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Exam 7


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Lateral shoot (branch)
an offshoot of the stem of a plant
an outgrowth of a plant that grows from a node in the stem. Most ????? are flat and contain chloroplasts
the angle between the upper side of the stem and the leaf, branch, petiole
Examples of dicots
water lily, rose, violet, sunflower
Examples of monocots
iris, corn, wheat, camas
the reproductive part of a plant
plants response to environment; Including photo???? and geo?????
Inhibit root growth, slows leaf loss, grows the xylem, Similar to cholesterol and sex hormones of animals
Abscisic Acid
Promotes dormancy, blocks growth of stems, Stimulates the closing of stomata
the core of the trunk, which contains very strong, dead tissue that supports the tree
Outer bark
the protective outer layer of the trunk
formed from the ovary wall. The tip of the ??? carries the stigma to which pollen grains attach. Part of the pistil that separates the stigma from the ovary
capillary action
the adhesion between h20 and the xylem tube walls, many small xylem tubes better than less big ones
Stimulates rapid stem elongation (incl phloem cells), Inhibit formation of roots, terminates dormancy of seeds & buds, and Induces biennial plants to flower during 1st year of growth. Commmercially sprayed gibberellins on fruit to make the fruit grow larger
the name for phloem (inner bark) after it has died.
the inner ring of the flower leaves
the reproductive unit of angiosperms
the outermost ring of the flower leaves
plant structure that obtains food and water from the stores energy provides support for the plant. 3 types: Tap ???, aerial ???, fibrous ???
# of essential nutrients
at least 17 different essential nutrients
Ground tissue
most extensive system, gives the plant a body (functions as support, storage, and photosynthesis), comes in 3 types (collenchyma, parenchyma, sclerenchyma cells)
epidermis -> root cortex
2 routes, apoplastic route then symplastic route
promotes cell division; EG: Kinetin Generates plant growth, Breaks seed dormancy, Expends and slows down ageing of leaves
Double fertilization steps
A pollen grain (sperm) must land on the style. Given that it's the right species (chemical including calcium to help determine if the pollen will be accepted).A pollen tube develops and travels down the style. The generative cell divides down the pollen tube into the embryo sac. One sperm fertilizes the egg --> zygote. The other sperm fuses with the 2 polar nuclei --> 3n nucleus = Endosperm. The endosperm is the nutrition for the fertilized egg
A plants response to light, usually by growth; gravity pulls Auxins lower on one side, growth is inhibited on that side, the other side goes against gravity, towards the sun
Long Day plants
Clover, Spinach, Radish, Iris | exposure to shorter nights (~ 8 hrs) causes them to flower
reasons for transpiration
osmosis, capillary action, cohesion tension theory
Tissue systems
dermal, vascular, ground
a leaf stalk
Flower stalk
the structure that supports the flower
(AKA the axis) the main support of the plant
there is a higher concentration of minersls inside the root, so H20 goes into the root to balance this
Collenchyma cells
living, flexible support in stems and leaves, found just inside the epidermis
the movement of sugar through the plant; starts with h20 + minerals at roots going up to leaves through xylem. Source cells make sugar (sucrose) and add it to the H20 moving down through phloem where sucrose gets dropped off in roots and the pure h220 just goes back up the xylem.
Parasitic plants
they can't survive alone without the plant; mistletoe
dead cells moving water and minerals up to leaves, composed of trachea cells and vessel elements.
