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Art History I Roman-Early Christian


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Madonna Enthroned with Justinain and Constantine


Depiction of Justinian and Clergy members
Bizentine Art type
Gold leaf, rich materials
Justinian is offering the Hagia Sophia (church with [at that time] the worlds largest done) to the Madonna and child.
Justinian and Constantine pictured equally, together offering something of equal value to them. Makes Justinian look equal to Constantine by simplifying them in the picture so they look the same. Expresses the rivalary between the two emporers.
Both are depictions of Justinian for Public and religious propaganda, as well as a way of expressing his own christian convictions affliated with the christian religion.
Justinian and Clergy...
Located in Rivena, San Vitale, and was made after the fall of rome and move to Rivena.
Depicts Justintine as supported by Men in Arms and clergy retinue. The picture is physically made from small mosiac titles to create the image. Expresses that his right to rule is protected by religion and arms, and that his claims are justified.
Sculpture- Image 1
Roman Orator, 75 BC, Louve

Asthetic Properties taken from greek sculpture, with a Roman twist added. An Orator is a public speaker and this image is the abstract idea of that. His nudity makes him timeless.
Sculpture- Image 2
Ausustus of Prima Porta, 20 BC, Rome (Vatican Museum)
Refers to previous oratator, but is a specific person taking on the stance of an orator. He is clothed in war armor, and his armor shows significant scenes from battle on his armor. The Charab represents his conquering over Germans at the Danube River. Abstract representation of battle.
Sculpture- Image 3
Trajan, 100 AD, Located at the British Museum in London
Displays a stoic expression, as well as a specific Individual. He was stern, and a sense of his personality is displayed through this piece. Bust gives a sense of nudity- which is classic and timeless. Not stylized but "glossed over".
(Trajan expanded the roman empire to it's fullest extent)
Sculpture-Image 4
Marcus Aurelius, 170 AD, Rome Plazza del Campidoglio
This bronze statue of Marcus Aurelius was spared because it was misstaken by the early christians to represent Constantine the Great. He is bigger than the horse in this depiction to show his figurative size (power). He is orating on horseback, which gives the ideals of a General in war.
Sculpture-Image 5
The Tetrachs (porphyry), 300 AD, Located in Venice in the San Marco.

Four Exporers with joint power over empire, placed together for equality purposes. This statue is simplified because the message becomes more important than the physical correctness. It's made from Porphyry which is a rare type of stone in minimal supply.
Sculpture- Image 6
Sarcophagus Of Aria, 3rd Century AD, From Ostia

This is a pagan depiction of a diognostic festival (drunkeness). The image is very busy with way off porportions, becuase porpotions become less important than the message.
Sculpture- Image 7
Constantine the Great, 310 AD, Rome in the Pal. Convserv

His large eyes are symbolic of his aweness of heaven, also facing upwards. He is not anatomically correct. This is a huge statue depicting him, but he only had a few statues done in order to show his humble nature.
Sculpture- Image 8
Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus, 360 AD, Rome (St. Peters)

Transtion piece into early christian because it's still more important to convey message rather than correctness, but the scenes are religious in nature. With the decorative columns there are definite hints of Roman architecture.
Sculpture- Image 9
Julian the Apostate, 360 AD, Rome (now located in Louve)

Similar to Orator, trying to look back at the pagan era in artwork in order to reinstate paganism. Conveyes back to anatomical correctness.
Architecture- Image 1
Maison Carree at Nimes, 20 BC, Nimes France

Takes a greek idea and romanizes it with engaged columns, and the absense of a pedimental sculptural group in favor of a cleaner asthetic.
Architecture- Image 2
Port du Gard at Nimes, 1st Century AD, Nimes, France

Shows a use of the arch, while being ulitarian in nature. (brings fresh water to city/prevents disease) Definite, civil roman structure. By keeping people happy, more people join the empire.
Architecture- Image 3
Temple of Vesta at Rome, 1st Century AD, Rome

Circular, small temple made by greek to Roman standars. Was spared defacing by being converted to a christian chapel.
Architecture- Image 4
Pantheon, 120 AD, Roman

Displays all Roman gods equally by placing them in a cricle. Traditional temple entrance, with the biggest dome before Constantine on the main structure.
Architecture-Image 5
Basilica of Constantine at Rome, 310 AD, Rome

Massive, Triumphal Arches. Basilica- a meeting hall, adopted and defaced by christians for use by the church.
Architecture- Image 6
Old St. Peters, 330 AD, Rome

Basillican Floor Plan, which a courtyard based on Roman Courtyards. Direct Evolution. First church built as a church.
Architecture- Image 7
San Vitale, 530 AD, Ravenna

Changed basilican floor plan into a more defensible structure. The long hallway and Apse remain the same. Because they are out of Rome they can physically build this structure without worry of competition. It's made from brick which is cheap, readily avalible, and it breaks away from the paganistic marble.
Architecture- Image 8
Hagia Sophia, 530 AD, in Constantinople

The basillican Floor plan modified to support a dome ontop, which at that time, was the largest dome in the world. This was meant to show the symbolic triumph of christianity over paganism by outdoing the panthenon. Comissioned by Justinian.
Architecture- Image 9
S. Sabaina, 430 AD, in Rome

Basillican floor plan at it's basics. Made from brick and other materials becuase it was cheap, readily avalible, and it breaks away from paganism. Based on Roman gathering halls.

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