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psych 331 lectures


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what is the definition of deterrence
the ability of the state to reduce crime level though sanctions
how does specific deterrence differ from general deterrence

the ability of the state to do this to an individual to reduce recidvism though its action on a first offence


the ability of the state to reduce crime level for a general population through threat of severe sanctions.

what aspects of punishment make it capable of suppressing the Beauvoir
in theory deterrence operates like punishment in psychology experiments, its suppresses future Beauvoir that may generate more punishment

in psychology experiments, punished actions decrease when punishment is swift and sever enough.

what sociocultural factors influence crime rates
% population below the poverity line or other income level disparity, unemployment rate, population density, demogrphic profile (proportion of population made up of young males, related to agression violent crime.
when a correlation exsits between increased criminal sanctions and decreased crime rates does that prove deterrence
no still a correlation conservative state could have highest penalties, fewer draft doges most patriotism.
system overload
increase in crime leads to stiffer sanctions, then system becomes overlaoded, with work requirement of new pentalties hence more plea bargaining mroe cases dropped. it appears that a sanction is deterring crime but really its leading to crimes being re classified.
was blumsten and nagin proven
not proven still a correlation

third variables could still have been at play

Murrey and Cox
- Studied n=317 chronic delinquents in Chicago mean age 16, mean arrest for year prior to imprisonment 6.3
- Mean arrest for year after imprisonment 2.9

9. What steps must occur in the criminal justice system before a criminal -action gets punished?
Detection/crime event
- Arrest/detection
- Conviction/arrest
- Punishment/conviction
- = probability of punishment crime.

11. What are the three main characteristics of legal punishment that allow it to deter?
- Inevitable (certain)
- Swift
- Sever

according to blumsten and beck what was the main cause of incarceration increaes in the US.
12 percent due to crime rate increases, 88% due to changes in sentacing policy
sentancing policy was infleunced by occation spikes in certian types of cirme media coverage of worst cases, public outrage at elected officials.
what other functions does deterrence serve
incapacitation, if x is in jail, X cannot refend

Didactic function - teaches that an action is inherently wrong

15. How is the p (detection/crime) assessed?
can be estimated by comparing crime rate reported on victim crime survey with official crime statistics.
16. Why might probation fail to deter according to a study by Petersilia & Turner (1993)?
studies show that few probationers comply with terms of prohibition

of a large sample of 505
of known violates only 505 went to prison

according to solomon did parole lower recidvist crime
studied the effects of parole in 15 states found parole has no effect on subsequent crime reduction.

failure rates for paroles and non parolees were both high and idnetical .

21. What are the differences in strategy between amateur and professional criminals
amateur criminal central concern is to avoid detection

professional criminal concern is avoiding conviction

dont care if police know they committed a crime so long as the police have no evidence that will stand up in court.

22. Is crime a rational decision- why or why not?
economic position, crime is a rational decision, if the costs of crime increase crime rates will decrease

sociological position; relationship of crime to punishment is not simple, so criminals believe they can avoid arrest and beat the system.

24. What groups of people may commit “non-rational” crimes?
crimes committed by the criminally insane

crimes commited on impulse

crimes committed as a terrorist act

marginal deterrence
law abiding citizen overestimates probability of getting caught

Street criminal population has more accurate information on risks based on street knowledge
Deterrence may be marginal deterrence- effect small slice of the population

26. What is the time trend for violence crime in the us?
Note from 1973-1993 major crime rates (rape assaults, robbery) were steady in 1994 all begand to decline up to 2001 except for drug crimes.
28. How does Canada compare to the U.S. in A) violent crime rate? B) car theft? C) breaking and entering rates?
a) US Generally has higher violent crime rates per 100,000 of the population
b) Canada has higher rates of theft.
c) Breaking and entering in Canada is 909 US its 740
d) Car theft is 547 US 430

have bait cars in vancouver worked
The Use of bait cars by police in Vancouver and suburbs dropped ca r theft rates by 26%
No neccarily, other correlational variables, how many crimes are being reclassified. Weather conviction was consistent.

