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Nutrition- Chapter 13: Life Cycle & Nutrition


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Underweight women who fail to gain enough weight during pregnancy are more likely to bear ____________________.
a child with low birth weight.
Low birth weight = ___________.
less than 5.5 lbs
Low birth weight infants are _______ more likely to die.
40 times
Four other hazards of low birth weight?
1. Lower IQ scores
2. Short
3. Educational disadvantages
4. Possible predisposition to develop chronic diseases as they grow older
A pregnancy is usually about ___________ long.
39 weeks
A pregnancy is broken up into 3 parts, each one called a ________.
Each trimester is roughly _______.
13 weeks long
Calorie needs during pregnancy are increased during pregnancy, but this is only in the _____________.
second and third teimester
The amount of additional kcal a pregnant normal weight woman should ingest is:
an extra 340 in second trimester and an extra 450 in third trimester.
________ is NOT a good idea during pregnancy.
The DRI for pregnant women for protein needs is ________________.
25 grams more a day than non-pregnant women
Folate is needed for cell reproduction. Not getting enough can lead to _______________.
neural tube birth defects
For calcium needs, the fetus will draw upon the mothers_________________.
bone stores during pregnancy.
Iron needs go up to _____ of normal.
Fetus draws on monthers iron stores to carry it through the first ____ months of life. Why?
Six; Fetus is only drinking milk and gets iron from the mother.
Zincs is needed for ______ and ____________.
pro synthesis and cell development
What can zinc deficiency result in?
A low birth weight infant
Prenatal supplements are usually multivitamins with extra _____,____, and ______.
folate, zinc, and calcium
Much of the weight women need to put on during pregnancy is ______ ______.
lean tissue
Normal weight women should gain ________ during pregnancy.
25-35 lbs
Underweight women need to gain _______ during pregnancy.
28 lbs
Overweight women should gain ______ during pregnancy.
15 lbs
For normal weight women, the majority of weight gain should be put on when?
after the first triemster.
During the 1st trimester, the goal weight increase is _________.
3.5 lbs
After the first trimester, the goal is _______.
1.0 lb/week
What are the complications of smoking during pregnancy?
1. Retarded physical development of the fetus
2. Behavioral or intellectual problems later in life
3. Low birth weight of infant
4. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
What does the FDA advise pregnant or lactating women?
Not to eat large ocean fish due to high mercury levels
Recommendation is that no more than _______ of fish per week.
12 oz
Recommendation for caffeine intake is to keep it to ________.
1 cup of coffee or 2 12 oz sodas/day
Most soda and diet soda (12 oz) contain how much caffeine?
50 mg/darker sodas
No doz (1 tablet) contain how much caffeine?
200 mg (one tablet)
Tea contain how much caffeine?
20-110mg depending on the type.
Milk chocolate contain how much caffeine?
6 mg/oz
Dark, semi sweet, or bakers chocolate contain how much caffeine?
20-25 mg/oz
Most credible organizations recommend breast feeding for at least how long?
first 12 months of life
From 6-12 months, it's recommended that both ___________________ be introduced.
breast milk and complimentary foods
What is breast feeding best?
1. Its tailored to the infant.
2. Mothers milk give infant the right composition of Pro, CHO, and Fat.
Adult Recommendations for PROTEIN is 10-35%. How much is it for composition of breast milk?
Adult Recommendation for FAT is 20-35%. How much is it for composition of breast milk?
Adult Recommendation for CARBOHYDRATE is 45-65%. How much is it for composition of breast milk?
Infants need more fat than adults to make sure they get more calories
Infants need less carbohydrate than adults. They just need enough to process protein and fat.
Infants who are breast fed score higher on mental development tests compared to formula fed. This may be due to the higher amount of what?
EFA (essential fatty acids)
A milkelike secretion from the breasts during the first day or so after delivery before milk appears; rich in protective factors.
Hormones help stimulate what?
The development of the GI
Mother milk contains substances which do what?
Inhibit bacteria growth
Breast feeding may protect an infant against chronic diseases later in life like what?
Type 1 diabetes, HTM, obesity
The only nutrient that is not found adequately in breast milk is what?
Vitamin D
What is the one advantage of formula over breast feeding?
It contains vitamin D

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