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Psych 346 Exam 4


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Sleep and Consolidation
-Binding together aspects of an episode
-connects episode to existing knowledge
-pulls out general principal

Problems with testing/treatment of memory
lab tests
rivermead behavioral memory test

-good for specific functions (but life is messy)
-can't remember what they forgot (relatives more accurate)
-brings real life behaviors into lab (better correlation)

Vanishing Cues Method
Teach vocab via priming, scale down cues each time
Very routine
Brain maturation: what grows, what shrinks, and when?
Lose grey matter volume, young brains have too many neurons.
Thinning occurs in frontal and parietal cortex. (age 5-11)
Volume loss correlates with___
Vocabulary Development.
Want more thinning in frontal/parietal
Aging vs AD
white/grey matter
White matter increases in aging, grey matter increases in AD
Which brain area loses more/ which loses less?

Greatest loss in Frontal cortex/ less in temporal cortex/ least in occipital
Cardiovascular disease and brain matter loss
A low memory score= high loss in white matter
Visual cortex and frontal/parietal region peak volume
3-4 months
12 yrs
Semantic vs strategies in older vs younger
older adults rely on knowledge, younger rely on strategies.
Implicit memory doesn't change much, short-term/working/epiosodic change a lot.

Testing memory in infants
Training: kicking moves mobile
Test: measure kicks after delay
Context-sensitive (and mobile sensitive)-shows they have specific memory to mobile
Retention increases with age

Is memory development episodic?

Rovee-Collier: YES
-amnesiac and babies look at novel faces more.
-flexibility and durability increases with age

Brain region for similarity & recollection
Similarity: Rhinal cortex
Recollection: Hippocampus and parahippocampus
Infantile Amnesia:
Retreival cues
Development of Language is major cue
Infantile amnesia:
ways to organize memory
Self vs others
Language labels

Building memory abilities in kids
Reminiscence: self/others, narrative, memory is representation
What you know about what you know.
Evidence for development: better strategies as you age
Childhood: what structures are still developing?
Hippocampus and frontal, language,semantic networks
(problems with organization and detail)
Positivity effects and aging
recalling and rating positive memories.
(most accurate are depressed individuals)
Source memory and interference
If you don't remember where you got info, hard to keep it separate from other knowledge. Creates confusion.
Procedural memory
Old procedural memory is preserved. New falls apart with interruption and increase in complexity
Successful aging
Protective APOE, cario training, compensation, cognitive training, positive emotional bias

DA and decline (opposite successful aging)
APOE/presenilin, HTN, Atrophy, Isolation, Depression
Kinds of memory:
Personal autobiographical (recollection)
Autobiographical fact (Familiarity)
Generic personal memory (self-schema)

Autobiographical memory brain regions
Episodic events in time: anterior HC
Semantic practiced events: spread out activation bc not consolidated "memories in different stages"
How to study autobiographical memory
Diary method, autobiographical memory schedule, galton cue-word method.
Wagenaar diary method
Chose most important events each day & recorded details. Someone would go through and pick a sheet for a memory cue. Who, what where cue were effective but not WHEN. Salient emotional and pleasant were recalled best.
Weakness of Wagenaar diary study
-Selection bias for memories
-Selection bias for people
-Memories atypically well-encoded and elaboratively rehearsed.

Brewer beeper study
When beeper went off recorded what you were doing. (broad base of memories)
After delay given cue, mostly inaccurate.
Memory schedule
Memories from different parts of life: Facts and Incidents
High correlation, high recall.
usually don't distort sequence, but may "telescope" compress time.

Cue-Word method
Give subject one word, describe memory to that word/date of memory/ detail. Exclude recency memories High recall for
Life scripts: Bersten and Rubin
Ask when happiest events happen:
Bump for happiest and important events. Saddest show recency effect.
Life Story view integrates...
Biological mechanisms, cognitive mechanisms, life scripts, self-narrative
Bump memories
More novel/distinct, more involved in identity, refer to transition periods, likely to occur when memory encoding is high
Individual life story hierarchy
overall story- broad themes (work, personal)- time periods(college, courting)- events- episodic memories (interview)- sensory perceptual info(weather
Cultural differences: Timing, Themes, content
US remembers less beginning memories,
US remembers more personal memories(specificity),
China better for factual content and social interactions

Amygdala vs Hippocampal damage
Amygdala damage does not show conditioning, factual learning still intact.
Hippocampal damage shows factual learning deficit but conditioning intact
Amygdala on Memory
Arousal and valence
valence is "tone" of emotion (+ or -) arousal is how high or low the emotion is.
Amygdala on Memory
States vs stimuli
Amygdala more involved in stimuli than states
Amygdala doesn't show focusing on "gist" information (ie focusing on a gun)
Amygdala patients memory bias
patients don't show bias to emotion, same memory for emotional and neutral pictures. Memory depends on grouping of information.
"remember same amt of items, but relative amts of neutral vs emotional"
Amygdala on Memory
Gist vs peripheral
Controls focus on gist details. At cost of unrelated peripheral details?
Patients would be good eyewitnesses bc no focus on gist.
Amygdala patient differences (timing, damage..)
Congenital disorder: amygdala loses fnct gradually, so can remember past emotions.
Amygdala resected: amygdala recesses bc amygdala connections still in place.
Don't seem to learn from negative experiences.

Brain structures for Gist and Peripheral
Amygdala Divisions and Connections
Involved in fear and other emotional conditioning. Procedural learning has direct connection from amygdala to striatum. Strong priming connection, stronger unconscious conditioning.
Cortisol short term effects
benefit encoding, consolidation and retrieval, but don't want too much. Too high emotion is bad
Cortisol short and long term effects
short term effects:benefit encoding, consolidation and retrieval, but don't want too much.
Long term: detrimental, neurotoxicity, damage to hippocampus from too active
Amygdala, emotion throughout the brain and body:
Mood-dependent effects
Mood-congruence effects

: state/context effects, match mood at encoding and retrieval, small effect for neutral material
:Easier to recall memories that match current emotional tone, biases search network.
Amygdala: what stage of memory is affected?
McGaugh: Consolidation
Labar: other stages too (encoding, retrieval)

Amygdala another route for deep processing?

Has dulling effect. Blocks adrenaline-related arousal effects.
PTSD prevention?
Amygdala and Hippocampus
Differences related to subsequent memory
Amygdala: high arousal shows difference in emotional between remember and forget.
Hippocampus: Large difference for remembered items for all pictures
Connections more flexible when reactivated.
Used for PTSD to recall memory as much as possible, separate emotional response
Brain regions for recollection vs familiarity
High remembering (recollection) in amygdala and HC
EC important for familiarity
Similarities between PM and RM
Attention and encoding
Competition and Interference
Cues and environmental support

Types of PM
Pulses: specific time, better remembered, judged as more important
Steps: broadly defined window, recalled occasionally throughout day

Focus more on pulses

Define focal and nonfocal
focal: actively processing/interacting with the cue
nonfocal: cue/link to PM is not the focus of attention (ATM)
Encoding PM: intention effects vs action effects
:greater in HC associations,make associations to cue
:greater in fusiform gyrus
How do we retrieve PM? theories
Monitoring hypothesis:
PAM predictions:

: demands on working memory, impairments on other tasks
: Better performance if can devote all attention/WM to PM task, leads to worse performance on other tasks even when PM target is not present, good WM=better at PM
PM: Retrieval and links to semantic memory
Scripts and schemas
Links to daily routine-remember to set alarm
Failures of PM
Intention maintained, window missed
Intention ___
Missed window expanded
substitute action
Partial execution
Accidental repitition
Retrieve intention but not action

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