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gsci 101


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4 parts of scientific method?
1. observation
2. identify patterns and regularities
3.hypothesis and theory
4. prediction and testing
the number of different species that coexist in an area.
independent variable
what the experimenter varies
(amount and types of nutrients)
dependent variable
what changes as a result of independent variable variations
(biodiversity + biomass)
fails the test that defines the sciences: cannot be reproducibly tested. Falls outside the domain of science, into the domains of belief or Dogma.
e.g.: creationism, extrasensory perception, UFO's, astrology.
organization of science (Branches)
Basic Research
-knowledge for it's own sake
-Primary goal- not for societal impact.
-payoff years later
Applied Research
Specific-practical goal- direct benefit to society, wish to develop technology
- more of a quick payoff
-Applied research on a greater scale
-Research and Development Projects
Funding for Science
-Federal Government Agencies --> 2002 budget $100 billion
-Dept. of Energy
-Dept. of Defense
-Pfizer, Merck, DuPont, GE...
-founder of Periodic Table
1. elements w/ similar chemical properties appeared at regular (periodic) intervals.
2. could arrange elements in table format
3. Revealed gaps where undiscovered elements must lie
William Harvey
Blood Circulation experiment
steps of experiment:
1. dissect animals: traced out veins and arteries
2. studied live animals, sometimes as they died.
3. arm experiment
Funding Process
1.Grant Proposal
2.Grant Committee
Scientific Communication
-informal chats
-scientific meetings, conferences
-specialized journals
***Peer review process-Strict***
motions of material objects
-invented first thermometer, pendulum clock
-supported sun-centered model of the universe
-heresy trial- Catholic Church imprisoned him bc some of his ideas violated church doctrine
-scalar quantity
-distance an object travels divided by the time it takes to travel that distance.
-vector quantity
-same as speed but with a direction
rate of change of velocity
uniform motion
motion at a constant speed in a single direction. No Acceleration!
Issac Newton
revealed the universality of gravity
Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation
-if objects are massive, force is large
-if objects are far apart, force is less.
-the gravitational constant
-Cavendish (English man)
-G appears to hold true everyday in the universe!
Weight and Gravity
-There is a force btw. any two objects in the universe
-Weight depends on where you are: moon vs. space... mass stays the same everywhere.
Smart Businesses
doing more with less
doing with less
Brownian Motion
-moves particles all over the room!
-move from area of high concentration to area of low concentration.
form of energy that moves from a warmer object to a cooler object.
- measured in calories: amount of heat required to raise temp. of 1 gram of H20 by 1 celcius degree.
-Relative Term, how vigorously atoms in a substance are moving and colliding
-if objects are at the same temp., no heat flows spontaneously from one to the other.
-the larger the temp. difference, the more rapidly heat is transferred
Temperature Scales
F = 32-212
C = 0-100
K = 273-373
Galilean Thermometer
-changes in liquid density
-balls inside device float when outside liquid is cool, and drop when water is warm.
Specific Heat Capacity
-Measure of the ability of a material to absorb heat... or.. the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of that material by one degree celcius.
-Water - Large heat capacity
-Aluminum foil- Small heat capacity
Heat Transfer
Process by which heat moves from one place to another...
1. conduction
2. convection
3. radiation
movement by heat by atomic-scale collisions
e.g. wood vs. metal
heat transfer in a gas or liquid by the circulation of currents from one region to another
- pot on hot stove drawing from notes (hot H20 rises, cool H20 sinks, heat escapes to air)
1. Conservation of Energy
2. a.)heat flow: hot-->cold
b.)engines cannot be 100%
3. cannot reach absolute zero.
Newton's Laws
1. Inertia
2. F=MA
3. For every action, there's an equal and opposite reaction.
-a measure of disorder
-the entropy of an isolated system remains constant or increases
-maximize entropy when all atoms are in the same low energy state.
Ludwig Boltzmann
numerical value (of Entropy) is related to the number of ways a system can be rearranged.
Consequences of 2nd Law
-The Arrow of Time
-Limitations of the Universe
directionality of nature, inevitable
-traveling disturbances; carry energy w/o requiring matter to travel.
distance between crests
# of crests that go by a given point every second
height of crest above undisturbed position
wave types
-transverse motion- perpendicular to the direction of the wave. e.g. water wave
-longitudinal motion- parallel to direction of the wave. e.g. sound wave... slinky
sound waves
-speed of sound in air
-amplitude=loudness (higher amplitude, louder sound)
-frequency: high frequency= high pitch, low freq.= low pitch.
Electromagnetic Radiation
-Electromagnetic Waves made up of electrical and magnetic fields that fluctuate together.
-all EM waves have same velocity..."C" (the speed of light)
The Doppler Effect
The frequency of a wave appears to change if there is relative motion between the wave source and the oberver. e.g.. ambulance siren.
ambulance coming toward you: high freq., high pitch
ambulance past you and is moving further away: lower freq., lower pitch
Doppler Effect... light waves
light coming toward you - Blueshifted

light moving away - Redshifted.
Interaction of Electromagnetic waves w/ matter
1. Transmission
2. Absorption
3. Scattering

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