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I/O 2


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What is the 2 purposes of personnel psychology?
- matching workers to jobs
- helping employers effectively use employees
What does a job analysis analyze?
- job description
- personnel specification
What are the 2 purposes of the performance evaluation?
- determine raises & worth of the job
What are the 4 biases that affect subjective criterion measures?
What is the best way to reduce rater bias?
- halo effect
- central tendency
- leniency
- strictness
- training
When selecting personnel what does a company want?
low selection ratio & a moderate base rate
What is the validity of the following selection methods: cognitive tests, biodata, interviews, work samples, & interest tests? Name what they're valid for...
- cognitive tests are most predictive of job performance
- biodata are highly predictive of turnovers
- interviews are commonly used but subject to bias
- work samples are valid particularly as a preview to the job so decreases turnover
- interest tests are not predictive of work performance but used to predict job satisfaction
What are the Big 5 personality traits (mnemonic CANOE)?
How where they identified?
Which one is most linked w/job performance?
- conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, extroversion
- factor analysis of dictionary (lexical approach)
- conscientiousness
What are two aspects of adverse impact?
What rule is used to determine adverse impact?
- differential validity & unfairness
- 80% rule(if selection rate of minorities is less than 80% of the majority group)
What is BARS?
What does it improve?
What is a negative of using BARS?
- workers are rated on whether they demonstrate certain critical incidents of the job
- rater accuracy
- limited to job created for
What is the name of a type of training used to reduce rater bias?
- frame of reference training
In personnel selection, an applicant needs to have what 4 things (KSAP)?
- knowledge, skills, abilities, & personal characteristics
What type of employees are assessed by an assessment center?
administrators & managers
Of the following 3 techniques used to combine personnel selection predictors (muliple regression, multiple cutoff, or multiple hurdle), which one is a compensatory technique?
multiple regression
What is vestibule training?
Who is it least effective for?
-on site simulation job training
Aptitude and achievement tests can both be considered what...
ability tests
Hollands theory talks about? Holland's 6 personality types in order are (mnemonic RIASEC)?
Holland's concept of congruence means?
- occupational environment in which the person would be most satisfied & productive
- realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, conventional
- there needs to be a fit between personality type & occupational environment
What did Roe's field and levels theory state?
parenting orientation -> child personality -> occupational outcome
What did Super's career theory state?
Super stated job choice, job satisfaction, & life satisfaction are predicated by?
What did Super state dictates mastery w/in each stage?
What type of figure did Super use to illustrate his theor
- career development occurs in 5 developmental stages
- self concept
- career maturity
- life career rainbow
What was Tiedemon & Ohare's decision making theory?
application of Erikson's theory to career choice
What does scientific management state will motivate workers?
extrinsic rewards
What does the human relations approach state will motivate workers?
What study supported the human relations approach?
- social factors
- hawthorne effect
what is theory z?
a management philosophy that combines american & japanese philosophies
Name 3 types of leaders identified in early research by Lewin?
Which one is associated w/worker satisfaction?
Which one is associated w/ productivity?
- autocratic, democratic, laissez-faire
- democratic
- autocratic
Has a particular personality trait/set of traits been found among good vs. bad leaders?
What 2 things does Fielder's contingency (LPC) theory state?
-the most effective leaders have a leadership style that matches the demands of the situation
- a leader who favors their least preferred coworker (LPC) is most effective in a moderately favorable situations
What did Hershey & Blanchard's situational leadership model state?
optimal leader style dependent on job maturity of the workers
How is transformational and transactional leaders different?
transformational focused on change and higher ideals; transactional focused on stability and rewards/ punishers
Vroom & Yetton's Normative model dealt with...
how included workers are in the decision making process
What is a Quality circle?
What is it's effect?
- an intervention that redesigns jobs to increase organizational effectiveness
- temporary improvement of motivation & productivity
In what 2 ways do organizational surveys improve organizational effectiveness?
- increase awareness
- give employees sense of influencing the organization
What is the purpose of process consultation?
help team members improve their interpersonal interactions
When is a centralized organization most effective and when is a decentralized organization most effective?
- centralized - when task is simple
- decentralized - when task is complex
What is rational-economic decision making?
What is administrative decision making?
- rational economic= searching for solutions & weighing alternatives
- administrative= selecting first minimally acceptable solution
What 2 things does the loss aversion research show?
- people are adverse to loss
- people will take more risk to avoid loss
What 3 things does the research on women find?
- women & men do not differ in leadership style
- physical attractiveness decreases ratings for women
- women rated lower when use leadership styles that are stereotypically male styles
What is comparable worth?
men & women should get equal pay for jobs of equivalent worth
Does Maslow's hierarchy of needs apply to workplace settings?
What is McClelland's need for achievement theory most related to?
entrepreneurial success
In Herzberg's two factor theory what decreases dissatisfaction? what increases satisfaction?
- decreases dissatisfaction= increase in lower level needs
- increases satisfaction= increase in motivator factors
Increases in skill variety, task significance, autonomy, and feedback results in ...
increase in job satisfaction & work quality
In expectancy theory what are expectancy beliefs, instrumentality beliefs, and valence?
-expectancy beliefs= effort -> successful performance
-instrumentality beliefs= successful performance-> certain outcomes
-valence= certain outcomes are desirable
Deci's model of instrinsic motivation states that...
when extrinsic rewards are given person believes their behavior is motivated by external, so if external taken away then person no longer motivated
How is increased job satisfaction related to age, status, turnover/ absenteeism, & health?
-increase satisfaction as we age
-increase satisfaction as status increases
-increase satisfaction cause lower absenteeism & turnover
-increase satisfaction related to better health
How are people and machines different?
people flexible and better w/inductive (able to generalize)
machines consistent and better w/deductive
what causes most stress for psychotherapists?
lack of therapeutic success
what percentage of accidents is due to human error?
what 2 things in safety campaigns will increase their effectiveness?
- provide incentives
- use positive programs
Locke stated that the goal of behavior is to...
serve as motivation and direct behavior

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