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obstetrics and gynecology


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treatment for breat feeding mastitis
continue breast feeding, give po abx
most common cause of nonobstetric postpartum death
thromboembolic disease
characteristics of post-maturity syndrome
oligohydramnios and passage of meconium in utero; scrawny neonate with dry peeling skin
cardinal movements of labour
internal rotation
restitution (external rotation)
a pregnant woman has hct of 10g/dL.
Suspicious for iron deficiency (anything <11g/dL)
test used to assess neural tube defects
AFP or amniocentesis
test used in 10th week gestation to screen for chromosomal abnormalities
appropriate antihypertensives in pt with severe pre-eclampsia
hydralazine and/or BB (labetolol)
abnormal HR pattern in contraction stress test
late decelerations indicating fetal hypoxia
discrepancy exists b/t fundal height and gestational age; biparietal diameter is normal but abdominal circumference is decreased
asymmetric IUGR
seizure prophylaxis in severe-preeclampsia
HELLP syndrome
elevated liver enzymes
low platlets
cure for pre/eclampsia
cause of erythroblastosis fetalis
maternal antibodies agains infant's Rh+ RBCs result in fetal RBC hemolysis
cause of hydros fetalis
decreased protein production by fetal liver, resulting in decreased oncotic pressure, edema, and high output cardiac failure
preeclampsia in the first trimester is pathognomonic for what condition?
hydatiform mole
primary causes of third trimester bleeding
placental abruption and placenta previa
chromosomal pattern of a complete mole
molar pregnancy containing fetal tissue
partial mole
symptoms of placental abruption
continuous, painful vaginal bleeding
symptoms of placenta previa
self-limited, painless vaginal bleeding
when should a vaginal exam be performed with suspected placenta previa
antibiotics with teratogenic effects
tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides,
shortest AP diameter of the pelvis
obstetic conjugate: b/t the sacral promontory and midpoint of the symphysis pubis
medication given to accelerate fetal lung maturity
betamethasone or dexamethasone x 48hrs
most common cause of postpartum hemorrhage
uterine atony
treatment for postpartum hemorrhage
uterine massage, if fails - oxytocin
typical abx for GBS prophylaxis
IV penicillin or ampicillin
patient fails to lactate after an emergency C-section with marked blood loss
Sheehan's (post-partum pituitary necrosis)
first test to perform when a woman presents with amenorrhea
most common cause of amenorrhea is pregnancy
term for heavy bleeding during and b/t menstrual periods
cause of amenorrhea with normal prolactin, no response to estrogen-progesterone challenge, and hx of D&C
Asherman's syndrome
therapy for polycystic ovarian syndrome
wt loss and OCPs
medication used to induce ovulation
clomiphene citrate
diagnostic step required in postmenopausal woman who presents with vaginal bleeding.
endometrial biopsy
indications for medical treatment of ectopic pregnancy
stable, unruptured ectopic of <3.5cm at <6wks gestation
medical options for endometriosis
OCPs, danazol, GnRH agonists
uterine bleeing at 18 weeks gestation; no products expelled; cervical os closed
threatened abortion
uterine bleeding at 18 weeks gestation; no products expelled; membranes ruptured; cervical os opened
inevitable abortion
laparoscopic findings in endometriosis
chocolate cyst, powder burns
most common location for ectopic pregnancy
ampulla of oviduct
how to diagnose and follow a leiomyoma
natural hx of leiomyoma
regresses after menopause
patient has increased vaginal discharge and petechial patches in upper vagina and cervix
trichomonas vaginitis
treatment for bacterial vaginosis
oral or topical metronidazole
most common cause of bloody nipple discharge
intraductal papilloma
contraceptive method that prevents against PID
OCP and barrier contraception
unopposed estrogen is contraindicated in which cancers?
endometrial and estrogen receptor positive breast cancer
patient with recent PID and RUQ pain
Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome (perihepatic abcess)
breast malignancy presenting as itching, burning, and erosion of nipple
Paget's disease
Annual screening for women with strong family hx of ovarian cancer
CA-125 and U/S
50 y/o woman leaks urine when laughing or coughing. Nonsurgical options?
Kegels, estrogen, pessaries for stress incontinence
30 y/o woman has unpredictable urine loss. exam is normal. medical options
anticholinergics (oxybutynin) or B-adrenergics (metaproterenol) for urge incontinence
lab values suggestive of menopause
elevated serum FSH
most common cause of female infertility?
two consecutive findings of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS)F/u evaluation?
Colposcopy and endocervical curettage
breast cancer type that increases future risk of invasive carcinoma in both breasts
lobular CIS

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