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CNS Cellular Organization and Neurotransmitters


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Neurons communicate primarily through _____.
axonal firing
Peripheral neurons (sensory/motor neurons) can regenerate; RECENT animal research suggests that even neurons in ___ and ____ may be able to regenerate to a certain extent
brain and spinal cord
Neurons are classified either by ____ or ______.
morphology (# of of axons coming from cell bodies); function
Types of CNS cells include ___ and ___.
neurons; glial
6 Functions of the glial cells include:
-supply nutrients and oxygen to neurons
-surround neurons to hold them in place
-produce myelin
-help form blood-brain barrier
-act as housekeepers, metabolizing and removing dead neurons
-during development,radial glia’ guide migrating neurons
Glial cells that form myelin of CNS (Schwann cells form myelin in PNS)are called___.
Astrocyte glial cells provide multiple support functions, including:
1. provide structural support to neurons
2. contribute to metabolism of synaptic transmission
3. regulate ion balance
4. support blood-brain barrier by covering blood vessels in CNS w/ “feet,” which holds the endothelial cells lining the blood vessels in place
_________ epithelial cells line brain ventricles and the central canal of spinal cord and assist in secretion and circulation of ____.
Ependymal; CSF
______ glial cells swell in rx to brain injury, which is responsible for many sxs of TBI
Microglia are small cells that proliferate and act as ___ when tissue ______.
scavengers; are destroyed
Four common features of the neuron include:
cell body, dendrites, axon, terminal synaptic buttons
__ __come from cell body
some are destined to be secreted as neurotransmitters; others maintain the cell.
axon proteins;
Cell energy is manufactured by ____, taking up ____ and breaking it down for energy.
mitochondria; glucose
Nissl Bodies are part of the _____comprised of groups of ____ used for protein synthesis.
cell bocy; ribosomes
Golgi Apparatus is a membrane-bound structure of the cell body important in packaging _______ and _____ (including neurotransmitters) into _____.
peptides and proteins into vesicles.
_____ are extensions of cell body that increase surface area and specialized to ___ info from other cells; have the unique feature to _____.
Dendrites; receive; grown and change.
The axon originates in cell body at the transition called ____.Each cell has___ axon(s) sending only one message.
axon hillock; one
Many axons are surrounded with _____,a _____),giving a whitish appearance.
myelin sheath; lipoprotein
degree and integrity of myelinated axons correlates with the speed and efficiency of ______
action potential propagation
Increase of neuronal conduction conferred by ___.
saltatory conduction
Myelin sheath is interrupted every 1-2 mm by unmyelinated segment called ,____ which permits the action potential to jump from one ___ to the next.
Node of Ranvier;node
_______are the presynaptic portion of the synapse where electrical nerve impulses cause release of neurotransmitters
terminal buttons or axon termials
Synapse is the site of __ ___, where electrochemical information that travels acorss axon electrically is then transmitted chemically. Synapses can occur on __, __, or___.
interneuronal communication;
dendrite, cell body, or axon
Neurons show a __ __ when they are inactive: conssists of a slight __ __between inner and outer surfaces of membrane caused by separation of electrically charged ions
resting potential; electrical imbalance
Ions are defined as ____.

The four important types of ions are:
atoms or molecules that have acquired electrical charge by gaining or losing one or more electrons.

1. organic ions (symbolized by A-)
2. sodium (Na+)
3. potassium (K+)
4. chloride (Cl-)
Electrical imbalance can occur b/c axon membrane is ___. Molecules including___ and ___ pass thru membrane constantly. Other chemicals including __, __, and ___can’t cross, so they pass through gates.
oxygen and water; K+, Cl-, NA+
___ ____ is the property of two opposing forces: force of ___ and force of ____.
membrane potential;
diffusion (molecules distribute themselves equally throughout medium where they’re dissolved);
electrostatic pressure (particles w/ same kind of charge repel; different charge attract)
Transmission of info between cells dependent on chemicals including ___, ___, and ___.
neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, and hormones
____ are released by terminal buttons of neurons and detected by receptors in membrane of another cell located short distance away
_____ are also released by terminal buttons, but secreted in larger amounts and diffuse for longer distances, modulating activity of many neurons in particular area (most composed of peptides)
Hormones are most produced in ___ glands; cells that secrete hormones release into extracellular fluid and then distributed to rest of body thru bloodstream; only cells that have target cells for particular hormone respond to its presence.
Not all communication is mediated at the ___ ___; Other parts of the membrane are sensitive to ___ and hormones
synaptic juncture; neuromodulators
Two classes of hormones include ___ and ___.
Peptides and steroids
links of amino acids including insulin and pituitary gland hormones are called ____.
small fat soluble molecules, including sex hormones and hormones secreted by adrenal cortexare called ____.
In the brain, most synaptic communication is accomplished by two neurotransmitter substances: one called ___with _____ effects and one with called ____ with ___ effects.
glutamate, excitatory; GABA, inhibitory
Name the four classifications of neurotransmitters
Amnio Acids
Acetylcholine stmulates the ______. It has a prominent role in ___, influencing ___control. It is the primary transmitter found at ____ ____ (all ____movement is accomplished by release of Ach)
parasympathetic nervous system; PNS, motor; neuromuscular juncture, muscular
ACh is found in the CNS and influences ___, ____. amd ____.
alertness, attention, memory
ACh is located in the PNS in cells of spinal cord and anterior horn and projects to the ____ muscles.

