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Political Science Final Exam


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The "standard model" of how judges should make decisions says that they ought to consider three sets of factors: the facts of a case, the applicable laws, and?
any applicable precedents
The view that judges should discern the general principles underlying laws or the Constitution and apply them to modern circumstances is called?
judicial activism
The term "senatorial courtesy" refers to?
presidents consulting senators before appointing judges
In lecture it was pointed out that the House and Senate are quite different from one another. An example of the difference is?
Senators have the right to filibuster; House members don't
The principle of stare decisis is important because?
it makes the law stable and predictable
The "Civil Rights Restoration Act" was an example of?
the working of the checks-and-balances system
A "clientele" department would be found in?
the "outer" cabinet
The process of judicial selection has become harsher and more partisan since the Senate's rejection of President Reagan's Supreme Court nominee?
Robert Bork
The term "rule making" describes?
the process OCR went through when interpreting Title IX
An order from the House Rules Committee that limits debate and forbids amendment fo a bill is called a?
closed rule
President Bush has used his signing statements mainly to?
influence the interpretation of legislation
Member of Congress use riders to?
get their pet projects passed
A parliamentary system is one in which?
the chief executive is picked by the legislature
Bureaucrats are expected to treat citizens "impersonally" because?
they are trying to avoid favoritism and discrimination
Representatives who always tries to vote the way their constituencies would like them to are called?
Which of the following presidents is an example of "the president as Samson?"
Gerald Ford
When committees of Congress do "oversight", they are?
watching the bureaucracy to be sure it follows Congress's intent
Rep. Nancy Pelosi of California wil soon become the top leader in the House when she assumes the tile of?
An appropriation is a bill in Congress that gives?
a grant of money to finance a program or agency
The account of retirement reform in Wasserman demonstrates the importance of?
an issue network
President Nixon rationale for refusing to turn over the Watergate tapes was based on?
his claim of executive privelege
The chair of a House committee is always
a member of the majority power
When a partisan realignment occurs?
the parties can better address the key issues of the day
A push poll is?
influence voters' decisions in a upcoming election
The fact that most U.S. elected officials are chosen from single-member districts in winner-take-all elections helps explain?
the fact that the U.S. has only two major political parties
A primary motivation behind the creation of the Electoral College as a mechanism for selecting the president was?
distrust of ordinary people
When Congress banned "soft money," the main effect was?
to force interest groups to find another way to fund campaigns
According to your text, when people participate in party politics or in an interest group as a result of "solidary" incentives, they are looking for?
social life
What is an example of a "public interest" orginization?
The League of Women Voters
"Structural" bias in the mass media results from?
the fact that media outlets are business
The "free rider" problem arises because?
it is not rational for individuals to contribute to public interest groups
An important part of the job of a "lobbyist" is?
to advise legislators what interest groups think about proposed law
Most delegates to national party conventions are now selected by?
voters in primaries
Which of the following is a position on a "valence" issue?
opposition to terrorism
If a canidate asks for votes on the basis of her successful record in public office, she is appealing to voters who are inclined to vote?
The argument that interest groups, taken as a whole, are representative of the opinions and interests of the whole population is usuall made by?
Some interest groups pursue goals that, if attained, will principally benefit people who are not members of the groups. These groups are called?
public interest groups
Since the 1970s, the public opinion on the issue of abortion has been?
moderate and stable
The reelection campaign of Rep. Dick Hayes, described in Wasserman, describd a congressional district that was?
safe for the incumbent Democrat
According to Wasserman, while the Democrats have had the advantage in registering new voters, Republicans have had the advantage in?
The "Harry and Louise" advertisements criticized?
President Clinton's health plan
Which kind of "bias" is most evident in media coverage of the Clinton-Lewinsky scandal?
anti-establishment bias
The most important early events for choosing the nominees for president are the New Hampshire primary and the?
Iowa caucuses
The social base of the Democratic party has for decades been rooted in the lower socio-econmic classes. This is a result of?
the realignment of the early 1930s, when the New Deal appealed to those hurting most in the depression
The case of Everson v. Board of Education established the doctrine of?
full seperation of church and state
An unfunded mandate is?
a federal law which states must carry out using their own money
The Electoral College is part of the Constitution's answer to which basic question about government?
