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Geography and Map Skills Handbook


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in mapmaking, a way of drawing the round earth on a flat surface
one-half of the globe; the Equator divides the earth into northern and southern hemispheres; the prime meridian divides it into eastern and western hemispheres
location north or south of the equator, measured by imaginary lines (parallels) numbered in degrees north or south
location east or west of the prime meridian, measured by imaginary lines (meridians) numbered in degrees east or west
network of imaginary lines on the earth's surface, formed by the crisscrossing patterns of the lines of latitude and longitude
grid system
the exact position of a place on the earth's surface
absolute location
ship or airplane route following a great circle, the shortest distance between two points on the earth
great circle route
on a map, an explanation of the symbols used
the basic directions on the earth: north south east west
cardinal direction
device drawn on maps to show the directions
compass rose
any direction between the cardinal directions, such as southeast or northwest
intermediate direction
on a map, a divided line showing the map scale, usually in feet, miles, or kilometers
scale bar
the relationship between distance on a map and actual distance on the earth
differences in hight in a landscape; how flat or rugged the surface is
hight above sea level
ohn a contour map, line connection all points at the same elevation
contour line
cutaway diagram shoing changes in elevation of land
elevation profile
average number of people living in a square mile or square kilometer
population density
a broad area of earth with the same climate
climate region
the horizontal (bottom) or vertical (side) line of measurement on a graph
graph in which vertical or horizontal bars represent quantities
bar graph
graph in which one or more lines connect dots representing changing quantitites
line graph
graph in which small symbols represent quanitities
combination bar and line graph giving information about temperature and precipitation
usual pattern of weather events in an area over a long period of time
drawing that shows steps in a process or parts of an objet
type of diagram that shows direction or movement
flow chart
graphic way of presenting information clearly
graphic way of organizing and presenting statistics or facts

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