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European History AP - ch 18 Scientific Revolution

Vocab for class at Niceville HS. The list is chapter 18.


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Enlightened despot
Enlightened ruler. Catherine the Breat, Frederick the Great.
The Royal Society of London
Established by Charles II in 1662; purpose to help the sciences.
The Spirit of Laws
Montesquieu, about separation of powers.
Geocentric Theory
Earth is the center of the universe. Aristotelian.
(1596-1650) French philosopher, discovered analytical geometry. Saw Algebra and Geometry have a direct relationship. Reduced everything to spiritual or physical.
Nicolaus Copernicus
(1473-1543) Plish clergyman. Sun was the center of the universe; the planets went around it. "On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres." Destroyed Aristotle's view of the universe - heliocentric theory.
Natural Law
Universal law that could be understood by applying reason; letting people govern themselves.
Deductive Reasoning
Descartes, doubt everything and use reasoning based on facts. Combined with empiricism to create scientific method.
Inductive Reasoning
Baconian empiricism. Based on speculations on other situations.
Aristotelian World View
Motionless earh was fixed at the center of the universe, God was beyond.
Bacon's theory of inductive reasoning.
Andrew Celsius
Invented measurement of temperature - Celsius.
Gabriel Fahrenheit
Developed measurement of temperature with freezing at 32 degrees.
Isaac Newton
English scientist. 3 Laws of Motion. Mathematics Principal of Natural PHilosophy (1687).
Ptolemy's System
Last great ancient astronomer; there was a place for God. Complicated rules used to expalin minor irregulatiries in the movement of the planets.
Tycho Brahe
(1546-1601) Established himself as Europe's foremost astronomer of his day; detailed observations of new star of 1572.
Robert Boyle
(1627-1691) Physicist, nothing can be known beyond all doubt.
Essay Concerning Human Understanding
Written by Locke, tabula rasa theory.
God built the Universe and let it run. Clockmaker theory.
Promoting human welfare and social reform.
Heliocentric Theory
Sun is the center of the universe. Copernican.
Discourse on Methods
Descartes (1677) espoused deductive reasoning.
French philosopher. Wrote "The Spirit of Laws". Said "Power checks power". Separation of powers. Form of government varies according to climate.
William Harvey
Englishman who announced blood circulates throughout the body.
Francis Bacon
(1561-1626) English politician, writer. Formalized the empirical method. "Novum Organum". Inductive reasoning.
Discourses on the Origins of Inequalities
Rousseau, discussed the innocence of man and his corruption by society.
French, perhaps greatest Enlightenment thinker. Deist. Mixed glorification and reason with an appeal for better individuals and institutions. Wrote "Candide". Believed enlightened despot best form of government.
Art style that focuses on pastels, ornate interiors, and sentimental portaits.
Galileo Galilei
Created modern experimental method. Formulated the law of inertia. Tried for heresy and forced to recant. Saw Jupiter's moons. Wrote "Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World".
The Social Contract
Rousseau, suggestions in reforming the political system and modeled after the Greek polis.
Second Treatise of Governments
Written by Locke, government created to protect life, liberty, and property.
Gresham College
Located in England. Leading place for the advancement of science. First time scientists had an honored roll in society; center of scientific activity.
Carl Linnaeus
System Nature - developed methods to classify and name plants and animals.
Voltaire, satirizing society and organized religion in Europe.

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