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Humanities - The Middle Ages and the Renaissance


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The term -?- referst o the medieval artistic style influenced by the Romans, a style marked by its stark simplicity and its use of the rounded arch
Romanesque (500-1100)
The -?- age came between the Romanesque age, when a spiritual attitude was strong and sure, and the Renaissance, when people believed in cultivating rationalism and humanism.
Gothic (1100-1400)
The musical form that consists of only chants, usually relating to God, and almost always in Latin.

Divided in two parts: Monophony, and Melisma
Plainchant (Gregorian chant)
A lot of notes on one vowel
"Rebirth"; (1400-1600)

The life of people began to come out during this time period.

Greek Mythology, and NUDES :o
Human and secular (non-religious) values. the thought that there is more for humans on THIS world.
The rise of interest in the ancient world
Martin Luther, The renaissance led to this, along with the printing press
Protestant Reformation, 1517
Led to the Protestant Reformation in 1517, "created" the Lutheran branch of Christianity
Martin Luther
Invented the Printing Press
Johannes Gutenberg
Inspiration to the modern mathematical environment.

Discovered the natural mathematical applications to music
Rediscovered the mathematics of Pythagoras. (His problem is he did not know how to make music emotional)
Prez, JOSQUIN des (1440-1521)
The best of the Renaissance.

Figures out how to make music 'calm'
PALESTRINA, Giovanni de (1525-1594)
Most experimental music. They were figuring out how to make music sound good, and work

1. Secular songs - rich people
2. A lot of tone painting (the music describes the words)
How did Pope Gregory (590-604) affect music in the middle ages?
He established the rules of music, which would not be changed until the Gothic Period. (Gregorian Chant)
What are the musical characteristics of plainchant?
Makes you think about God, divided into 2 parts: Monophony and Melisma. voices (instruments were outlawed)
How did music change during the Gothic period?
The music in the gothic period was characterized by polyphony
What were some of the most important historical developments of the Renaissance?
New sciences, technology, art, Protestant Reformation, and the Printing Press
In what way did Renaissance composers try to revive the Greek ideal in music?
They wanted to recreate the Doctrine of Ethos (Mozart Effect)
What problems did Renaissance composers face in trying to revive the Greek ideal in music?
They couldn't make the music emotional, and really GOOD.
Who are the two best-known composers of the Renaissance?
Prez des, JOSQUIN (1440-1521)

PALESTRINA, Giovanni de (1525-1594)
Why did the Catholic church discourage the use of musical instruments in church services during the Middle ages and the Renaissance?
Musical instruments were thought to be pagan (similarly to dancing), and were thought to take the mind away from thinking only of God.
What are the characteristics of a madrigal?
1. Secular songs, which were sung by rich people-usually at parties.

2. There is a lot of TONE PAINTING (the music describes the words)

Epigram-They repeat the last line of poetry over and over again
The medieval period (the Middle Ages) extended from the year -?- to the year -?-
The Middle Ages is commonly divided into two sub-periods, the -1- (500-1100), and the -2- (1100-1400).
1. Romanesque, 2. Gothic
True or False- During the medieval period the church was almost the sole patron of the arts.
True or False- Learning during much of the medieval period was centered largely in the monasteries.
True or False- During the Middle Ages, Greek culture was respected and copied by Christian scholars; the works of Plato and Aristotle were treated with great admiration.
True or False- Because the Church was the supreme power, art had to have a religious function during the medieval period.
In 787, the Second Council of -?- established a set of rules for artistic representation of religious subjects that remained binding upon artists for almost 500 years.
True or False- Jesus on the cross had to be shown with his mother on his right and St. John on his left.
True or False- Jesus had to be shown with his right side pierced by a soldier.
False (left side)
True or False- Jesus had to be shown with a halo containing a cross as the mark of divinity.
True or False- Like Jesus, saints were shown with halos containing crosses as marks of divinity.
True or False- Only God, Jesus, the angels, and the apostles could be shown with bare feet.
True or False- Churches were usually built with the altar to the east in order that priests and the congregation could face the Holy Land.
The exterior of -?- la Grande at Poitiers in France, built in the eleventh century, is a fine example of Romanesque architecture.
Notre Dame
The large central aisle in a church was called the -?-
According to Pope -?-, who lived around 600 AD, painting and sculpture were supposed to teach: "What the literate learn by reading, the uneducated learn by looking at pictures"
True or False- There are very few original examples of Romanesque paintings because the church discouraged painting in favor of sculpture.
During the Gothic age, theological doctrines were organized into a scientific system of philosophy called -?-, which argued that religious dogma could be explaine by means of logic and reason.
Medieval curriculum was divided between the -1-, which included arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music, and the -2-, which included rhetoric, grammar, and logic
1. Quadrivium, 2. Trivium
True or False- During the Gothic age, religion set strict rules and formulas for architecture, painting, sculpture, and music.
Love for -?-, a woman who was seen as lovely and sympathetic, was a humanizing influence for society.
The Virgin Mary
Gothic art, which served as a visual history of, and a metaphor for, the people of God, used symbolism for religious references.

