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The conversion of soluble fibrinogen into insoluble fibrin requires its enzymatic conversion directly by a substance known as
The left ventricle wall of the heart is thicker than the right wall in order to
pump blood with great pressure
Thrombopoietin is a hormone that
stimulates platelet formation
The term afterload term refers to?
The pressure that must be overcome before seminular valves can open.
Name the correct sequence of parts through wich blood flows from the vena cave to the lungs.
right atrium, triscupid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary valve, pulmonary artery.
the first heart sound is caused by
closure of the mitral and tricuspid valves.
The percentage of total blood volume occupied by RBC's is called
Formed elements that are biconcave discs about 78mm in diameter are called
The formed elements that are fragments of larger cells called megakyrocytes are
Production of histaminase is an important function of
On an ECG, depolarization of the ventricles is represented by the
QRS complex
Too few white blood cells is called
Agranular leukocytes that are phagocytic are the
The function of transferin is to
carry Iron ions in the blood stream
Dissolution of blood clot is called
The function of hemoglobin is to
carry oxygen
pluripotent stem cells produce
basophils, thrombocytes, neutrophils, & lymphocytes.
A vitamin important for blood clotting is
A clot in an unbroken vessel is called
The second heart sound is created by
closing of the seminular valves
The fossa ovalis is a prominent depression seen in the
interatrial septum
Type AB blood contains
neither antinody B or A
The most abundant of the leukocytes are the
When carbon dioxide is carried by RBC's, it is carried in part by
the amino acids in globin
Oxygen is transported by red blood cells by binding to
the iron ion in the heme portion of hemoglobin
red blood cells do not consume any of the oxygen they transported because they
do not have the cellular machinery for aerobic ATP production
The buffy coat of the centrifuged blood consists mainly of
white blood cells and platelets
the breakdown product of ring structure in heme is?
Sequence of parts that function to carry cardiac impulses is?
SA node, AV node, bundle of his, right and left bundle branches, purkinje fibers.
The AV valves open when
when the ventricular pressure falls below atrial pressure
Once ventricular pressure falls below artrial pressure
AV valves open and the ventricles begin to fill
The primary organs whose macrophages are responsible for phagocytizing worn-out red blood cells are
Spleen and Liver
The biscupid valve is located in the
left atrium and the left ventricle
Stimuation of the heart by autonomic neve fibers traveling with the vagus nerve causes
Decreased heart rate and decreased ventricular contractility
A floating blood clot is called an
The purpose of giving RhoGAm to woman who have just delivered a child or who have had a miscarriege or abortion is to
Block any recognition to any red blood cells by the mothers immune system
On ECG, depolarization of the atria is represented by the
P wave
Blood flows from the superior vena cava into the
right atrium
Cardiac output
Growth factors that regulate teh differentiation and profileration of red blood cells are called
Type A blood has an antibody called
Destruction od red blood cells results in
A person's ABO blood type is determined by antigens present in the
THe atrioventricular valves close when the
ventricles contract
Blood flows into the coronary arteries from the
Ascending aorta
Type O is considered to be the theoretical universal
Donor because ther are no A or B antigens on RBC's
Th efunction of intercalated discs is to
Provide a mechanism for rapid conduction of action potentials among myofibers
the layer of the heart wall responsible for its pumping action is the
the role of the papillary muscles is to
Tighten the chordae tendineae by contracting during ventricular systole
Which blood type is called the universal donor
The frank sterling law of the heart stated that
Cardiac output equals heart rate times stroke volume
Inflammed tissues attract phagocytes by a phenomenom called
Erythropoietin is synthesized by the
the symptoms of hemolytic disease of the newborn occur because
Anti-R antibodies produced by the mother pass the placenta into the bloodstream of the fetus
The function of the chordea tendineae is to
prevent eversion of the AV valves during ventricular systole
Red blood cells do not consume any of the oxygen they transport because
They do not have the cellular machinery for aerobic ATP production
Oxygen is transported by the red blood cells by binding to?
the iron in the heme portion of the hemoglobin
When carbon dioxide is carried by the red blood cells it is carried in part by?
