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Kap Phys Ch. 1 Section 3


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In what specific neurons is the neurotransmitter acetylcholine used in?
all motor neurons, autonomic preganglionic neurons, postganglionic parasympathetic fibers, and some cells of the motor cortex and basal ganglia.
Considering the neurotransmitters clearing from the synaptic cleft, what distinguishes achetylcholine from other neurotransmitters
enzymatic destruction is a major factor terminating transmitter action.
Which neurotransmitters are known as biogenic amines.
norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine, seratonin, histimine
What is the primary transmitter for postganglionic sympathetic neurons
Which cells in the body release epinephrine?
epinephrine is released by chromaffic cells of adrenal medulla
Which biogenic amine is in high concentration in brain stem cells?
Which biogenic amine is present in neurons of the hypothalamus
What is the major factor in the termination of transmitter action for the biogenic amines?
reuptake by the presynaptic membrane
What are two main amino acids that are main inhibitors of the CNS?
Glycine and GABA
Where is the function and locationof action of the glycine amino acid neurotransmitter?
Glycine is an inhibitor transmitter in spinal interneurons
Where is the function and locationof action of the GABA amino acid neurotransmitter?
GABA is an inhibitor transmitter of the CNS
What kind of potential do glycine and GABA create on their target neuron?
GABA and glycine generate IPSP's via ligand-gated Cl- channels
Which two amino acids are excitatory transmitters of the central nervous system?
Glutamine and aspartate
Where are peptide transmitters synthesized and where are nonpeptide neurotransmitters synthesized?
nonpeptide transmitters are synthesized in nerve terminals but peptide transmitters are synthesized in the neuroncell body, pachaged in vesicles and then transported to nerve terminals
Why is nitrous oxide a unique neurotransmitter?
NO is lipid soluble and therefore cannot by packaged in vesicles or released by exocytosis⬦therefore it is SYNTHESIZED AS NEEDED!!!
Is nitrous oxide (NO) an inhibitory or excititory NT and what nervous systmes is it found in?
an inhibitory transmitter in the central and enteric nervous system.
What are the main points to know about neuromodulators? (4 things)
1. not neurotransmitters 2. Alter the sensitivity of the synaptic membranes 3. are frequently peptides 4. Act at very low concentrations but have a long duration
What are two methods of presynaptic inhibition?
1. Inhibitory neuron axon ending on presynaptic neuron axon and releasing GABA to stop flow if inward Calcium 2. On adrenergic neurons you have presynaptic Alpha 2 receptors which, when binded to norepinephrine inhibit the inflow of Calcium and thus prevent exocytosis of NT.

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