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US History 4


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First Predident and Vice President
George Washington and John Adams
First nine amendments
specific guarantees of personal freedoms
Tenth amendment
reserved to teh states all those powers not specifically witheld or guarenteed to the federal government concession to those who feared the potential of central government to usurp the sovereignty of the individual states
Judiciary Act of 1789
provided for a supreme court, invested it with the power to rule on the constitutional validity of state laws
The departments of the executive branch
State, Treasury, and War
Jefferson, Hamilton, and Knox
Later called the Cabinet
Alexander Hamilton
proposed the funding of the national debt at face value, federal assumptions of state debts, and the establishment of a national bank.
Republican views of hamilton's economic plans
Saw program as enrighing a small elite group at the expense of the more worthy common citizen
Political parties of the early 1800s
Federalists and Republicans
favored a strong central government
"implied powers" the government was given all pwers that were not expressly denied to it. A broad interpretation

Strongest support from business and financial groups of Northeast and port cities of the South
any action not specifically stated in the constitution was prohibited "strict interpretation"

Stronger support in the rural and frontier areas of the South and West
Proclamation of Neutrality
When France went to war with Europe Washington's responce was this. Was not going to participate in the war but still supply to both people

Americans traded with both sides but more to France. Briish began Seizing american ships and forcing crew to be in the british navy
Citizen Genet
violated washingtons policy by trying to encourage popular support for the french government in the US.
John Jay's Treaty with Britain (1794)
Attempted to settle the conflict at sea. Worsened the conflict but senate accepted treaty as the best possible under the circumstances
Pinckney Treaty
Thomas Pinckney treaty with Spanish, Spanish opened the Mississippi River to teh American traffic and port city of New Orleans and recognising the 31st parallel as teh northern boundary of FL
Frontier Problems
British in Canada encouraged Indians to fight americans
General Anthony Wayne
defeated the Indians and teh Battle of Fallen Timbers resulting in the Treaty of Greenville, cleared the Ohio territory of Indian Tribes
Whiskey Rebellion (1794)
Western farmers refused to pay the tax on whiskey which formed the backbone of Hamiltons program. Group of Pennsylvania Farmers terrirized the tax collectors
Election of 1796
John Adams President (Federalist) Thomas Jefferson Vice President (Republican)
John Adams
too uncompromising to be an efective politician
XYZ Affair
three-man delegation sent to France, persuade the French to stop harassing American Shipping. Solicited for a bribe by three subordinates of teh French Minister. They refused and reports of this insulted Americans
XYZ affair, moved Adams to suspend all trade with French and american ship captains were authorized to attack and capture armed french vessles

Congress created a Department of the Navy

New French Government now under Napoleon signed a Peace Treaty
Alien and Sedition Acts
Alien Act raised new hurdles in the path of immigrants trying to obtain citizenship

Sedition Act widened teh powers of the Adams administration to muzzed the newspaper critics, many editors were jailed during this time
Kentucky and Virginia Resolves
They thought that the Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional, process of deciding on the constitutionality not know. Resolution to NULLIFY adopted in these two states
Election of 1800
Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr for Republican and John Adams and Charles Pinckney for Federalist. Same number of electoral votes. Alexander hamilton changed his vots to support Jefferson and Burr Vice
John Marshall
appointed cheif justice of the supreme court by adams
Thomas Jefferson's Vision of America
Nation of Independent small farmers living under central government that had minimum controll and served to protect individual rights
Pierre L'Enfant
designed the city of Washington
Marbury vs. Madison
Marbury a "midnight appointment" sued Madison to force delivery of his commission as a justice of peace in the federal district. Supreme Court ruler Marshall rufused to rule on request claiming the law which gave the cour jurisdiction over matters had exceeded the constitutional grant of powers
Impeachment episodes
Jefferson tried to impeach Federalist judges but efforts failed
Domestic Affairs under Jefferson
Enforcement of the Alien and Sedition Acts were suspended and people convicted were set free

Federal bureaucracy was reduced, expences cut, army reduced, expansion of the navy was cancelled

12th amendment adopted ensuring a tie vote between candidates of the same party could not happen again

Importatoin of slaves was stoped by law
Lewis and Clark
a group that left st. lewis and returned 2 years later. They explored the west and brought back scientific information
Essex Junto (1804)
New England Federalists thought western expansion as a threat. Tried to organize a secessionist movement. They got Aaron Burrs support by offering to back him in a bid for governorship in NY.

Burr lost election to Hamilton and there was a dule and Hamilton was shot
John Randolph and the Yazoo Claims
Rebublican opponents under leadership of Randolph called themselves the "Quids". Accused president of complicitly in the Yazoo Land controversy which had followed Georgia's cession of her western Lands to the federal government
Barbary War
Jefferson send naval force to Mediterranean to break up practice of the North African Muslim rulers of exacting tribute from Western Merchant Ships
Napoleonic Wars
Both Europe and France tried to prevent trade with their enemies by neutral powers

American ships were seized by both sides and American sailors were "impressed" into the British navy
Chesapeake-Leopard Affair (1807)
British ship Leopard stoped the US Chesapeake and four alleged British desserters were taken off, public cried for war but Jefferson remained neutral
Embargo of 1807
Jefferson's responce for the outcry of war drafted a law prohibiting american shipr from leaving port for any foreign destination and avoiding contact with other vessles, economic depression in the Northeast
Electoin of 1808
Republican James Madison

The embargo induced depression was a big issue
Non-intercourse Act
modified embargo which opened traded to all nations except France and Britain
Macon's Bill No. 2
when the non-intercourse act expired in 1810. Gave president power to prohibit trade with any nation when they violated neutrality
Shawnee chief Tecumseh
wanted to unite the mississippi valley tribes and reestablish indian dominance with brother prophet.

