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ACNM Human Biology #2.5


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What are Gametes?
Sperm & 2nd oocyte
What are 2 functions of the Gonads?
Produce gametes.
Secrete sex hormones.
What is Gyneocology?
The study of the female reproductive system
What is Urology?
The study of urinary system and male reproductive system.
What is another name for "Somatic Cells"?
Diploid Cells
How many pairs of chromosomes are there in Somatic Cells?
23 pairs, a total of 46.
1 member of each pair from each parent.
How many Autosomes in a Somatic cell?
How many sex chromosomes in a Somatic cell?
1 pair
What are the sex chromosomes found in a Somatic cell?
Sex chromosomes are either X or Y.
Females have XX
Males have XY (the Y is small)
What is a Haploid Cell?
A Gamete!
(sperm or 2nd oocyte)
How many chromosomes in a Haploid cell?
single set of chromosomes - a total of 23.
Note - haploid = gamete = sperm/2nd oocyte
How many chromosomes in a Gamete?
single set of chromosomes - a total of 23.
Note - haploid = gamete = sperm/2nd oocyte
Gametes are produced by what type of division?
What occurs in Meiosis I - Prophase I?
Chromosomes become visible.
Miotic spindle appears.
Nuclear membrane and nucleoli disappear.
What does Homologous mean?
1 a : having the same relative position, value, or structure: as (1) : exhibiting biological homology (2) : having the same or allelic genes with genetic loci usually arranged in the same order <homologous chromosomes>
What are the phases of Meiosis I?
Prophase 1
Metaphase 1
Anaphase 1
Telophase 1
What occurs during
Meiosis I: Metaphase I?
Homologous pairs line up along the metaphase plate with attached microtubules.
What occurs during
Meiosis I: Anaphase I?
Each set of homologous chromatids, held together by a centomere, are pulled to opposite ends of the dividing cell.
What occurs during
Meiosis I: Telophase I?
Like cytokinesis - miotic division.
What is the result of Meiosis I?
2 cells with Haploid number of chromosomes.
What are the phases of Meiosis II?
Prophase II
Metaphase II
Anaphase II
Telophase II
What is an overview of Meiosis II?
Centomeres in the 2 new cells split.
Sister chromatids separate and move toward opposite poles.
Each daughter cell of meiosisI divides again in MeiosisII.
Result= 4 genetically unique haploid cells.
Semen contains ___ plus ____ ___
Glandular secretions
What is a the scrotum?
A sac of loose skin, fascia and smooth muscle, divided into 2 puuches by a septum.
What causes the wrinkling of the scrotum?
Dartos muscle
How much cooler than core body temperature do sperm need to be kept?
3 degrees lower than core body temperature
What muscle elevates the testes when cold/aroused?
Cremaster muscle in the spermatic cord
What is the dense white capsule surrounding the testes called?
Tunica albuginea
What are the testes?
Paired oval glands of the male reproductive system that produce sperm.
Measurement 2inch by 1 inch.
What is contained within the testes?
2 or 3 seminiferous tubules (where sperm are formed)
What are seminiferous tubules and where are they locate?
They are the site of sperm production.
Located within the testes.
Where do the testes develop?
Near the kidneys on the posterior abdominal wall
Where do the testes descend from?
From the posterior abdominal wall (near the kidneys) thru the inguinal canal, into the scrotum.
In the 7th month of fetal development.
What peritoneum descends with the testes into the scrotal sac, allowing for easier movement?
Tunica Vaginalis
What is Cryptochidism?
Testes do not descent into the scrotum
What is the condition called where the testes do not descend?
When does this most commonly occur?
Premature infants.
________ is formation of sperm cells from spermatogonia.
SPERMATOGENESIS is formation of sperm cells from spermatogonia.
Spermatogenesis is formation of sperm cells from __________.
Spermatogenesis is formation of sperm cells from SPERMATOGONIA.
What are the 5 stages of sperm development/formation?
1. Spermatagonia
2. Primary Spermatocyte
3. Secondary Spermatocyte
4. Spermatid
5. Spermatozoa
______ cells in between tubules secrete testosterone.
LEYDIG cells in between tubules secrete testosterone.
What are 2 roles of STEROLI CELLS?
1. form blood / testis barrier
2. support developing sperm cells
3. Produce fluid & contol release of sperm into the lumen
4. secrete inhibin which slows sperm prduction by inhibiting FSH
What effect does Inhibin have on sperm production?
slows sperm prduction by inhibiting FSH
What are Spermatogonium?
sperm "stem cells"
In spermatogenesis, spermatagonium give rise to 2 daughter cells. One daughter cell is kept in reserve- what happens to the other?
The other - the PRIMARY SPERMATOCYTE - goes thru Meiosis I (DNA replication, tetrad formation, crossing over).
What happens to secondary spermatocytes?
They go thru meiosis II, forming 4 spermatids!
What is Spermiogenesis?
Maturation of spermatids into sperm cells
What is Spermiation?
The release of a sperm cell from a steroli (sustentacular) cell.
What is the name for "Maturation of spermatids into sperm cells"?
What is the name for "The release of a sperm cell from a steroli (sustentacular) cell"?
What does a Sperm HEAD contain?
DNA & Acrosome (hyaluronidase and proteinase enzymes)
What does a sperm MIDPIECE contain?
Mitochondria to form ATP
What does a sperm TAIL contain?
It is the flagellum, used for locomotion.
What is the sperm designed with in mind?
reaching and penetrating the secondary oocyte
How does LH affect Leydig cells?
It stimulates them to release testosterone
What part of the brain increases the secretion of LH & FSH?
The hypothalamus stimulates the anterior pituitary.
Anterior pituitary increases the secretion of LH & FSH.
In puberty an enzyme in the prostate and seminal vesicles converts testosterone into a more potent form. This form is called...
DHT - Di-Hydro-Testosterone
FSH stimulates what in males?
FSH & testosterone stimulate Steroli cells to secrete..
Androgen-binding protein (keep hormone levels high)
What secondary sexual characteristics does testosterone and DHT encourage to occur?
Sexual behavoiur. Libido.
Male metabolism (heavier muscle and bone mass).
Deepening of voice.
What feedback system controls blood levels of Testosterone?
Describe it.

