
2.146 A - You probably cd answer this one correctly by focusing on the word "systems" since, of the choices, focusing on more than one generation most implies that you wd be looking at the entire family system. In addn, Af-Am culture, as compared to Anglo culture, tends to be characterized by a greater emphasis placed on relnships w/ extended family members.
2.148 You rec a subpoena for a current client's therapy records from a process server hired by the court. This means that you must:
a. inform the server that you cannot comply w/ the subpoena because therapy records are privileged.
b. tell the
2.148 C - A subpoena to produce records or documts (known as a subpoena duces tecum) reqs a person to appear at a designated time and place w/ a copy of the records. It does not necessarily req the person to release those records; this is a matter for the court to decide, following a hearing on privilege, if the issue of privilege is being contested. If your client has waived the privilege, however, you wd release the records to the court at the time of your appearance.
2.155 In grp therapy, which of the following sitns is most likely to inc a given member's self-disclosure?
a. the grp leader has made it clear that self-disclosure is expected
b. a temporary and uncomfortable silence has pervaded the grp
2.155 C - This qn is actually about social psyc. as much as it is about grp therapy. Research in social psyc. has illustrated that we are more likely to talk openly about ourselves after s-one else opens up about him or herself. This phenomenon has been termed "self-disclosure reciprocity."
2.156 A beh therapist wd likely view anxiety as the result of:
a. classical conditioning, in which an aversive stimulus or negative life event served as an unconditioned stimulus
b. classical conditioning, in which an aversive stimulus or negat
2.156 A - First, you might remember that classical conditioning is assoced w/ the acq'n of invol. responses, whereas operant conditioning is assoced w/ voluntary responses. This narrows down to A or B, since anxiety is an invol, uncontrollable response. According to classical conditioning model of anxiety, a stimulus or event that naturally evokes anxiety (the unconditioned stimulus, or US) is paired with a previously neutral stimulus (CS) until the neutral stimulus comes to elicit anxiety. e.g., being stuck in elevator (US), by being paired w/ elevators in general (CS), might cause elevator phobia.
If you chose D, you may be thking about avoidance conditioning, in which the avoidance response is negatively reinforced. However, in avoidance conditioning, the actual experience of anxiety is acq'd through classical conditioning. Negative reinforcemt is the mechanism that underlies the avoidance beh, not the anxiety itself.
2.161 From the perspective of p-analytic theory, mania represents:
a. a biological illness that p-analysis can do nothing about.
b. acting-out of libidinous impulses.
c. a regression to an infantile state.
d. a defense against depress
2.161 D -According to classical p-analytic theory, mania occurs as a defense against depn, due to an inability of the person to tolerate or admit to being depressed.
2.165 In p-analytic practice, transference is:
a. counteracted through direct interpn of its use as a resistance.
b. discouraged as an interference w/ the tx process.
c. a sign that tx is having an effect and discussed as the pt is made co
2.165 C - P-analysis as a tx rests on the wk of interping transference and resistance. The goal is to replace the acting-out neurosis w/ the transference neurosis, so that the pt can be made to see his/her conflicts as they are exemplified by his/her reactions in the analytic sitn. In fact, the transference neurosis is s-th the therapist attempts to engender by remaining neutral and letting the pt project his/her feelings toward past signif. others onto the therapist. Thus, it is a sign that the analysis is having an effect. If the pt cannot dvp a true transference neurosis, as is true of many severely disturbed indivs, p-analytic success will be ltd.
2.168 Using the deviation IQ is preferred to using the ratio IQ because the deviation IQ:
a. can be ascertained more easily by simply referring to the IQ tables.
b. is a more reliable measure of perf. for the lower and upper ranges than was the
2.168 C - The ratio IQ was a simple formula used when mental tests were 1st dvped. It was a way of deting how the child's mental age differed from his/her chronological age. A prob w/ the ratio IQ is that IQ scores are not comparable across age grps. For this reason, the deviation IQ was dvped. Here the IQs are relecd to the average score for each age grp and the derived IQ is presented in terms of how far the score deviates from that average. In this way, the scores can be more easily compared across ages.
2.170 A child is reinforced for clearning up her rm and for doing h/w. Reinforcemt for the h/w is stopped. One cd predict that cleaning up will:
a. inc and doing h/w will dec.
b. dec and doing h/w will also dec.
c. inc and doing h/w will i
2.170 A - This qn has to do w/ the behal contrast effect. If we are reinforced for pering 2 diff operants, and reinforcemt for one of these behs stops, we tend to inc the rate of the remaining reinfoced beh. That is, probably because the reinforcemt that remains seems to become more valuable.