Who governs?
In Grutter v. Bollinger the Supreme Court ruled that?
racial diversity can be a compelling state interest
Dividing power between the states and the national government is called?
The part of the Constitution that goes into the most detail in spelling out the powers of the national government is?
Article I-the Congress
Generally, the Antfederalists thought that the government created by the U.S. Constitution was?
too strong and centralized
According to Mr. Walcott, the most basic purpose of any Constitution is to?
place limits on the powers of government
In discussing the "culture wars", your text seperates Americans into two groups?
the orthodox and the progressive
"Selecting incorporation" means?
that federal rights have been applied to the states, but only one at a time
The "emergency power" used at the outset of the Civil War is an example of Constitutional change through?
presidential practice
When racial discrimination is the deliberate result of the law, we call it?
de jure discrimination
According to Madison in Federalist 10, a "faction" is?
a dangerous group that can either be a minority or a majority
Many of the constitutional amendments passed in the 20th century tended to fall into a pattern of?
extending democratic participation right to more people
The "Meal Deal" of 1790 described in Wasserman resulted in a compromise involving?
the location of the national capital
The No Child Left Behind program is discussed in Wasserman as an example of?
cooperative federalism
The Grutter and Gratz cases illustrate "judicial activism" in that?
the justices of the Court assumed the role of public policy makers
Speech Codes
potentially create a conflict of civil liberties vs. civil rights
In Federalist 51, Madison is primarily interested in defending?
separation of powers
The process of returning more of the responsiblities of governing from the national level to the state level is known as?
Madison and his fellow Federalists believed that the worst kind of tyranny was?
tyranny by a majority of people
Compared to people in other countries, Americans typically have a low degree of?
class conciousness
Majoritarian Politics
a policy in which almost everybody benefits and almost everybody pays
Interest Group Politics
a policy in which one group benefits and another small group pays
Client Politics
a policy in which one small group benefits and almost everybody pays
Entrepreneurial Politics
a policy in which almost everybody benefits and a small group pays the cost
Policy entrepreneurs
activists in or out of government who pull together a political majority on behalf of unorganized interests
Process Regulation
rules governing commercial activities designed to improve consumer, worker, or environmental conditions
Gross Domestic Product
the total of all goods and services produced in the economy during a given year
the belief that inflation occurs when too much money is chasing too few goods
the belief the government must manage the economy by spending more money in a recession and cutting spending when there is inflation
Economic Planning
the belief that government plans, such as wage and price controls or the direction of investment, can improve the economy
Supply-Side Theory
the belief that lower taxes and fewer regulations will stimulate the economy
the belief that a combination of monetarism, lower federal spending, and supply-side economics will stimulate the economy
Monetary Policy
managing the economy by altering the supply of money and interest rates
Fiscal Policy
managing the economy by the use of tax and spending laws
Budget Resolution
a congressional decision that states the maximum amount of money the government should spend
a claim for government funds that cannot be changed without violating the rights of the claimant
Insurance Program
a self-financing government program based on contributions that provide benefits to unemployed or retired persons
Assistance Program
a government program financed by general income taxes that provides benefits to poor citizens without requiring contribution from them
Means Test
an income qualification program that determines whether one is eligible for benefits under government programs reserved for lower-income groups
Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC)
a provision of a 1975 law that entitles working families with children to receive money from the government if their total income is below a certain level. The program was extended in the early 1990's
the belief that the U.S. should resist the expansion of aggressive nations, especially the former Soviet Union
the belief that the U.S.
was harmed by its war in Vietnam and so should avoid supposedly similar events
Miltary-Industrial Complex
an alleged alliance between miltary leaders and corporate leaders
Cost Overruns
when the money actually paid to military suppliers exceeds the estimated costs
Gold Plating
the tendency of Pentagon officials to ask weapons contractors to meet excessively high requirements
Environmental Impact Statement
a report required by federal law that assesses the possible effect of a project on the environment if the project is funded in whole or part by federal funds
Command-and-Control Strategy
a strategy to improve air and water quality, involving the setting of detailed pollution standards and rules

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