General William Henry Harrison destroyed his village at Tippecanoe Creek and dstroyed plan
War Hawks
led by Henry Clay and John Calhoun. Supported going to war and had control of both houses.
Admiral Oliver Hazard Perry
fleet of ships on lake eri and defeated british forces at Put-In-Bay and got controll of lake. Opened way for Harrison to invade canada
Burning of D.C.
British forces came down Lake Champlain and met defeat at NY. British armada sailed up Chesapeake and burned DC. Proceeded towrds Baltimore which guarded by Fort McHenry and the fort won.

Key's Star spangled Banner
Battle of New Orleans
Invasion force was sent there to close the mouth of the Mississippi River, Andrew Jackson defeated them with a forece of blacks and pirates and creoles
2 weeks later peace treaty has been signed
Treaty of Ghent
Treaty provided for the acceptance of the status qup at the beginning of hostilities and so both sides restored their wartime conquests to the other
Hartford Convention
Federalists became a minority party and the delegates from the New England States drafted a set of resolutions suggesting nullification and secession. If their intrests were not protected against the growing influence of the South and West

Ceased to be a political force from this point
Protective Tariff
1816 to slow the flood of cheap british manufactures into the country
Rush-Bagot Treaty
1817 between Britain and the United States to stop maintaining armed fleets on the great lakes
Jackson's Florida Invasion
Newly required areas of Western FL made Jackson want easter FL and he raised the american flag
Indian Policy
government began to systematically pressure indian tribes to cede their lands and accpet new homes west of the Mississippi
Barbary Wars 1815
Congress declared war on the Muslim states of Algiers, naval force under Stephen Decatur defeated the North African pirates and force them to pay indemnities for past tribute they had exacted from american ships. Gained the US free access to the Mediterranean
Adams-Onis Treaty
Spain sold remainder of FL territory and drew the Boundary of Mexico in exchange US agreed to assume $5 million in debts owed to merchants
Monroe Doctrine
National revolutions began in Latin America, colonial populations regused rul of Napoleonic governments. British and American leaders feared that new powers would try to restore former New World colonies to royal owners

Monore doctrine protected them
Internal development 1820-1830
Rapid economic and social development followed by a severe depression in 1819. Recovered and then moved rapidly towards industrilization "Era of Good Feelings" mood of people very positive
james Monroe 1817-1823
last of the "virginia dynasty"
Marbury vs. Madison 1803
Case established the precedent of the Surpreme Court's power to rule on the constitutionality of federal laws
Fletcher vs. Peck
Georgia legislature issued land grants in a shady deal with the Yazoo Land Company. repealed that action because of the corruption that had attened the origional grant. Court desided origional action by georiga had sonstituted a valid contract which could not be broken regardless of the corruption

First time a state law was voided on the grounds that it violated a principle of the constitution
Dartmouth College vs. Woodward
Quarrel between the presidents and trustees of New Hampshire college.

President tried to change Bartmouth from private to publilc by having charter revoked. Court ruled charter was a contract and could not be changed
McCullock vs. MD
MD tried to levy tax on Baltimore branch bank of the US. Declared that no state has the right to control an agency of federal government. violated implied poers
The Missouri Compromise
Missouri Territory first to be organized from the Louisiana purchase. Senate was already divided evenly between slave holding states and free states. Slavery already established in Missouri. Was able to be admitted as a slave state with the admission of Maine as a Free State. and probihited slavery in the remainder of the Louisiana territory north of the southern border of Missouri
The Cotton Kingdom
provided for ideal production of short staple cotton
New England and Chesapeake
Eastern Seaboard and Gulf Coast Ports
Fur Trade
John Astor "Mountain men"
Robert Fulton
National Road
completed in 1818 built with federal funds from cumberland to wheeling WV. liked potomac with ohio river. Also a network of privatly owned toll roads (turnpikes) built only for a few miles
Erie Canal
linked the Hudson River at Albany NY with the Lake Erie.
Rise of NYC
location and innovations in business practices made it a primary trade center. one innovation, packet boat, operated on a guaranteed schedule and helped to rationalize commerce both internally and internationally
Samuel Slater
built the first successful coton spinning mill in this country
Eli Whitney's
development of interchangable parts first used in firearms, mass priduction operations
limited liability and potential for faising large amounts of capital was the typical type of business
Lowell System
in New england factories they used young women from surrounding countryside. housed in dormitories in the mill towns. paid low wages for hard work under poor conditions. only worked for a short time "rotating labor supply"
First organized strike
1828 in Paterson NJ by child workers
Growth of Public schools
1815 no public shcools
they were primarly sponsored by private institutions-corporate academies and religious institutions. Women considered unfit for school
New York Free School rare example
Lancastrian System
older students tutored the younger ones to stretch the scarce budget
Higher Education
only professional training was theology, only needed one medical class to be a doctor
Washington Irving
Folk tales and local color stories
Mercy Otis Warren
Revolutionary pamphleteer
History of the Revolution
"Parson" Mason Weems
best-seller Life of Washington
Thomas Paine
The age of reason
Attacked the traditional christian valuse and was ready widely
Second Great Awakening
reaction to the trend toward rationalism, the decline in church membership, began in Cane Ridge, Kentucky

Women and Blacks took a major part in this

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