31. What high profile case turned the public against the death penalty in Canada?
stephen truscott was charged with rape and murder of a school classmate. he was found guilty and sentanced to ahng. he was 14 at the time setnance was commuted to life parroled in 1969

dna overturned in 2007

did the homicide rate increase in canada after abolition of the death penalty
the canadain murder rate slightly declined the following year. over the next 20 it has flucuated between 2.2 and 2.8 percent per 100,000 of the population, but general trend was downward.
34. Why might the conviction rate in murder cases have increased?
The overall conviction rate for first degree murder doubled in decade following abolition. Suggesting that Canadian juries are more willing to convict for murder now that they are not compleed to make life death decisions.
36. What is the economic case against the death penalty?
costs involved in lengthy legal challenges, in California average death penalty case costs 5 million dollars.
37. What, according to Clarke & Cornish, are the two major decisions in criminal careers?
invovlement decition; potential offender contemplates and chooses criminality (important focus for police, currently attempting to dissuade high-schoolers

event decision - chooses a particular crime and circumstance.

40. minimum age drinking laws reduce auto crashes?Do
14 states raised the minimum age , 9 states showed a decline in MV fatality rate.
for random breath testing to have an effect what conditions must have been met
for it to be effective you have to have pull over 33% of all motorists
what is meant by crime concentration
offending tends to be concentrated by persons settings and groups and place

how and why do certian groups people
1) get information about sanctions
2) process and assess this inforamtion
why do they care aobut this infor

perceptual detterence
examing subjective factors in risk reward assesment by chronic offenders.
46. What 5 factors to “street smart” criminals appraise in assessing crime risk
1) sanction level
2) crime type, risk reward for each crime
3) place community watch neighboorhood
4) time
5) victum.

48. According to Zimring & Hawkins, when does deterrence fail?
1) general failure to enforcement for a particular offence

2) enactment of legal policy inconsistent

3) hollow threat problem

50. How do inconsistently applied policies contribute to a failure of deterrence?
mistrust of authorities
sence of sanction as random, hence indicating permission to offend
beleif that police arrest or ignore crime for personal reasons, hence indicating permission to offent
beleif that police arrest or ignore crime for personal reasons, hen hence beleiveing themselve to be corrupt.

51. How is the world view of the offender distinct- what are its central tenets?
1) justtice is perceived to be uneven hence justice is perceived as unreasonable and arbitrary

2) arrest become a political act

3) crime becomes a political resistance

4) authorities are just anouther kind of criminal

52. What lessons might a youth learn via the Young Offenders Act?
1) ill never do it again
2) better ways to steal
3) the penalties are overblown

53. Why must system credibility precede deterrence?
regular expeirences of offenders, consequences are promised but not delivered

justice is unevenly applied soem punished others not.

54. What are the key elements of a “ceasefire program”? Why is each essential?
) deterrence- if anyone in gang shoots anyone, whole gang will be punished
56. Used servalence, to prove say they got shit on everyone
57. 2) moral susation – morality based on external pressure is never suffeinct
58. Used victum statements, victums family or wounded victums.
59. 3) social services upgrade – encourage gang members to call social works who will assist in finding legitimate work.

61. What factors from outside the criminal justice system affect our ability to deter someone?
stake in conformity
income disparity
availability of attractive legal work

4. What is the different emphasis between experimenting and “trapped” administrators?
experimental administrator - justifies the program on the seoursness of the problem, not on the certainty of the response

trapped adminstrator - so commited them to the efficacy of the program that they cannot afford on honest evulation

5. What was Bard trying to get police to do differently in domestic disturbance calls
training police in mediation and arbitration skills

believe that police could model conflict resolution serve as role model community

6. According to Berk & Loseke research which factors most predicted police arrest?
perpetrator drunk
victim alleges willingess to press charges
perpetrators demenour

7. According to Smith & Klein what factors most/ least predicted police arrest?
victim wanted arrest
demeanor of perpetrator
perp drinking
socioeconomic factors of the area.


race of parties
injury to one party
weather weapons were involved

8. What is a Protection or No-Contact Order?
If the accused is charged with or arrested for a crime a criminal no contact order may be issued to prevent the abuser from having any contact whatsoever with the alleged victim.
sherman and berk study problems with random assignment
small amount of police with the case
advice mediation was applied unevenly by police in only 78% of designated cases

should lead to a underestimating deterreence as most difficutl cases wind up getting arrested.

11. How strong were the results- did they favour arrest as the option of choice?
Differences between Re-Occurrence of Abuse
Police Arrest Victim Interview
⬢ Arrest 13% 19%
⬢ Mediation 16% 19%
⬢ Separation 26% 28%
⬢ Recidivism seems to be the worst for those in the separation condition and no difference between mediation and arrest both reoffended at comparable rate.

