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Ecology Review

Terms

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biodiversity
the variety of life in an area.
introduced species
any organism that was brought to an ecosystem as a result of human actions. it can pose a threat to native species and threaten the stability of an ecosystem. like kudzu.
trophic level
level of nourishment in a food chain
secondary succession
sequence of community changes that take place after a community is disrupted by natural disasters or human actions.
carnivore
a consumer of animals
climax community
a stable, mature community that undergoes little or no change.
heterotroph
(consumer) can't make own food, consumes
generalist
a consumer that eats more than one type of organism
Pyramid of Numbers
population size decreases at each trophic level
Greenhouse effect
when carbon dioxide, water, and methan molecules absorb energy reradiated by the Earth's surface and slow the release of this energy from the atmosphere.
interspecific competition
when two different species compete for a resource
immigration
the movement into a population
biotic factors
factors that are living, such as plants and animals.
pollution
any undesirable factor, or pollutant, that is added to the air, water, or soil.
four factors of population growth
birth, death, emigration, immigration
commensalism
a symbiotic relationship in which one species benefits and the other is unaffected.
community
group of different species that live in same area
nonrenewable resource
a resource that is used faster then it forms, like coal or oil.
carrying capacity
the maximum number of individuals of a particular species that the environment can normall and consistently support
exponential growth (J-curve)
populations that grow unchecke and have an abundant amount of resources exhibit this type of growth.
acid rain
a type of precipitation produced when pollutants in the water cycle cause rain pH to drop below normal levels
organism
an individual living thing
intraspecific competition
when individuals from the same species compete for a resource.
food web
model that shows the complex network of feeding relationships within an ecosystem
clumped distribution
the pattern of dispersion in which organisms are grouped closely.
logistic growth
populations that face limited resources exhibit this type of growth.
primary succession
the colonization of new sites by communites, starting from scratch. this takes longer.
renewable resource
a resource that cannot be used up or can replenish itself over time, like water or wind energy
Global Warming
the trend of increasing temperatures because of increased levels of greenhouse gases like CO2, H2O, and methane. two results are flooding and natural disasters.
herbivore
a consumer of only plants
detritivore
a consumer of dead organic matter
omnivore
a consumer of plants and animals
randomly spaced
the pattern of dispersion in which the organisms are randomly spaced.
abiotic factors
non living factors, such as weather, dirt, water, and natural disasters
emigration
the movement out of a population
uniform distribution
the pattern of dispersion in which organisms are evenly spaced.
food chain
feeding relationships, shows how energy moves through an ecosystem
succession
the orderly natural changes that take place in an ecosystem.
pioneer species
the first species in an area, ususally moss or lichen.
ecology
The study of interactions among living things, and between living things and their surroundings.
density independent
factors that affect the population growth regardless of size.
biome
major global and regional community
density dependent
factors affected by the number of individulals, such as food, competition, or space.
Pyramid of Energy
loss of energy at each trophic level
autotroph
(a producer) it makes its own food by 2 ways: energy from sun (plants, photosynthesis), and energy from chemical compounds (in deep sea vents, chemosynthesis)
mutualism
a symbiotic relationship in which both species benefits.
smog
a type of air pollution caused by the interaction of sunlight with pollutants produced by fossil fuel emissions.
parasitism
one species benefits, the other is harmed.
Pyramid of Biomass
weight of living material
population density
the amount of people that live in a given area. it is studied to determine if it is a result in environmental factors or normal variation.
ecosystem
includes all organisms and nonliving things in the same area
decomposer
detritivore that breaks down organic matter into simpler compounds, returning nutrients back to ecosystem
ways humans have modified their environment
agriculture, transportation, medical advances, and sanitation.
niche
the role and position an organism has in their environment. Factors include food, abiotic conditions, and behavior.
specialist
consumer that eats only one type of organism
population
a group of the same species living in the same area.

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