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The Presidency Terms


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Set term limits for the President of the United States.
22nd Amendment
Is a percentage determined by a polling which indicates the percentage of respondents to an opinion poll who approve of a particular person or program.
Approval ratings
Is a term that became popular in the 1960s and that served as the title of a 1973 volume by historian Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. to describe the modern presidency of the United States. A president that has emperor like powers. It is an idea.
Imperial presidency
Helps the president prepare the annual federal budget.
Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
"Faithless Electors" are members of the Electoral College who, for whatever reason, do not vote for their party's designated candidate.
Faithless electors
Another pharse for political patronage-that is, the practice of giving the fruits of a party's victory, such as jobs and contracts, to the loyal members of that party. The government practice of giving jobs to political supporters.
Spoils System
Denied the president the right to refuse to spend money approptiated by Congress and gave Congress a greater role int eh budget process.
Congressional Budget and Impoundment Act (1974)
A law that requires U.S. federal agencies to make their documents and records available to the public (unless information is specifically exempted from public release). This law guarantees that anyone, regardless of citizenship or affiliation, can access government agency information.
Freedom of Information Act (1966)
Established by the National Security Act of 1947; advises the president on matters of domestic and foreign national security.
National Security Council (NSC)
Individuals in Washington-located within interest groups, Congressional staff, think tanks, universites, and the medis-who regularly discuss and advocate public policies.
Issues network
Elects the president and vice president.
Electoral college
Limited th epresident's ability to use military force.
War Powers Act (1973)
A method of organizing a president's staff in which several presidential assistants report directly to the president.
Circular structure
Consists of the immediate staff of the President of the United States, as well as multiple levels of support staff reporting to the President.
Executive Office of the President
The Presidential "honeymoon" is the short period after a President is inaugurated when the opposition party refrains from attack, Congress is inclined to support some of the President's initiatives, and the President receives high public approval ratings. Within a month or two partisan attacks generally resume and the honeymoon period ends.
Presidential honeymoon
Unwritten powers
Inherent power
A political system in which all or most citizens participate directly by either holiding office or making policy.
Direct democracy
A politician who is still in office after having lost a reelection bid.
Lame duck
A claim by the preisent entitling him to withhold informationfrom the courts of Congress. In 1973, the Supreme Court ruled that such a claim is valid when sensitive military or diplomatic matters are involved, but it refused to recognize an "absolute unqualifed" presidential privilege of immunity.
Executive privilege
Prohibits government emplyees form engaging in political actitvities while on duty, running for office or seeking political funding while off duty, or if in sensitive positions, may not be involved with political activities on or off duty.
Hatch Act (1933 and 1993)
Agencies that members can be removed at any time.
Executive Agencies
A dictum that applies to the behavior of presidental assistants. The rule holds that power is wielded by people who are in the room when a decision is made. Thus members of the White House Office jockey for offices clsoe to that of the president.
Rule of propinquity
Legislative permission to begin or continue a government program or agency.
Authorization legislation
Was an interagency task force to reform the way the U.S. federal government works in the Clinton Administration.
National Performance Review
Is a directive issued by the President, the head of the executive branch of the federal government.
Executive orders
A political system in which leaders and representatives acquire political power by means of a competitive struggle for the people's vote.
Representative democracy
A government in which the same party controls both the White House and both houses of Congress.
Unified Government
Deemed that the line item veto act unconstitutional and the president has to either vote "pass" or "veto".
Clinton v. New York City (1998)
A method of orgainizing a president's staff in which most presidential assistants report through a hierarchy to the president's chief of staff.
Pyramid structure
When one party conrols the executive, and the other party controls on or both houses of Congress.
Divided government
Involves bringing charges of wrongdoing against a government official.
One of two ways for a president to disapprove a bill sent to him by Congress. If the president does not sign the bill within ten days of receiving it, and Congress has adjourned within that time, the bill does not become a law.
Veto message and Pocket veto
Establishes procedures both for filling a vacancy in the office of the Vice President as well as responding to Presidential disabilities.
25th Amendment
Holds office until th eSenate acts on his or her nomination.
Acting appointments
Is a derisive term for excessive regulation or rigid conformity to formal rules that is considered redundant or bureaucratic and hinders or prevents action or decision-making.
Red tape
This term stems from President Theodore Roosevelt's reference to the White House as a "bully pulpit," meaning a terrific platform from which to persuasively advocate an agenda. Roosevelt often used the word "bully" as an adjective meaning superb/wonderful.
Bully Pulpit
Passed after teh assassination of Garfield by a disappointed office-seeker; replaced the spoils system with a merit system as the basis for hiring and promotion.
Pendleton Act (1883)
A power possessed by most state governors, but not the president, to approve some provisions ina law and to disapprove of others. The president must accept or reject an entire bill.
Line-item veto
A method of organizing a president's staff in which several task forces, committees, and informal groups of friends and advisers deal directly with the president.
Ad hoc structure
Allows the Congress to levy an income tax without apportioning it among the States or basing it on Census results.
16th Amendment
is an independent agency of the United States government that manages the civil service of the federal government.
Office of Personnel Management
Is a United States federal law that protects federal whistleblowers, or persons who work for the government who report agency misconduct.
Whistle Blower Protection Act (1989)
Similar to departments but without cabinet status. Members serve for a fixed term.
Independent Agencies
Is a systematic way of organizing a complex and large administrative structure.
The Electoral College
12th Amendment
Nixion said that he did not have to answer to Congress. Executive privalage said no he had to turn over the tapes.
United States v. Nixon (1973)
Abolishes the U.S. Civil Service Commission and distributes its functions primarily among three agencies
Civil Service Reform Act of 1978
Requires federal agencies to integrate environmental values into their decision making processes by considering the environmental impacts of their proposed actions and reasonable alternatives to those actions.
National Environmental Policy Act (1969)
Informs president about economic developments and problems.
Council of Economic Advisers (CEA)
An economic theory that government should not regulate or interfere with commerce.
Laissez-faire economics
Is the support, encouragement, privilege and often financial aid that an organization bestows to another person or organization.
The rejection of a presidential or administrative agency action by a vote of one or both houses of Congress without the consent of the president.
Legislative veto
By custom, the cabinet includes the heads of the fourteen major excutive departments.
The government offices to which people are appointed on the gorouds of merit as ascertained by a written examination or by habing met certain selection criteria.
Competitive service
Establishes the line of succession to the office of President of the United States in the event that neither a President or Vice President is able to "discharge the powers and duties of the office."
Presidential Succession Act of 1947
The system of appointing and promoting civil service personnel on the basis of merit rather than political affiliation or loyalty.
Merit system
A legislative grant of money to finance a government program.
The ability of congressional committee to review and approve certain agency decisions in advance and without passing a law.
Committee clearance
The extent to which appointed bureacrats can choose courses of action and make policies that are not spelled out in advance by laws.
Discretionary authority
The view that an elected representative should represent the opinions of his or her constituents.
Delegate Model
The view that an elected representative should act on his or her own best judgement of what public policy requires.
Trustee approach
Impoundment is the refusal of presidents of the United States to spend money that has been appropriated by the United States Congress.

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