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Neuro - Neurotransmitters


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Fast excitatory NT?
Fast inhibitory NT?
What receptor(s) does glutamate bind, and what type of receptors are they?
AMPA/kinate OR NMDA; ionotropic receptors (receptors are actually part of ion channel)
How does glut-AMPA/kinate binding excite the cell?
Na enters, and some K exits
How does glut-NMDA binding excite the cell?
allows Na AND Ca to enter (which can activate Ca dependent 2nd messanger systems)
What ion blocks the NMDA receptor, and under what conditions does it block/unblock?
Mg -> "voltage dependent Mg block"

blocks when hyperpolarized, unblocks when cell depolarizes
What receptor(s) does GABA bind?
How does GABA-GABA(A) binding elicit an inhibitory response?
GABA(A) is an ion channel that lets Cl into the cell, hyperpolarizing it
How does GABA-GABA(B) binding elicit an inhibitory response?
GABA(B) act through G-protein to activate K channels (let K out = hyperpolarize)

*responsible for slow/late inhibitory PSPs*
Does GABA ALWAYS hyperpolarize the cell? Why?
NO. If the cell membrane potential is initially NEGATIVE to the reversal potential of GABA(A)(-75mV) or GABA(B)(-115mV), GABA will slightly depolarize the cell, but it is still inhibitory b/c it resists mvt towards the activation potential threshold
What are the main neuromodulatory NTs?
Ach, 5HT, NE, DA, histamine
What do neuromodulators do?
change the firing pattern and/or excitability of neurons
What are the equilibrium potentials of Ca, Na, Cl, K?
Ca: +125mV
Na: +60mV
Cl: -75mV
K: -100mV
In what disease is there depleted ACh levels?
What NT is known as the prolactin-inhibiting factor?
Where are the two main places in the brain that is DA found?
arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, and the SNpc/ventral tegmental area
Which DA receptor serves an excitatory function?
D1 (activates AC)
Which DA receptor serves an inhibitory function?
D2 (inhibits AC)
What receptors do antipsychotics block?
What disease is characterized by the loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons?
Where are norepinephrinergic neurons found in the highest concentration?
Locus ceruleus of the midbrain and pons
What is the catecholamine hypothesis of mood disorders?
reduced NE activity is related to depression and increased NE activity is related to mania
Which NT plays a role in anxiety states?
Where are 5HT neurons found?
raphe nuclei
What is the permissive serotonin hypothesis?
decreased 5HT activity causes depression and insomnia, increased levels cause mania
Dysfunction of what NT is thought to underlie OCD?
What receptors to SSRIs block?
5HT(IA) and 5HT(2)

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