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unit 3 cultural patterns and processes vocab

Terms

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diaspora
the dispersion of the Jews outside Israel, the dispersion or spreading of something that was originally localized (as a people or language or culture)
cultural determinism
Cultural determinism is the belief that the culture in which we are raised determines who we are at emotional and behavioral levels. This supports the theory that environmental influences dominate who we are instead of biologically inherited traits.
cultural imperialism
spread or advance of one culture at the expense of others or imposition on other cultures which it modifies, replaces, or destroys.
Gaia Hypothesis
Life controls the environment for the continuation of life
ethnic religion
a religion identified with a particular ethnic group and largely exclusive to it
cultural region
is an area with common knowledge, attitudes, behaviors.
folk culture
the body of institutions, customs, dress, artifacts, collective, wisdoms, and traditions of a homogeneous isolated, largely self-sufficient, and relatively static social group
contact conversion
The Spread of Religious Beliefs by Personal Contact
pidgin language
A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca, used for communications among speakers of two different languages.
interfaith boundaries
boundaries between the major religions
maladaptive diffusion
diffusion in which image takes precedence over practicality (ie. ranch style house)
cultural hearths
Heartland, source area, innovation center, place of origin of a major culture
hierarchical religions
A religion in which a central authority exercises a high degree of control
religion
a strong belief in a supernatural power or powers that control human destiny
fundamentalism
Conservative beliefs in the Bible and that it should be literally believed and applied
animism
the doctrine that all natural objects and the universe itself have souls
placelessness
defined by the geographer Edward Relph as the loss of uniqueness of place in the cultural landscape so that one place looks like the next
indigenous technical knowledge
Highly localized knowledge about enviromental conditions and sustainable land-use practices
linguistic refugee areas
An area protected by isolation or inhospitable environmental conditions in which a language or dialect has survived
cultural complex
many different cultures many different traits
polytheistic religions
religion in which there is a belief in many gods; egyptians, ancient sumerians, indus valley peoples
generic toponyms
The Description part of many okace-names, often repeated throughout a culture area
language branch
A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago. Differences are not as extensive or old as with language families, and archaeological evidence can confirm that these derived from the same family.
monotheistic religions
Also have priesthoods and notions of divine power, but all supernatural phenomena are manifestations of (or under the control of) a single eternal, omniscient, omnipotent, and omnipresent supreme being.
intrafaith boundaries
boundaries within a single major faith
cultural diffusion
the spread of cultural elements from one society to another
convergence hypothesis
a biased approach to the study of management, which assumes that principles of good management are universal, and that ones that work well in the United States will apply equally well in other nations.
creole
a person descended from French ancestors in southern United States (especially Louisiana)
dialect
the usage or vocabulary that is characteristic of a specific group of people
cultural trait
a behavioral characteristic of a people, such as language, skill, or custom, passed from one generation to another
pagan
a person who does not acknowledge your God
official language
a governmentally designated language of instruction, of government, of the courts, and other official public and private communication
pilgrimages
Religious journeys to the Holy Land.
ideograms
The system of writing used in China and other East Asian countries in which each symbol represents an idea or concept rather than a specific sound, as is the case with letters in English.
universalizing religions
A religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just those living in a particular location.
language
the mental faculty or power of vocal communication
custom
accepted or habitual practice
taboo
an inhibition or ban resulting from social custom or emotional aversion
monoglots
knowing only one language
language divergence
new languages are formed when a language breaks into dialects
toponyms
Place name
secularism
a doctrine that rejects religion and religious considerations
orthodox religions
A strand within most major religions that emphasizes purity of faith and is not open to blending with other religions
traditional religions
Special forms of ethnic religions distinguished by their small size, their unique identity with localized culture groups not yet fully absorbed into modern society, and their close ties to nature.
Proselytic religions
Referred to as a Universalizing Religion, which is an attempt to be global, to appeal to all people, wherever they may live in the world, not just to those of one culture or location. There are three religions that practice this they are Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism. To proselytize is to try to convert another person to your religion. This important to HG because these are three of the biggest religions in the world they are practiced all over the world.
adaptive strategy
The unique way in which each culture uses it's particular physical environment; Those aspects of culture that serve to provide the necessities of life - Food, clothing, shelter, and defense
cultural lag
when a group is unresponsive to innovations or changes in their environment, the group is experiencing:
standard language
a language substantially uniform with respect to spelling, grammar, pronunciation, and vocabulary and representing the approved community norm of the tongue
habit
a pattern of behavior acquired through frequent repetition
sacred spaces
Places sacred to certain groups
material culture
The physical manifestations of human activities; includes tools ,campsites, art, and structures. The most durable aspects of culture
polyglot
a person who speaks more than one language
missionaries
people who work to spread their religious beliefs
lingua franca
a simple language made up of parts of different languages
shatter belts
an area of instability between regions with opposing political and cultural values
cultural realm
cultural region is new and it is distinguished by a set of cultural traits like language, beliefs, customs, norms of behavior, social institutions, way of life, artifacts etc. The complex combination of the above traits is identified in a group as cultural realm over an area.
theocracy
a form of government in which God or a diety is recognized as the supreme civil ruler
subcultures
groups that share in some parts of the dominant culture but have their own distinctive values, norms, language, and/or material culture
non-material culture
ideas, knowledge and beliefs that influence people's behavior
teleology
the explanation of phenomena by the purpose they serve rather than by postulated causes. • Theology: the doctrine of design and purpose in the material world.
ecotheology
The Study of the influence of religious belief on habitat modification
isoglosses
the limits of areal extent of particular words
indigenous culture
having originated in and being produced, growing, living, or occurring naturally in a particular region or environment
isolated language
A language that is unrelated to any other languages and therefore not attached to any language family.
popular culture
Entertainment spread by mass communications and enjoying wide appeal. (p. 897)

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