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Test #1 Questions


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Herek attributes violence against GLBT to cultural and psychological _______
Heterosexism. def. an idelological system that denies, denigrates, and stigmatizes among nonheterosexual forms of behavior, identity, relationships, or community
In the context of "expectancy theory", valence refers to?
Subjective worth of outcomes; in the context of expectancy theory, valence refers to the value of available outcomes to the individual
According to Piaget, centration, or the tendency to focus on only one aspect of a stiuation or object while ignoring all other aspects is characteristic of the ____ stage
Preoperational -- during this stage several limitations (including centration) underlie the child's inability to conserve
Piaget's Stages?
What is systematic desensitization?
It involves paring an anxiety-arousing stimulus with a stimulus that naturally produces relaxation so that the anxiety arousing stimulus no longer produces anxiety
What is flooding?
In vivo exposure with response prevention -- it si based on the assumtion tha presenting a conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus will result in exteinction of the conditioned response
What is response cost?
Response cose is a type of negative punishment (operant conditioning) that invovles removing a reinforcer following a behavior to reduce or eliminate that behavior
What is implosive therapy?
It combines classical extinction with psychodynamic principles
What is positive punishment?
It involves applying a stimulus following a behaior to reduce or eliminate that behavior. Verbal reprimands are a type of postiive punishment.
What is a standard score?
It si a norm referenced score that indicates an axaminee's performance of standard deviation units (e.g., a z score of 1.0 indicates a raw score that is one standard deviation above the mean)
What are some examples of standard scores?
WAIS IQ, Z Score, T Score
What i needed to determine a test's incremental validity?
selection ratio, base rate, and validity coefficient (when using Taylor-Russell tables)
What is incremental validity?
The degree to which a test will icnrease decision-making accuracy
What is Bem's theory?
It contradicts the more traditional view that attitudes determine behaviors, according to BEM, peopel infer their own attitudes and emotions from their behaviors
Is psychological debriefing (PD) any good for preventing PTSD?
One-session PD is not effective and in some cases actually increases the likelihood of PTSD sx
There is some evidence that multiple session PD may be ineffective as well
Who is Nathan Ackerman?
Psychoanalyst and child psychiatrist, investigated the role fo family dynamics in the 1930s and started developing clinical techniques that applied psychoanalytic principles to the tx of preschool children and their families -- first to combine psychoanalytic princples to family therapy
Who was first to integrate psychoanalytic approach with a systems approach in assessing and treating families?
Natahn Ackerman
How did Whitaker affect family therapy?
He applied expeirential (humanistic) principles
How did Kempler affect family therapy?
He applied Gestalt principles
What type of family therapy does Liberman do?
Liberman is a major figure in behavioral family therapy
According to Stuart and social exchange theory, what does a successful marriage involve?
A high degree of reciprocal positive behavioral exhanges
What is social exchange theory?
Thibaut and Kelley 1959. conceptualizes satisfcation in relationships in terms of cost-reward ratios
Bowen's theory and terminology?
What is Bowen's differentiation?
He propoese that when family members are highly diferentiated, they are less likely to become triangulated with other family members
What side effects are associated with Beta-Blockers?
Bradycardia (10%), fatigue and malaise (10%), decreased sexual ability (10%)
What side effects are not associated with beta blockers?
Coldness in the extremities (<1%)
In M.J. Driver's theory of career management what is career concept?
It refers to an individual's career decisions, which vary along three dimensions, frequency of job change, direction of change, and type of change in job content.
What are the four different career concepts in MJ Driver's theory?
Steady State
Holland's RIASEX model distinguishes between what size person/environment types?
According to Holland's RIASEC model, an investigative job requires what?
analytical, technical, scientific, and verbal competencies
According to Holland's RIASEC model, a relastic job requires what skills?
Manual and mechanical competencies and interactiosn with machines, tools, and objects (carpenter, truck driver)
According to Holland's RIASEC model, a conventional job requires what skills?
Clerical skills and an ability to meet rpecise standards of performance
According to Holland's RIASEC model, what does an enterprising job require?
Persuasion skills
What is differential reinforcement?
It involves reducing an undersirable self-=reinforcing behavior by providing a reinforcer after each predefined interval of time that the individual does not engage in the behavior, but, instead, engages in other behaviors
What is a time-out?
Time-out involves removing the individual from all sources of positive reinforcement for a period to time following an undersirable behavior to eliminate the behavior
What is metamemory?
It refers to a person's insight into his or her own memory processes
What are implicit memories?
They are memories that are recalled without conscious effort
What is prospective memory?
