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American History I Final Exam Review

Terms from the American History I Final Exam Review.


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copy deck
executive branch
the part of the government that executes, or carries out laws
popular sovereignty
policy of letting the people in a territory decide whether slavery would be allowed there
manifest destiny
argrument that it was the undeniable fate of the US to expand across North America
Gadsden Purchase
1853 purchase by the US of southwestern lands from mexico
Lower South
states of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina
a low place in a mountain range that allowes travelers to cross over the other side
not taking sides in a conflict or dispute
a written plan of government
checks and balances
system in which each of the branches of the federal government can check the actions of the other branches
supporters of the constitution during the debate over its ratification; favored a strong national government
a presidents term in office, or the group of officials that makes up the executive branch, including the president
Virginia and Kentucky resolution
Resolutions passed in 1798 that attacked the Alien and Sedition Acts as being unconstitutional
Fort Sumter
Federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina; the confederate attack on the fort marked the start of the Civil War
strict construction
belief that the goavernment should not do anything that the constitution does not specifically say it can do
judicial branch
the part of the government that decides if laws have been broken
Missouri Compromise
1820 agreement calling for the admission of Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state, and outlawing slavery in future states to be created North of 36 30 N lattitude
approve or sanction
official swearing-in ceremony
Robert E. Lee
general of confederate forces during the civil war
spoils system
patronage system under president Andrew Jackson
Fugitive Slave Act
part of the compromise of 1850, a law ordering all citizens of the US to assist in the return of of escapeed slaves
domestic affairs
Issues relating to a country's internal matters
Trail of Tears
forced march of 15,000 Cherokee from their homes in the southeast to western reservations from 1837 to 1838
items seized from the enemy during wartime
to join or attach, as in the joining of a new territoy to an existing country
Tariff of 1828
A high tariff on imports that benefited the industrial North while forcing Southerners to pay higher prices on manufactured goods; called the "Tariff of Abominations" by south
federal system of government
a system in which power is shared among state and national authorities
list of items to accomplish
name given to the national paper
refraining from some activity, such as drinking
a policy of favoring native-born americans over immigrants
heads of the major departments of the US governement who advise the President
Three-Fifths Compromise
Compromise at the Constitutional Convention calling for three-fifths of a states slave population to be countd for the purposes of legislative representation
government run by the people through their elected representatives
Roger Taney
chief justice of the supreme court who wrote an opinion in the 1857 Dred Scott case that declared the Missouri compromise unconstitutional
Forced separation, often times by race
formally withdraw from a political organization; southern states seceded from the US to form the confederacy in late 1860 and early 1861
McCulloch vs. Maryland
"Bank of the US Case" A Maryland law required federally chartered banks to use only a specail paper to print money, which amounted to a tax. McCulloh, the cashier of the Baltimore branch of the bank, refused to use the paper, claiming that states could not tax the federal government. The court declared the Maryland Law unconstitutional.
custom arising from previous practice rather than a written law
area west of the appalacian mountans
Monroe Doctrine
policy of president James Monroe stating that the US would consider any European interference in the nations of the Americas as an unfriendly act
Confederate States of American
association of seven seceding southern states, formed in 1861
loose construction
belief that the government can do anything that the constitution does not prohibit
utopian community
small societies whose members seek perfect social and political conditions
temperance movement
campaign against alcohol consumption; began as part of the middle-class reform movements of the 1800s
to surrender officailly or unformaly
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
treaty signed in 1848 by the Us and Mexico, ending the mexico war
Texas War for Independence
successful revolt by texans against mexican rule in 1835-1836
John C. Fremont
He helped to defeat the Mexican army in california
departments that make up a large organization, such as the government
tax on foreign goods imported into a country
Battle of the Alamo
capture by mexican troops of a texas held mission in san antonio in 1836
group organized around a common interest and concerned only with furthering that interest
Gibboins vs. Ogden
This case examined the power of Congress to regulate interstate commerce.
John C. Calhoun
Senator of South Carolina that declared that the south would not give up its liberty to save the union
policy of forcing people into military or public service
mountain men
an american fur trader who explored the rocky mountains and regions farther west in the early 1800s
writ of habeas corpus
legal protection requiring that a court determine whether a person is lawfully imprisioned
Lewis and Clark expedition
journey by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark through the Louisiana territory from 1804-1806
Jefferson Davis
elected president of the confederate states of america; from mississippi
Dartmouth College vs. Woodward
Henry Clay
He proposed to congress the compromise of 1850; the senator of kentucky
Kansas-Nebraska Act
1854 law that called for the creation of these two new territories, and stated that the citizens in each territory should decide whether slavery would be allowed there
separation of power
the constitutional allotting of power within the federal government among the legislative, executive, a judicial branches
to prevent from becoming a law
Treaty of Ghent
agreement, signed in 1814, that ended the War of 1812
people who move their homes regulary usually in serach of available food sources
Underground Railroad
network of people who helped fugitives from slaverey excape into the north and canada
gag rule
rule passed in 1836 by southern representatives in congress that prevented antislavery petitions form being considered by the house for eight years
the freeing of enslaved people
Great Plains
vast grassland between the mississippi river and the rocky mountains
an extra sum of money that borrowers have to repay creditors in return for the loan
John Brown
An abolitionist that led the attack on the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry in Virginia
Abraham Lincoln
He opposed slavery on moral grounds in debates with Stephen Douglas; a republican; became 16th president of the US
legislative branch
the part of a government that makes the laws
Border states
in the civil war the states between the north and the south: delaware, mayland, kentucky, and missouri
gold or silver coin
abolitionist movement
Movement to end slavery
XYZ affair
incident of the late 1790s in which French secret agents demanded a bribe and a loan to France in lieu of negotiating a dispute over the Jay Treaty and other issues
an unreasonable, usually unfavorale opinion of another group
William Henry Seward
republican antislavery leader during the 1860s; acquired Alaska in 1867 as Secretary of State
to revise
Emancipation Proclamation
a presendential decree, by President Lincoln, effective Jan. 1, 1863, that freed slaves in Conferderate held territory
Alien and Sedition Acts
acts passed by federalists giving the government power to imprison or deport foreign citizens and prosecute critics of the government
Stephen Douglas
senator of illinios who introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854
Jay's Treaty
Treaty signed in 1794 between the US and bBritain in which Britain sought to improve trade relations and agreed to withdraw from forts in the northwest territory.
a states refusal to recognize or uphold a federal law
Compromise of 1850
agreement designed to ease tensions caused by the expansion of slavery into western territories
Upper South
designation used in the civil war encompassing the staes of virginia, north carolina, tennessee, arkansas
republican virtues
virtues the american people would need to govern themselves, such as self-reliance, industry, frugality, harmony, and the ability to sacrifice individual needs for the communtiy
opponents of the Constitution: opposed the concept of a strong central government
Indian Removal Act
1830 Law calling for the president to give Native Americans land in parts of the Louisiana Purchase in exchange for Land taken from them in the East.
Charles Sumner
Senator of Massachusetts who gave a powerful antislavery speech entitled ''The Crime Against Kansas'' in congress
a severe economic downturn marked by a decrease in business activity, widespread unemployment, and falling prices and wages
Louisiana Purchase
Purchase by the US of the Louisiana territoy form France in 1803
intellectual and philosophical movement of the mid-1800s esserting that the nature of reality can be learned only by intuition rather than through experience
Bill of Rights
first ten amendments to the constituion
person who wanted the south to secede
Battle of New Orleans
battle in 1815 between american and british troops for control of New Orleans, ending in an american victory
fort built in southwest by spanish
a ban or restriction on trade

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