ACh in the CNS starts in the cell bodies of the __ ___(nucleus basalis, medial septal nucleus, and nucleus of diagonal band) and projects to
skeletal; Basal forebrain, cerebral cortex
ACh is formed by combination of acetyl CoA + choline; in presence of enzyme ___ ____.

Acetylcholine synthesis:ACh does not undergo ___; action is terminated by _____.
choline acetyltransferase;
reuptake; cholinesterase
Neurotransmitter _____plays a role in regulation of mood; control of eating, sleep, and arousal; and pain. It is located in the __ __(in brainstem) and projects to the_______.
serotonin; Raphe Nuclei and projects to the entire CNS
Prozac, Paxil, Zoloft, LSD, etc. have effects on ____.
__ ___(eg, imipramine, clomipramine) block both Serotonin and ___ uptake
5HT; tricyclic antidepressants, NE
ACh has two receptor types: ____(movement)and ____(both found in CNS but ______ predominates there).
_____ (Cognex): is reversible anticholinestrase used to enhance ___ functioning.
___ ____ prevents release of Ach; Black widow spider venom sti
nicotinic, muscarinic, muscarinic; Tacrine, cognitive; Botulinum toxin; Curare
_____ is a NT generally associated with ____ disorders and neuropsychiatric problems (schiz, ADHD, tics), as well as modulation of ____.
dopamine, motor, reward
Conditions due to defects in dopamine synthesis include ___ and ____.

Excessive dopamine produced by coke, amphetamine, L-dopa; can lead to ___ ___ , and ____ movement disorders.
PKU, Parkinson's; visual hallucinations, hyperkinetic
Dopamine is located in cell bodies of the _____ (substantia nigra, pars compacta, and ventral tegmental) and projected to ___, ___, ___, and ___.
midbrain; striatum, prefrontal, limbic, amygdala
Three well known pathways of dopamine include:
nigrostriatal, mesolimbic, mesocortical
Most ______ work primarily on _____(eg, Haldol, Thorazine, Clozaril, Risperdal), as does _____.
antipsychotics, dopamine, L-dopa
How is dopamine synthesized?

The termination process includes _____ and ______.
Phenyalanine to tyrosine to DOPA to Dopamine (tyrosine hydroxylase rate-limiting)

Terminate process: reuptake, monoamine oxidase (MAO), etc.
Functions of NT _____are complex, but probably helps regulate mood, memory, hormones, blood flow, and motor behavior. Also thought to increase ____, role in ___behavior and control of ___.
norepinepherine;vigilance, sexual, appetite
Norepinepherine located in the ___ ___ (pons)and projected into ______.
locus ceruleus; projected to the entire CNS
Tricyclic antidepressants (eg, imipramine, clomipramine) block both ____ and ___uptake.
serotonin and NE
___ is a hormone produced by adrenal medulla. Also produced in brain, but minor importance compared with NE. Stimulates ____ division of ANS to produce “flight or fight.
Epinepherine (adrenalin; sympathetic)
Three amino acids are ___. ___. and ___.
GABA, glutamate, glycine
- Inhibitory neurotransmitter in spinal cord and lower brain
_____ is an amino acid that may play a modulatory role at ___ in cord. It is blocked by ____.
Glycine, interneurons; strychnine.
____ project to entire CNS; no mechanism for reuptake once released; deactivated by ____.
Peptides, enzymes
Peptide with physiological roles including pain perception, stress, respiratory regulation, temperature control, tolerance development.
____is an amino acide where cell bodies in entire CNS project to entire CNS. Principal ______ transmitter substance in brain and cord.
Implicated in neural plasticity, ___, and ___.
Excessive activity associated with ____.
glutamate, excitatory, learning, memory;excitotoxicity
Four types of glutamate receptors, one bing ____ receptor.
GABA cell bodies in entire CNS project to entire CNS. Principal ____transmitter substance in brain and cord. Enhanced activity produces _____, anxiolytic, and ___ effects. Benzodiazepines (eg, diazepam/valium, xanax, ativan) thought to work by ____GABA.
inhibitory; sedative, anticonvulsant; stimulating, decreased
Peptide that is the mediator of inflammation, as well as a neurotransmitter in primary afferent fibers carrying pain signals.
Substance P
_____(aka antidiuretic hormone); acts peripherally to facilitate water reabsorption by kidneys; may play a role in ____consolidation.
Vasopressin; memory
Somatostatin is a peptide involved in the modulation of ___, ___, and ___. Also reduced in ____ of Alz pts.
heat, pain, sleep; cortex
Angiotensin II is a peptide involved in potent _____ activity in periphery; central actions include stimulation of pressor responses and ____.
vasoconstrictor; drinking

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