The ability to rmeember to do something in the future (buy a gallong of milk next time you go to the store)
What is a Solomon four-group design?
It combines the pretest-posttest control group design with the posttest only control group design
What is the purpose of a Solomon four-group design?
to evaluate the effects of pretesting on a study's internal and external validity
What is T.A. Cleary's statistical model known as?
The regression model of test bias
When using the Cleary model, test bias is evaluated by what?
comparing the test's regression lines for members of different groups; according to the cleary model, if a test has the same regression line for members of both groups, the test is not biased even if it has different means for the groups
How is the 95% confidence interval for an obtained test score constructed?
Multiply the standard error of measurement by 1.96 and add and subtract the result from the examinee's score
Berscheid's (1989) emotion=in-relationship model predicts what?
That longterm partners are more likely than newlyweds to underestimate their emotional investment in a marital relationship -- disruptions in oragnized sequences of bheavior (established behavior patterns) are more likely in the early stages of a relationship than later stages
When is crowding experienced as less uncomfortable or stressful?
In attention-grabbing, arousing situations rather than unarousing or boring stiuations
To serve as an expert witness in a court case you must
be qulaified by the court to offer opinions and conclusions
What are the best tx for Bulimia?
CBT is superior to BT and IPT for the short term, CBT and IPT were similar for long term effects
How is the term "attention deficit" in ADHD desribed?
As an impaired ability to regulate attention
What is Minuchin's family therapy theory?
According to Minuchin, failure of the therapist to do ? might cause resistance in the family
Bowen's family systems therapy?
What is Boyd-Franklin's multi-system model?
Interventions with AA clients shoudl incorporate multiple systems including immediate and extended family, social service agencies, and the church
According to Baltes and colleagues, flexitime has the highest effect on what job outcome?

(effect size .45 productivity)
(effect size .15 satisfaction)
(effect size .04 self-rated job performance)
Zaccaro's theory? task cohesion?
Having a stepfather has greater benefits for boys or girls?
Boys -- boys adapt better and often eventually show better adjustment than male pers whose moms didn't remarry (Hetherington)
What is an extinction burst?
If refers to the temporary increase in behavior that occurs when reinforcement is removed
What is Thorndike's law of effect?
A behavior that is followed by a satisfying consequence will be likely to occur again
What is the law of contiguity?
Learning depends on the proximity of stimuli in space and time
What is the equipotentiality law?
Intact areas of the brain can assume to functions of areas that have been destroyed
What is the matching law?
The relative frequency of responding to an alternative corresponds to the frequency of reinforcement for responding to that alternative
What is echoic memory?
Memory for sounds
What is iconic memory?
Memory for visual stimuli that takes the form of mental pictures
What is the concordance rate for a parent of an individual who recieves a diagnosis of Schizophrenia?
What is the concordance rate of Schizoprhenia in biological siblings?
What is the concordance rate for schizophrenia in the general populations?
What is the concordance rate for a biological offspring of one schizophrenic parent?
What familial relationships are strongest in Hispanic American families?
Parent-child (and especially mother-son and father-son relationship)
What percentage of Parkinson's patients are depressed?
40% This can be due both to the disease and a reaction process
Eagly et al looked at gender differences between men and women with regard to leadership style, emergence, or evlauation and found?
little difference between men and women with regards to any of the above
What is Burke's scheme>
What are the seven phases identified by Burke?
Entry, contracting, diagnosis, feedback, planning change, intervention, and evaluation
What is feedback in Burke's scheme?
It si the fourth phase and invovles providing clients with information that the consultant obtained and analyzed during teh diagnosis phase so that clients udnerstand the situation and then decide what actions to take
During what time of life does job satisfaction go down?
Employees who don't achieve supervisory levels experience a decline in job satisfaction during middle age
What is overextension in language?
Overextension is the application of a word to a wider collection of objects or events than is appropriate (car for tractor, truck, SUV)
the CDC study found a 3% increase in preterm singleton births from 1989 to 1996, with the greates increase in which group?
Non-Hispanic Whites (increased 8%)

Non Hispanic blacks (decrased 9.9%)
Hispanics (decreased 3.5%)
American Indians/Alaskan Natives (decreased 2.8%)
Does Panic Disorder occur in children?
Biederman et al (1997) found that panic disorder is quite rare, but does exist in kids and is often comorbid with other mood and behavioral disorders
What is undifferentiated somatoform disorder?
An individual has one or more physical symptoms that are not due to a physical cause and don't meet criteria for Somatization
What is hypchondriasis?
Preoccupation with having a serious disease based on a misinterpretation of physical symptoms
What is erectile disorder?