The amino acids in globin
Which component of bile aids in fat digestion?
Bile salts
Which of the following enzyme is produced by the brush border in the small intestine?
True or False? CCK promotes bile release from the gall bladder.
The function of the gallbladder
stores and concentrates bile
Which of the following peritoneal membranes anchor the small intestine to the posterior abdominal walls?
True or False? Activation of the parasympathetic nervous system inhibits motility of the digestive tract.
Which of the following cells in the stomach produce HCl?
Parietal Cells
Which of the following enzymes digests proteins?
Which of the following functions is true for Secretin?
Increases bile production by the liver
The folds within the small intestine that increase the surface area for absorption are
Name the correct tubing order of food movement
ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum
During swallowing the nasal cavity is closed off by the soft palate and the
most absorption of nutrients occurs where?
small intestine
What is gluconeogenesis? It is concerned with the.....
ability of the liver to form glucose from non-carbohydrate substances
What molecule enters lacteals of the villi
increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system will?
decrease production of digestive juices
the appendix is attached to the?
which molecule is transported into blood vessels within the villi?
glucose and amino acids
Enzymes of the Krebs cycle and electron transport chain are located in the
The stomach primarly digests
The enzyme in the inner mitochondrial membrane that carries electrons from NADH and FADH2 are:
cytochrome oxidase
Lactic acid is produced as a result of the chemical conversion of the?
pyruvic acid
Which of the fallowing could be anaerobic? a)lipolysis b)respiration c)glycolysis d)electron transport chain e)Krebs cycle
Starting with the oropharnyx name the correct tubing which food fallows when swallowed....
oropharynx, laryngopharynx, esophagus, stomach, pyloric valve
CCK promotes bile release from the gall bladder. True or False?
The gallbladder does what?
stores and concentrates bile
Which peritoneal membranes anchor the small intestine to the posterior abdominal walls?
Activation of the parasympathetic nervous system inhibits motility of the digestive tract. True or false?
Which cells in the stomach produce HCl?
Parietal Cells
Which enzyme digests proteins?
Secretin function is to?
Increases bile production by the liver
The folds within the small intestine that increase the surface area for absorption is?
Which vitamin helps in the process of blood clotting?
What is not considered a nutrient?
Nucleic acids
Which reactions occur in the mitochondria?
Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Chain
Which lipoproteins contain dietary or exogenous fats?
How many ATPs are generated per glucose (that is for 2 acetyl CoA) by oxidative phosphorylation during the Krebs cycle? Also include the Preparatory/Intermediate step.
What is the net production of ATP by substrate level phosphorylation during glycolysis?
The process of synthesis of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources is called
Which are catabolized by the process of beta oxidation?
Fatty acids
The buffy coat of centrifuged blood consists mainly of
white blood cells and platelets.
The total blood volume occupied by RBCs is called the
Define Spirometry.
it is a machine that measures the air flow in and out of the lung.
When red blood cells wear out, the iron is saved and the remainder of the hemoglobin is
excreted as bile pigments.
The major stimulus for secretion for secretin is?
enty of acid chyme into the small intestine
Pyruvate is converted into_________before it enters Krebs Cycle
acetyl CoA
Glycogenesis is?
The process of glycogen formation
In the electron transport chain, ATP is produced when?
Hydrogen ions move back into the matrix via ATP sysnthesis
Specific disaccharides are hydrolyzed by enzyme found in
intestinal juice
The intestinal enzyme that functions to digest fat is
Beta oxidation is the process by which .....
fatty acids are broken down for use in the Krebs Cycle.
The chemical reactions catalyzed bytrypsin and chymotrypsin would result in the production of
The function of secretin is
it stimulates secretion of pancreatic juice rich in bicarbonate
The function of CCK is
CCk promotes secretion of pancreatic juice rich in digestive enzymes
What occurs during the cephalic phase of gastric digestion?
sight, smell, thought, or taste of food triggers parasympathetic impulses
The pyloric spinchter is located at the junction of the
stomach and duodenum
Gastric emptying is stimulated by
The small intestine is attached to the posterior aabdominal wall by a fold of the peritoneum called the
What would be called an accessory organ for the digestive system
Cholesterol is carried to tissue cells by
low-density lipoproteins
Which process requires OXYGEN?
electron transport chain
The function of BILE is
to emulsify fats
The folds of gastric mucosa are called what?