Receptors in Hypothalamus detect increase in blood levels.
Secretion of GnRH slowed.
Anterior pituitary (FSH & LH) slowed.
Leydig cells slowed.
Blood levels reduce.
What parts of the brain are involved in hormonal feedback regarding Testosterone levels in the blood?
Hypothalamus & anterior pituitary
What cells produce Inhibin?
What is the effect of Inhibin?
Steroli cells (testes)

Inhibin inhibits FSH secretion by anterior pituitary, decreasing sperm production.
What causes the Steroli cells to produce or not produce Inhibin?
Sperm production.
Sufficient - produce inhibin
Insufficient - do not prduce inhibin.
What will be secreted to increase Sperm production?
FSH (anterior pituitary)
Describe the pathway sperm follow through the ducts of the testes:
Semniferous tubules -
Straight tubules -
Rete testis -
efferent ducts -
Ductus epididymis -
ductus vas deferens
What is the epididymis?
A comma shaped organ, 1.5inch long, along the posterior border of each testis.
What is the name of the comma shaped organ, 1.5inch long, along the posterior border of each testis?
The epididymis is divided into 3 parts, what are these?
The head, body and tail.
The head is the ductus epididymis, the tail continues as the ductus deferens.
The tail of the epididymis continues as the...
ductus deferens
The head of the epididymis is the...
ductus epididymis
If the epididymis was uncoiled, it would be ____feet long.
What role does the Epididymis play in sperm production?
It is the site of sperm maturation.
Stored for 1-2 months.
Then they are propelled onwards.
Describe the histology of the Ductus (Vas) deferens:
18 inch muscular tube. ascends along posterior border of epididymis, thru spermatic cord, inguinal ligament.
Reaches posterior surface of urinary bladder.
Empties into prostatic urethra with seminal vesicle.
Where does the Ductus Deferens empty into?
The prostatic urethra
How long to sperm stored in the Ductus deferens remain viable for?
Several months
Name 2 structures passing through the spermatic cord to and from the testes:
Testicular artery
Pampiniform plexus of veins
Autonomic nerves
Lymphatic vessels
Ductus deferens
Cremaster muscle
What is the name for surgical sterilisation of the male?
What in involved in a Vasectomy?
Vas Deferens is cut and tied off. Sperm degenerate but production continues.
100% effective.
40% reversible.
What is the inguinal canal?
2 inch long tunnel passing thru the 3 muscles of the anterior abdominal wall.
What is an Inguinal Hernia?
Weaking of the wall of the Inguinal canal, resulting in a loop of intestine pushing through the wall.
More common in males.
Ejaculatory ducts are formed from...
Duct of seminal vesicles and ampulla of vas deferens
What are the 3 parts of the male urethra?
Prostatic Urethra.
Membranous Urethra.
Penile/Spongy urethra.
What are 2 accessory sex glands : Male
Seminal vesicle
Prostate gland
Bulbourethral (cowper's) gland
Describe a traits of the fluid in the seminal vesicle
Describe 2 purposes of the fluid in the seminal vesicle
Neutralise vaginal acid and male urethra.
Fructose for ATP production.
Prostoglandins for sperm motility.
Clotting proteins for coagulation of semen.
Describe the prostate gland:
Single organ the size of a walnut.
Found inferior to the bladder.
What does the prostate gland secrete and why?
Milky PH6.5 fluid.
Increses sperm motility and viability.
Citric acid for ATP.
Describe the Bulbourethral/Cowper's Gland:
Paired, pea shaped gland within the UG diaphragm.
What does the Bulbourethral gland secrete and why?
Secretes alkaline mucous into spongy urethra.
Neurtalises acids and lubricates.
What is Semen?
A mixture of sperm and seminal fluid.
Glandular secretions, fluids of semineferous tubules, nutrients, clotting proteins and antibiotic seminalplasmin.
What is a normal sperm count?
50-150 million
What tissue is the penis comprised of?
2 erectile tissue masses filled with blood sinuses.
What are the 4 regions of the penis?
Glans Penis.
What are the 2 layers in a cross section of the penis?
Corpora cavernosa.
Corpus spongiosum.
What are the 2 root penile muscles?
Bulbospongiosus & ischiocavernosus muscle.
Is erection caused by the sympathetic or parasympathetic nervous system?
What cell type is the bladder?
Tansitional epithelium
What do the ovaries produce?
2nd oocytes and hormones
What hormones do the ovaries produce?
What are the ovaries?
Pair of organs the size of unshelled almonds found in upper pelvic region.
What are the 4 layers of the ovary? (superficial to deep)
Germinal epithelium
tunica albuginea
What are the 5 Reprouctive ligaments : female anatomy
Broad, round, mesovarium, ovarian, suspensory.
What are the 5 stages of follicular development?
What is the corpus luteum?
The left over "sac" or wound from ovulation. Fills with hormone secreting cells.
What is corpus albicans?
The white scar left after the corpus luteum is not needed.

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