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AP Bio Ch34-Vertebrate phyla and terms


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notochord, dorsal hollow nerve chord, pharyngeal slits, postanal tail
flexible rod b/t digestive tube and nerve cord, provides skeletal support, nucleus propulsus is only remain in human
nerve chord
dorsal, hollow, develops from ectoderm, develops into central nervous system
pharyngeal slits
in the pharynx, just posterior to mouth, have become modified for gas exchange, jaw support, and hearing
postanal tail
digestive tract stops short of a muscular tail, used for locomotion in marine species
Subphylum Urochordata
1.tunicates form is sessile and has no characteristics of chordates except slits
3.larval form has all characterisctics, undergoes metamorphosis and loses 3
Subphylum Cephalochardata
2.borrow in sand
3.all 4 characteristic in simplest form
1.includes hagfish and vertebrates
2.cranium (skull)
3.elaboration of brain
4.paired sensory organs on head
5.neural crest cells
1.and animals w/ bones/cartilage skeletons
2.Vertebral column
3.Gnathostomes-jawed mouth animals (excludes lamprays)
hypothesis of the evolution of jaws
from skeletal rods that supported mouth, to large specialized jaws
Hagfish and Lamprays jaws
2.marine and freshwater (lampray only) paired appendages
4.cartilage skeletons
Class Chondrichthyes
Sharks and Rays
1.mostly cartilage skeleton fortified w/ mineralized granules and bony teeth
2.well developed jaws and paired fins
3.acute senses-lateral line system
4.internal fertilization, reproduce all three ways
lay eggs that hatch outside the mother's body
retain fertilized egg in oviduct, hatch in uterus
give live birth, placental nourishment
bony fish
1.swim bladder-lung derivitve, allows fish to stay suspended w/o movement
2.lateral line
3.subdivided by fins: ray finned, lobe finned (coelocanth), lung fish
4.external fertilization, eggs lack shells
Class Amphibia
Salamanders, frogs, caecilians
1.dual life of frogs-tadpole in water, adult on land, reproduce in water
2.eggs lack shells, external fertilization
3.decline in population-maybe due to global warming and a fungus in stomachs
have 4 extraembryonic membranes, answer to reproduction on land (internally), replitian heritage evident in all classes
Classical model of classification of amniotes
mammals in class mammalia
reptiles in class reptilia
birds in class aves
Lumpers model of classification of amniotes
mammals in class mammalia
birds and reptiles in class reptilia
Splitters model of classification of amniotes
mammals in class mammalia
each kind of reptile has own class
birds in class aves
3 accepted classes w/i group, turtles, lizards and snakes, crocs and alligators
1.ectotherms-cold blooded
2.extinct groups-dinosaurs(some endotherms), pterosaurs, and other marine reptiles
1.very closely related to reptiles, 'dinos w/ feathers'
3.flightless-underdeveloped wings or wings developed for swimming
4.flight-hollow bones, muscular, specialized feathers, airfoil wings
1.mammary lands-produce milk of keratin
4.efficiant respiratory and ciculatory sytems-4 chambered heart
5.internal fertilization
6.larger brains
7.jaws and ears
Evolution of mammalian jaws and ears
1.jaw became one bone, stronger
2. articular and quadrate of reptile skull became malleus and incus of mammalian ear
Platypuses and echidnas
1.oviparous-lay eggs
2.have hair and produce milk
3.found only in Australia and New Guinea
Opossums, kangaroos, bandicoots, koalas
1.born early in development
2.completes development while nursing in a pouch
3.most found in Australia, only opossum found in Americas
4.marsupials in Australia have filled eutherian niches
Eutherians (placental)
most variety of mammalian groups
1.long periods of pregnancy
2.viviparous-development completed in uterous, joined w/ mother by placenta
3.more closely related to marsupials than either group in to monotremes
Monkeys, lemurs, apes, humans
1.opposable thumb
2.binocular vision
3.Prosimions-lemurs, etc
4.Anthropoids-monkeys, apes, humans (closest related to chimps)
1.Hominoid-great apes and humans
2.Hominid-species closer to us than any other living species, extinct
3.Homo sapiens-modern humans
4.Brains size-has increased throughout evolution of humans
5.jaw shape-ancestors had prognathic jaws, longer; modern is shorter
6.bipedal posture/motion-key evolutionary steps
Multiregional hypothesis
Homo eructus evolved and dispered immediately, interbreeding led to Homo sapiens
"Out of Africa" hypothesis
Homo erectus evolved into sapiens, other branches went extinct. sapiens spread across globe from Africa

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