What hormone is produced by what cells of the pyloric portion of the stomach
What enzyme has the lowest pH
gastric juice
The regular contractions of the muscularis that push food through the entire gastrointestinal tract are known as
The end products of the complete aerobic oxidation of glucose are
carbon dioxide, water and energy
What is the function of Kupffer cells in the liver?
they clean out macrophages
Where will blood flow next from the left ventricle?
What blood vessels supplies blood to the heart?
Anterior interventricular artery
What returns deoxygenated blood from the cardiac muscles to the right atrium?
Coronary sinus
True or False Cardiac muscle is the only unstriated muscle with intercalated discs.
True or False Pulmonary arteries carry blood from the left ventricle to the lungs.
What blood vessel pumps blood into the systemic circulation?
What blood vessel carry blood from the heart to the lungs for oxygenation?
Pulmonary artery
Which valve separates the right atrium from the right ventricle?
Tricuspid valve
Which blood vessel returns blood to the right atrium?
Inferior vena cava
Valves are present in the
The diameter of blood vessels most directly affects
An increase in venous return most directly affects
stroke volume.
The cardiovascular center is located in the
medulla oblongata.
The vasomotor region of the cardiovascular center directly controls
peripheral resistance by changing the diameter of blood vessels.
The function of baroreceptors is to monitor changes in
blood pressure.
"ACE inhibitors" work as antihypertensive drugs by
decreasing angiotensin II formation.
The layer of a blood vessel wall that determines the diameter of the lumen is the
tunica media.
The tunica interna of a blood vessel is made of
The viscosity of blood most directly affects
systemic vascular resistance.
A chemical that is produced by virus-infected cells and released to provide nonspecific antiviral protection to neighboring cells is
Antibodies are
gamma globulin glycoproteins.
Antibodies are produced by
plasma cells
As part of the processing of exogenous antigens, an antigen-presenting cell digests an antigen into fragments and also synthesizes and packages
MHC II antigens.
B cells proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells in the
germinal centers of lymph nodes.
Cytotoxic T cells recognize antigens combined with
MHC-I antigens.
The cisterna chyli is
a dilation at the beginning of the thoracic duct.
The immunoglobulin class of an antibody molecule is determined by the
structure of the constant region of the H chains.
The process of coating an antigenic microbe with antibodies to make it more susceptible to phagocytosis is called
Which is considered to be a primary lymphatic organ?
red bone marrow
Although air contains about 79% nitrogen, very little of it dissolves in blood plasma because of its low solubility coefficient. This is an example of
Henrys Law
As blood enters the systemic capillaries what happens?
pO2 is high in the blood and low in the tissues
During internal and external respiration gases move by
If air enters the pleural cavity it is known as
The volume of air still remaining in his lungs is called
residual volume
Mr. Jones developed acidosis or a fever, you would expect the oxygen hemoglobin dissociation curve to
shift to the right, causing more oxygen to be released to his cells
Surfactant aids in what?
reduces the surface tension in alveoli
The amount of oxygen released by the hemoglobin molecules in the blood to the tissues
increases as blood pH decreases(acidity increases)
The term pulmonary ventilation refers to
Which of the following factors keeps the lungs from collapsing
negative intrapleural pressure
An increase in the permeability of the cells of the collecting tubule to water is due to
an increase in the production of ADH
The kidneys are stimulated to produce renin
by a decrease in the blood pressure.
The descending limb of the loop of Henle
contains fluid that becomes more concentrated as it moves down into the medulla.
The renal corpuscle is made up of
Bowman's capsule and glomerulus
The juxtaglomerular apparatus is responsible for
regulating the rate of filtrate formation and controlling systemic blood pressure.
The chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood across the filtration membrane is
glomerular hydrostatic pressure (glomerular blood pressure).
