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Social Studies Midterm Review


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citadel and temple which marked the heart of the polis
mandate of heaven
The command to rule given by God to the Chinese emperor; corrupt leadership meant the loss of the mandate, while wise leadership ensured that the mandate was kept.
Racial Superiority
The feeling of being better than any other racial group.
the belief that the univers is dominated by a struggle between good and evil. good is light, evil is darkness.
the eight fold path
The basic beliefs of Buddhism; the mode of behavior leading to the end of suffering (nirvana).
Religion which began in India whose followers, Hindus, although lacking any formal dogma, do not believe in one supreme being. They believe in the rebirth of the soul in another body after death (reincarnation). Popular belief includes myriad minor gods. The collection of prayers is called the Veda. oldest religion, in india
dealt in trade with overseas colonies
The belief held by some cultures that the souls of humans and animals are part of nature and can account for seemingly inexplicable natural phenomena, such as storms or dry spells.
an open market area and civic center, located at the foot of the citadel
a rainstorm in India
belief that man is evil and needs a government to set him straight
possessed no property
The Ethnos System
large, centralized territorial state with royal capital as center of power
A system which ranks one person or persons above others.
traditions in ones community
Pax Romana
The time period from 27 BC to 180 AD, over 200 years, during which the Roman military enforced peace throughout the Mediterranean world. Trade and commerce expanded and the arts and sciences flourished. Greco-Roman or classical civilization reached all parts of the Roman Empire.
Golden Age
The high point of any culture marked by great advances in art, literature, political and economic reform, and/or technology.
rich and powerful property-owning families of Greece
The systematic recovery and study of material evidence, such as buildings, pottery, jewelry, or human remains, that suggest the existence of a culture.
owned small plots of land in the countryside
the belief that the cycle of reincarnation can be stopped by following the four noble truths.
belief that society is controlled by relationships and filial piety.
The religion based on the life, death and resurrection of Jesus, who is accepted as the savior or Messiah foretold in the Old Testament of the Bible.
captured in war or owed tremendous debts
THe belief that man must be one with nature and live a simple life. Ancestor worship, established by Laozi
The Polis System
small, self governing city with urban settlement as political center
Royal Companions
assisted kings. engaged in hunting, military, and diplomatic activities
the belief in many gods and godesses controlling the universe. (Greece, Rome, Egypt)
A person who studies every aspect of the culture of a society.

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