Carnivorous plants
they need to feed on other plants or animals/insects. Soil is so poor that they must eat other animals / insects for the nutrients.EG: Pitcher plant, Venus fly trap
plant sex cells
essential nutrient comes from bacteria in soil. ++==++ The nitrogen fixing bacteria take the N2 and turn it into NH3 (ammonia) and in the soil, it gains another H to become NH4. Certain plants (peas - legumes) have nodules on their roots where this bacteria resides.
the female flower organ, consisting of the seed bearing ovary, stigma, and style
symplastic route
cell to cell movement via plasmodesmata (tubes between cells)
live cells moving things like sugar down to root cells, consist of sieve tube members
Characteristics of dicots
two cotyledons, flower in groups of 4 / 5, leaf veins form a network pattern, pollen grains often have 2 spores, vascular bundles arranged like a tree (ring shaped, not scattered)
promotes cell growth; makes cells grow larger; The first that scientists discovered; Produced in apical buds - that's why it helps with apical dominance and tropisms
the sticky surface at the tip of the style to which pollen grains attach.
Stimulates the ripening of fruit, Causes loss of leaves during seasonal changes. Released during times of stress
Auxiliary bud
a bud that develops in the axil
a single layer of living cells in the trunk that is located between the sap wood and the inner bark
Characteristics of monocots
one cotyledon (in-seed leaf), flowers in groups of 3, veins of leaf are parallel, pollen grains often have one spore vascular bundles scattered throughout.
Day neutral
Tomatoes, rice | photoperiod does not matter.
apoplastic route
between the epidermal cells until reaching the Casparian strip, then through the endodermic cells
Female Gametophyte
Ovules produced in ovary, (2n) megasporocyte --(meiosis)--> 4n megaspores, Only one megaspore will survive (just like with humans), Goes through mitosis 3x to produce 1 large cell with 8 haploid nuclei
Vascular tissue
used for transport through plant (in every part of plant), arranged differently in mono/dicots, has Xylem and Phloem
Short Day plants
Chrysanthemum, Poinsettia, Strawberry | Exposure to Long nights ~10 hrs stimulates flowering
cohesion tension theory
causes most of the xylem movement, as H20 evaporates from open stomata, water is pulled up capillaries to replace what was lost
Terminal bud
a bud located at the apex of the stem. Has a special tissue (called apical meristem) consisting of cells that divide infrequently.
Ethylene Inhibitors
These hormones inhibit ethylene, Cause dormancy of lateral buds and seeds during autumn and winter, break down gradually over time and sometimes get destroyed in the cold weather.
Tap root
the main root of some plants; the ?????? extends straight down under the plant
the area of the stem between any two adjacent nodes
Sclerenchyma cells
dead at maturity and found in non growth areas (they act as support)
the male organ of a flower. Filament, anther, pollen sac
Route of H20 from soil to leaves
Soil -> epidermis -> root cortex -> xylem
the part of the stem of a plant from which a leaf, branch, or arterial root grows; each plant has many of theese
The ratio of Cytokinins to Auxins
Higher levels of Auxins = root formation | Higher levels of Cytokinins = buds grow into stems
Root cap
a structure at the tips (ends) of roots. It covers the apical meristem of the root
Inner bark (phloem)
the layer of the trunk through which the tree's food (produced sugars) flows
Secondary growth
elongation of branches and thickens leaves (plant gets bushier)
Similar to the circadian rhythm in humans, Responsible to changes in the length, Short day vs long day plants
Leaves detect the photoperiod and send chemical messages via
root cortex -> xylem
once the h20 has gone past the epidermal cells, it moves into the xylem by way of the cortex cells
plants response to gravity. Positive geothrophisim - roots growing downwards; negative geothrophisim - plant growing normally, away from gravity
Dermal tissue
external most tissue, covers entire plant (for protection); guard cells (stomata) also count
the typical (most abundant) plant cell, dominant for ground tissue, in leaves called Mesophyll cells that allows CO2 + O2 to pass through, store pigments and are flesh of fruit.
Soil -> epidermis
water is pulled into the roots via osmosis, the epidermal layer does not have a cuticle to stop water.
Primary growth
elongation of roots and shoots (taller)
Male Gametophyte
created within the pollen sac (sporangia) which are in the anther. (2n) microsporocytes --(meiosis)--> 4n haploid microspores --(mitosis)--> generative cell + tube cell. The tube cell encloses generative cell and produces pollen tube during fertilization

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