The filtration membrane includes all but
renal fascia
Which is not reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule?
What would happen if the capsular hydrostatic pressure were increased above normal?
Net filtration would decrease
Reabsorption of high levels of glucose and amino acids in the filtrate is accomplished by
secondary active transport
Extracellular fluids are
high in sodium and low in potassium.
The cation that is necessary for generation and conduction of action potentials and that contributes nearly half of the osmotic pressure of extracellular fluid is
sodium ion.
Levels of sodium ions in the extracellular fluid are regulated primarily by
The primary intracellular ions are
potassium and phosphate ions and protein anions.
Hemoglobin picks up a hydrogen ion when
it releases oxygen to tissues.
What cannot help protect against pH changes caused by respiratory problems in which there is an excess or shortage of carbon dioxide?
bicarbonate ion/carbonic acid buffers
Holding your breath for an extended period of time results in
respiratory acidosis.
In compensating for respiratory alkalosis, the body excretes more
bicarbonate ions.
Hydrogen ions are normally eliminated from the body
by excretion in urine.
In compensating for metabolic acidosis, the body
increases respiratory rate.
The cremaster muscles
elevate the testes during sexual arousal and exposure to cold.
Testosterone is produced by
interstitial cells.
Leydig cells are located
in spaces between adjacent seminiferous tubules.
Sperm production in the male requires a scrotal temperature that is
lower than body temperature.
The process of crossing-over, or recombination, of genes occurs during
meiosis I.
Which of the following cells are diploid?
primary spermatocytes
What are veins?
tehy carry blood from tissues back to the heart.
The acrosome of a sperm cell contains
hyaluronidase for egg penetration.
A function of FSH in the male is to
initiate spermatogenesis.
The glycoprotein layer between the oocyte and the granulosa cells of an ovarian follicle is called the
zona pellucida.
During the menstrual cycle, LH is at its highest levels
just prior to ovulation.
What happens in the Atrial Systole
1.the atria are contracting(systole) while the ventricles are relaxing(diastole) 2.during this phase AV valves are open allowing for blood to fill the ventricles but at the same time the semilunar valves are closed.
what happens in the Pwave?
Depolarization of the SA node causes atrial depolarization
What happens in the QRS complex
Ventricular depolarization
Ventricular systole
1.the ventricles are contracting while the atria are relaxing(diastole) 2.This marks the beginning of the T wave.
Name the sequence of exitation.
SA node AV node Atrioventricular (bundle of his) bundle branches (interventricular septum) purkinje Fibers
What is the diacrotic wave
is the amt of blood that bounces back due to the AV valve when is closed.
what is erythropoietin
promotes an increase in RBC's
what is Thrombopoietin
it stimulates the formation of platelets
What is Cytokines?
they stimulate the production of WBC's
Ions that change the heart rate:
Ca++ Na+
What are Ateries?
they carry blood from the heart to the tissues
What are capillaries?
they are microscopic blood vessels where exchange and substances takes place between the blood and body tissues
What are Arterioles?
they are smaller divisions of arteries that connect to capillaries
What are venules?
they connect capillaries to larger veins.
What are the 3 layers of Arteries?
1. Tunica intima 2. Tunica media 3. Tunica externa
Where are sinusoids usually found?
In the bone marrow, and liver
Where is the the steepest blood pressure occuring?
Within the the arterioles. Aterioles have the most resistence to blood flow.
What are valves?
they assist in pushing blood toward the heart(right atrium)
What is another name for FSH and LH?
gonadotropins (Gn)
What effects does FSH have on females?
1. Initiate development of ovarian follicles(primary follicle to mature to a Graafian follicle) 2. Stimulates follicular cells (this is what sorrounds the oocyte) to secrete ESTROGENS
What effect does FSH have in males?
Stimulate sperm production by the testis(by acting on the Sertoli)
What effects does LH have on females?
1. triggers ovulation 2. stimulates formation of corpus luteum 3. stimulates SECRETION of Progesterone by Corpus Luteum (this primes uterus for implanatation) 4. stimulates RELEASE of Estrogen from the follicular cells.
