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cmn 105 midterm 2 questions part 2

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1)According to Dr. Maier's rat study, how do rates react to "insoluble problems"? How does Hayakawa apply this study to human beings?
-signal-reaction: rat has intentional orientation
1)What is "dead-level" abstracting and why is it problematic? Why does using all levels of the abstraction ladder improve writing, speaking, thinking, and sanity?
-dead level abstracting: remain more or less permanently stuck at certain levels of the abstraction ladder, some on the lover levels, some one the very high levels"
1)What is an intensional orientation and what creates it?
-reliance upon a non-concrete world and based on our own thoughts, -definitions that go down the abstraction ladder are more helpful than those that go up the abstraction ladder cuz it doesn't really define red wavelengths, -intensional orientation: habit of guiding ourselves by words alone, rather than by the facts to which words should guide us assumptions
1)What are the challenges of the modern day poet?
-not sound too esoteric/obscure, not too weird, or like a jingle
1)What is the "abstraction ladder" and what does it explain about language usage?
-doesn't include pronunciation, spelling, vocab, and grammar, -the study of language begins properly with a study of what language is about, -once we begin to concern ourselves with what language is about, we are at once thrown into a consideration of how the human nervous system works
1)What are some of the consequences of having a two-valued orientation and multi-valued orientation?
-two valued is not an accurate way of thinking; based on single interest, -multi-valued: intelligent in public discussion; for weighing the various and complicated desires that civilization gives rise to, a finely graduated scale of values is necessary,
1)What is Hayakawa's recommendation for following a systematic application of a multi-valued orientation and what are they likely results of doing so?
-assume that statement has truth value between 0-100%
1)What is the process of classification and what purpose does it serve?
-lumping things together based on similarities, -we call things and where we draw the line between one class of things and another depend upon the interests we have and the purposes of the classification,
1)What are the qualities of an open and closed mind?
-open mind: 1) accept the speaker but reject the statement 2) reject the speaker but accept the statement, -closed mind: 1) accept the speaker and accept the statement 2) reject the speaker and reject the statement finds life threatening
1)What does Hayakawa mean: "The little man who isn't there"?
-when we see people in a prejudice light/2-valued way thinking of similarities of a class
1)What are the ways in which we live in a "delusional world"?
-clinging to bad/obsolete maps, -confuse words and symbols are same thing, -we can never "think straight" cuz we are "blinded by prejudice"
1)According to the text, what is the nature of prejudice?
Ex) "John is a criminal"- you think now that he's a criminal! You immediately and unconsciously climb to higher levels of abstraction than a man who just "spent 3 years in jail"
1)What do advertisers and "poet laureates" have in common?
-poet laureate: court poet who has the task of complimenting his king, -advertisers and laureates similar in that of giving expression to a nation's ideals and sentiments on an important public occasion, -both sponsored
1)What does the "poeticizing of consumer goods" mean?
-open mind: confuse message and speaker, -poet must invest it with significance so that it becomes symbolic of something beyond itself

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