-1- God
-2- The dual nature of Jesus (man and god)
-3- The holy trinity
-4- Gospels; Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John
-5- Wounds of Christ
-6- Days of creation
-7- Deadly sins: lust, envy, pride, greed, sloth, glutiny, wrath
Why were gothic cathedrals built with great height?
They were reaching for the heavens
The term -?- was used by the italians of the renaissance and later classicists as a description for a style they thought vulgar and associated with the barbarian Goths.
Gothic builders solved the problems of rounded arches with -?-, which were half arches that transferred outward thrust to piers outside the walls.
Flying buttresses
True or False- The architecture of Gothic churches limited the amount of light in the cathedrals.
What were four purposes served by stained glass windows?
(the idea comes from Byzantine mosaics)
1. To let light in
2. Decoration
3. A means of instruction
4. Took place of walls
True or False- Medieval artists found it difficult to achieve much detail with stained glass.
Although the elements of sculpture were treated essentially the same in the gothic as they had been in the romanesque, there was an added predilection for -?-
increased body movement
True or false- gothic sculptures presented figures that were merely symbols rather than people of character.
In gothic sculpture the artistic portrayal of Jesus was largely replaced by -?-
Virgin Mary
The most famous painter of the Gothic Age.

Called the link between the Gothic and the renaissance, and also painted Life of Christ on the walls of the Arena Chapel is -?-
T or F- The renaissance sprit was one of returning to the spirit of greek culture and its emphasis on worldliness.
The renaissance was a time for change and integration; a time for new discoveries and inventions.
The nation that served as the center of renaissance activity was -?-
T or F- during the renaissance, art held little interest for the wealthy who might have served as patrons of the arts.
During the renaissance, the greatest single patron of the arts was -?-
the church
t or f- during the renaissance, people considered it an honor to be represented in art as a personage from pagan mythology or as a figure from a biblical scene.
t or f- artists during the renaissance used laboratory dissections for a more realistic portrayal of the human form.
The man who made meticulous drawings of anatomy that were used in medical textbooks until modern times was -?-
Leonardo Da Vinci
t or f-during the renaissance, nudes in art retained their medieval connotation of shame.
"the only fit subject for an artist is man."
Painted the school of athens
He is usually identified as a sculpture, but painted as well
Painted sacred subjects almost exclusively
Fra Angelico
Painted nudes in strong three-dimensional form, and was preoccupied with the human form, his paintings have been called 'painted sculpture'
The Birth of Venus
Committed to the Dominican Order
Fra Angelico
The Last Supper
Leonardo Da Vinci
the one person who is usually singled out as the quintessence of the renaissance spirit is -?-
Leonardo Da Vinci
The last supper is a study of the effect of what words spoken by Jesus?
"One of you shall betray me"
Sculpted a life-size bronze statue of an adolescent David
A statue displays a slight displacement of hips and straightening of one leg to show the weight of the figure resting on that leg
The work of -?-, an italian architect, is frequently studied as the epitome of renaissance architecture because he had the greatest influence on later generations.
Andrea Palladio
architect responsible for a portion of the Farnese Palace in Romse was -?-
For -?- artists, humanity took second place to the world of heaven. Giotto worked to bring religious images down to our level, while Duccio tried to raise us up to the level of heaven
-?-'s oil painting of THE ARNOLFINI MARRIAGE (1434) revealed the inner meaning of a true marriage. The bed, the single burning candle, the solemn moment of joining as the young groom is about to place his raised hand on his bride's, the unshod feet stand
Jan van Eyck
During the renaissance, -?- was the most important city in the story of painting . It was also associated with such mater painters as Leonardo Da vinci, michelangelo, botticelli, and raphael.
Florence, Italy
The monk -?- (1400-1455) produced paintings with devout religious themes. He was a member of the dominican order which moved to the convent of San Marco in Florence in 1436. The convent was funded by -??-, a member of a Florentine political family that p
-?- Fra Angelico, -??- Cosimo de' Medici
Mars and Venus, The Birth of Venus
Sandro Botticelli
Unlike italian influences of humanism and classical values, the renaissance in northern europe was strongly influenced by -?-, a return to -??-, and a revolt against -???-.
-?- religious reform, -??- ancient christian values, -???- the authority of the church

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