13. Why was the Milwaukee study ( Sherman et al) methodologically superior to the Minneapolis study?
Gold standard follow up
huge database

milwake study 3 experimental treatments
experimental treatments included "warning" short arrest" and "full arrest"

outcome measures were subsequnet hotline reprots called in by the police to local batter womens shelter

17. Why was the study called the “variable effects”?
being black, unemployed, not completing high school or cohabitation lowers impact of arrest on recidivism

being white completing high school being married produces deterrence effect.

19. Why might this create policy problems in many urban areas?
you would have a different policy for American Americans taht you would for caucations because arresting for spousal abuse has the opposite effect.
21. Does legal policy or individual factors play a larger role in determining recidivism? How big a difference?
individual factors play a significnatly bigger difference the loss a a spouse is larger for incaraceration

by comparison the suspects agee and prior criminal history were associted with changes in subsequent re offending 50-330 percent ten times as importnagt.

what arguments were made for mandatory arrest in favour in the jim brown case
he commited a symbolic act by smashing the car

we have no dorp policy becuase he might have cohersed her to say those things

- Does he have a weapon. YES
- Did he threaten you YES
- Is their a history of domestic violence? YES

what was made against it (brown)
weak case for prosecution
all teh have is a 911 call, no physical evidence
a lot of leading and framing done by the operator.

25. According to Buzawa & Buzawa why and how do unpopular policies not get implemented by police?
police in many cities continue to beleive that domestic violence is a normal part of deviant groups that intervention is futule

such officers devise strategies to circumvent mandatory arrest policies

the authors site a study in where policy simply do not reprot cases were the perpetrator had flet and seen .

26. What central conceptual factor most predicts recidivism reduction?
they found that prosecutors actions could have a dramtic effect on future rates of recidivism

the simple act of accepting the charges and proceeding through initial hearing decreased future acts of vioelnce

27. If intervention is too severe what happens?
People stop reporting it, coliorado 911 calls
28. What did Iyengar find about the effects of mandatory arrest on subsequent spousal homicide rates?
Examined subsequent spousal homicide in 15 US sates that had mandatory arrest with demographicaly matched states that did not
States with mandatory arrest had 54% higher subsequent rates of spousal homicide from pre mandiatory levels, control states had no change.

29. What did Ford & Regoli find out about
of the four treatment conditions allowing women to drop charges resulting in the lowest percentage of new reports of violence in a six month follow up period.
31. How was the finding supported by the study of the Quincy, Mass. DV court?
finding suggested the importance of indicators of victim frustration with the criminal justice system

1) perception of the criminal justice system as being unresponsive to their preferences
2) being less likely to have wanted to offender prosecuted in the first place.

32. How did Dugan’s research provide data for or against mandatory arrest?
he re analyzed data from a national crime survey to ascertain whether leagal sacntiosn in state statues regarding domestic vioelnce
mandatory arrest generated an odds ratio of .885 a small effect , consistent with garner and maxewells findigns
fagen policies most least effective

beyond cohabition
mandatory arrest
houseing policeis

mills arguement
battered women she argues are the saftest and feel the most responced when they are willingly a partner with state officals to prosecute domesti crime, mandatory state interventions do not allow clincial healing to occur, mills advocates what she calls a survivor centered apporach that focuses on listning to the women and discussing their options with her.
37. How were abuse perpetrators similar to traumatized war veterans? How were they different?
similar in most measures

ptsd dythemia and axnneity

batterers higher on antisocial personality disroder

39. What three general strategies comprise shaming by a parent?
public humulations
general attacks
random punishment

40. How does shame moderate the relationship between experiencing and expressing IPV?
shame moderates the relationship between physical abuse and intimate partner violence and physical abuse in childhood.
41. What are 5 general reactions found in trauma victims?
unstable sence of self
inability to modulate arousal
externalizing blame
identification with the agressor
attachment insecurity
cogntiive distoritons.

43. What are the similarities in trauma victims and IPV perpetrators?
restricted affect
dyscontrol problems
insecure attachment.

44. What is the trauma model of abusiveness? How does it operate
physical abuse, parental rejection
insecure attachment in child
cognative problems in resulsitons
voilent responces
exteranlizing blaming attributional style
high chronic anger
rejection sensitvyt
ambivaklent attachment style
distrubed self schema.

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