2.174 The most important factor found to exist as a criterion for initial attraction b/w pplwho have just met is:
a. attitude similarity
b. phys. attractiveness
c. phys. proximity
d. all of the above
2.174 B - When we become attracted to s-one we meet for the 1st time, it is most likely because of phys. characteristics. Attraction due to other factos, such as intelligence, compatibility, etc., comes later.
2.176 Stdized ratings of adaptive beh, such as the Adaptive Beh Scale and the Vineland, are completed by caretakers, teachers, trained observers, etc., and measure:
a. abilities and competencies.
b. competencies, but not necessarily abilities.<
2.176 B - The idea behind these rating instrumts is that we are deting what the person actually does in an average, expectable environmt. That is, what his/her competencies are: can he get dressed by himself, can she eat apropriately, does he engage in conversation when addressed, etc.?
2.180 The basic req'mts of a token economy are:
a. stimulus sensitization, choice of tokens, rate of exchange.
b. target behs, choice of reinforcers, rate of exchange.
c. goal setting, staff cooperation, choice of reinforcers.
d. targ
2.180 B - To institute a token economy prog, you need to know the behs you wt to change (the target behs). YOu also need to know what is reinforcing for the client (choice of reinforcer). For a hospitalized schizophrenic, it might be walking around for a child, it might be a candy treat. You also need to know the relnship b/w token and the reinforcer (rate of exchange); that is, how many tokens will purchase the reinforcer.
2.183 Compared to the Stanford-Binet, the WAIS-III tends to:
a. underestimate the IQ scores of higher fning indivs.
b. underestimate the IQ scores of lower fning indivs.
c. overestimate the IQ scores of lower fning indivs and underestimate
2.183 C - For the extremes, Stanford-Binet is a better measure to use. It will more accurately reflect the person's fning at either the v. top or v. bottom of the range.
2.184 Cognitive beh therapy, compared to operant beh txs, has been found to be:
a. less effective across most dxic categories.
b. superior w/ more intelligent clients.
c. approx. equally effective w/ all types of DOs.
d. more effectiv
2.184 C - The qn is about the research showing that all types of tx are about equal w/ all types of DOs. O'side of Agoraphobia, Specific Phobias (incl. school phobia), and s-times some physio. probs, such as enuresis, psyc. txs tend to be about equal in their efficacy.
2.185 According to research on sex-role determinants, the characteristic that is most reled to genetics as opposed to socialization is:
a. sociability
b. dependency
c. aggression
d. anxiety
2.185 C - Almost all empirical studies show that v. few abilities that disting males from females are biol. deted. That is, dvptal psycs tell us that the things we see typically as feminine and thgs we see typically as masculine are defined and dvped through socialization. There are however a couple of characteristics that seem to transcend socialization. From the 4 possibilities listed here, aggression is the one that we feel is more reled to hormones than to learning. Boys are just more active and have higher aggressive drives than girls do.
2.187 The friend of a psyc is the owner of a small publishing firm. The friend offers the psyc substantial compensation if she wd lend her name to endorsemts for his publications, and at times, advise and consult on bk acquisitions and marketing plans. T
2.187 C - The ethical stds say that psycs cannot make false, deceptive, fraudulent, or misleading stms. Unless the psy's endorsemts were based on sound expertise and her honest opinion of the publications in qn, these stds wd be violated.
2.189 Continuing Education Credits (CE credits) earned through APA approved sponsor means that the prog is:
a. sanctioned by APA
b. endorsed by APA
c. approved by APA
d. the responsibility of the sponsor
2.189 D - An org is approved by the APA to sponsor continuing educ progs. The sponsor then becomes resp. for each prog. The APA periodically asks for reports from the sponsor, but the specific prog is not endorsed, sanctioned, or approved by the APA. Only the overall sponsorship is approved by the APA.
2.192 The mother of a 3-yr old has been told her daughter is v. gifted. She wts to encourage the child's abilities and asks you, a schl psyc, to assess the girl's IQ score level and suggest a plan for her future education. You shd:
a. comply w/ the
2.192 B - In this case, there is nothg wrong w/ you testing the child and tests are avail. But you shd also use your knowledge and judgmt to counsel the mother about the use of tests for such a young child. While it's true that there is some predictive validity for intelligence tests starting at about 18 mths to 2 yrs of age, you shd still tell the mother that many thgs will det her daughter's future schl perf and that we can't be so sure she will continue as she presently is.
2.197 The parents of a boy have asked you for a psycal eval of him. He has been accused of breaking into a house and the parents wt the report to be sent to the judge who is to hear the case. You shd:
a. ask them to have their lawyer request the rep
2.197 B - Since parents have the rt to request an eval, and parents have the rt to request that the results be sent to the judge, the only answer that really makes sense is B. The parents shd give informed consent to the eval, which means that, before you proceed, the parents shd be informed of what the eval involves, what the poss. conseqs of releasing it to the court are, etc.

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