Review DSM
According to TJ Crow, what is Type I Schizophrenia due to?
Neurotransmitter abnormalities, and is more responsive to traditional antipsychotics
According to TJ Crow, what is Type II schizophrenia due to?
Brain abnormalities (prefrontal and temporal lobes) and has a poorer prognosis
What are Caplan's four types of mental health consultation?
client centered case consultation
consultee centered case consultation
program centered administrative consultation
consultee centered administrative consultation
How does Caplan define theme interference?
A type of transference that occurs when a consultee's unresolved conflict related to a particularl type of client or situation interferes with his/her current performance with similar client or situations
What are the methods of prevention?
Primary - designed to keep a problem fron developing
Secondary - aimed at early identifiication and intervention
Tertiary - to prevent a problem from becoming chronic or to prevent relapse
What is introjection?
Klein argued that introjection usually involved good obejcts and helped anxiety but could also invovle bad objects and was a way to gain control over them
What is reparation defined by Klein?
It refers to an infant's attempts to repair a damaged mother image
What is splitting?
The poces of keeping good and bad parts of an object and oneself separate
What is projective identification?
Projecting rfeelings onto objects and then identifying with the object
What are the stages of W.E. Cross' model?
What is the final stage of W.E. Cross's model and what is it charaterized by?
Internalization -- characterized by the devleopment of "inner security" as identity conflicts are resolved and increasing biculturalism/multiculturalism
The research has generally found that uathoritative parents are more likely to have well-adjusted children, true or false?
A combination of low demandingness and low warmth describes what type of parent?
Low in demandingness and high in warmth describes what type of parenting?
High in demandingness and low in warmth describes what type of parenting style?
High in demandingness and high in warmth describes what type of parenting?
What is J.W. Berry known for?
Work on acculturation, which he distinguishes from enculturation. According to Berry, enculturation involves three types of culture transmission: vertical (influence from parents), horizontal (peers), and oblique (other adults and institutions)
What are assessment centers and what does a leaderless group discussion provide?
Assessment centers are used for the hiring, promotion, and training of managerial-level employees. A leaderless group discussion (as part of an assessment center or alone) provides info about a mgr's communication, decision making, and leadership skills
What is overlearning?
It refers to practicing or rehearsing beyong the first time the information is errorlessly reproduced
What is overlearning most effective for?
Any kind of practice is best when it is spaced (distributed) rather than massed, and overlearning is most effective for concrete material (dates, grammatical rules)
What does Lewin's field theory predict?
That a person's behavior is a funtion of the person and his/her environment in the immediate present
Are children capable of lying, and if so, at what age?
Piaget argued that young children are cognitively incapable of deliberately lying, however, sutdies have found hat children as yougn as 2 or 3 deliberately lie. Although the lie most often to avoid punishment, they also do so for other reasons
Can a psychologist see a patient he or she has had sexual relations with?
At what rates to minorities utilize mental health services?
Hispanic and Asian Americans underutilize mentla health services while African Americans overutilize them
What generalizations can be made about secondary memory, visuospatial skills, attention, and creativity in aging?
Secondary, visuospatial skills, and attention all decline with ago, creativity seems to continue well into old age
What do gonadotrophins do and where are they released and why?
Gonadotrophins are released by the pituitary gland as the result of signals from the hypothalamus. They stimulate the gonads to release their hormones (estrogen in females, androens in males). They regulate the female cycle
In brief dynamically based therapy, is postiive transference better or worse than negative transference?
Better -- postiive transferences are considered more beneficial than negative transference because they rpomot a p[ostiive therapuetic rleationships are less likely to lead to full sclae transference neurosis.
Why does Gilligan consider adolescence to be a critical period for females, and what types of experiences might they need at this time?
Gilligan argues that girls are vulnerable during adolescence because they're experiencing a "relational crisis" involving psychological separation from self, others, and world. Girls need experiences that help them "resist disconnection"
What is psychophysics?
The study of the relationship between stimulus magnitude and perception of that stimulus
What are just noticeable differences?
Psychophysicists use just noticeable differences and similar measurements to study the relationship between changes in physical stimuli and the psychological responses to those changes. JNDs are considered to be equal, but the corresponding physical stimuli aren't.
What is the multistore model of memory?
Moemory has three components, sensory, short term, and long term. Short term memory has a limited capacity and a limited uration, sensory memory contians info from all senses but retains that info for a brief period (.5 second)
The theories of Piaget, Vygotsky, and those adopting an info procesign persepctive are all based on what assumption?
Cognitive development entails icnreasing internalization and control of cognitive stratgies and operations

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