What effects does LH have on males?
Stimulates TESTOSTERONE release by the LEYDIG or INTERSTITIAL cells.
What are the functions of the hormone ADH?
1. conserves body water by decreasing urine output. 2. Decreases water loss by perspiration 3. INCREASE BP by constricting ARTERIOLES.
The hormone of ANDROGENS does what to females and males?
it developes secondary characteristics for example: axillary and pubic hair
Does epinephrine decrease or increase BP?
What efects Primary or essential Hypertension? (factors of BP)
diet, obesity, age , race, heredity, stress and smoking.
What is Secondary Hypertension? (factors that contribute to)
due to undentifiable disorders- excissive renin secretion or endocrine disorders.
WHat is lymph?
is similar to the interstitial fluid that sorrounds the cells.
What are the 3 functions of the Lymphatic System?
1. drains excess interstitial fluid and returns it to the blood. 2. transports dietary fats and vitamins(fat soluble) 3. Defense responses against diseases.
What is an ACTIVE (naturally aquired immunity)?
Infection contact with pathogen
what is a PASSIVE (naturally aquired) immunity?
Antibodies passed on from mother to fetus via placenta or to her infant by her breast milk.
What is an ACTIVE (artificially aquired) immunity?
Vaccine, dead or cripled pathogens
What is a PASSIVE (artificially aquired) immunity?
Injection of the immune serum (anti venom, snake venom)
What is the Daltons Law?
that each gas in a mixture exerts it own pressure as if no other gases are present.
What is Henrys Law?
The amount of gas dissolved in a liquid depends on its partial pressure and the solubility of the gas.
What is the function of the PULMONARY Ventilation?
this is the process in which there is a gas exchange between the atmosphere and lung alveoli
What is External Ventilation?
this consists of gas exchange of gasses between alveoli and the pulmonary blood vessels.
What is the transport of gases?
this is done by via of blood to the body cells, this is a function of the cardiovascular system
What is Internal Respiration?
this is the exchange of gases between blood and tissues.
Angiotensin II affects urinary out put in what way?
It is apotent vasoconstrictor and constricts both the afferent and efferent arteriole thus decreasing Glomerular Filtration Rate. (GFR)
The hormone ANP affects urinary out put in what way?
This causes relaxation of the mesangial cells in the glomerulus thus increasing the capilalry surface area for filtration and thus increasing Glomerular Filtration rate. (GFR)
What effects does ADH have in the concentration of urine? (overhydrated--> low ADH)
The low levels of ADH results in very low water absorption in the collecting duct and the DCT, resulting in an even more dilute urine production
What affects does ADH have in a person that is dehydrated?
The release of the hormone ADH would be released in order to conserve more water.
What fluid makes up to 60% volume of semen?
Seminal fluid
Define Semenogelin
it coagulates semen after ejacultion
Define Prostaglandins
it contributes to sperm motility and viability
The seminal vesicles secrete an alkaline, viscous fluid that contains what?
prostaglandins, and clotting proteins
Name the 3 accessory glands in the male.
seminal vesicle, prostate gland and bulbourethral or Cowper's gland
Citric Acid and Fructose is used by sperm but why?
It is used for ATP production by the sperms
The bulbourethral (Cowpers) glands secrete what?
lubrication and an alkaline substance that neutralizes acid
The prostate gland secretes
a milky, slightly acidic fluid
What occurs in meiosis for males and females?
Oogenesis -females spermatogenesis -males
what is the stratum functionalis
this is shed during menstruation
what is stratum basalis
gives rise to a new stratum functionalis after each menstruation
Postovulatory or secretory phase is?
the time between ovulation and onset of the next menstrual period.
Ovulation is?
the rupture of the vesicular ovarian (Graafian) follicle with release of the secondary oocyte into the pelvic cavity
Preovulatory phase, or proliferative phase is?
is the time between menstruation and ovulation
Menstrual cycle occurs when?
1. small secondary follicles in each ovary begin to develop 2.the stratum functionalis layer of the endometrium is shed, discharging blood, tissue fluid, mucus, and epithelial cells

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