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Culture and Values 16-17

Terms

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Satire
The use of ridicule and sarcasm to expose and discourage what the author considers folly or even more serious shortcomings; popular in eighteenth-century literature
Tonality
The characteristic of most music written between the seventeenth and twentieth centuries to be anchored around a fixed key and mode (i.e., major and minor), from which it can move but to which it eventually returns
Symphony
A musical work in several self-contained movements, written for full orchestra;essentially a sonata for orchestra
Lieder
The German word for "songs," generally used to describe songs set to a German text
Style galant
A style of elegant, lighthearted music popular in France in the early eighteenth century
Synthesis
A philosophical theory developed by Hegel, the world of humans, which he called "pure, infinite being," and antithesis, the world of nature
Sonata form, sonata allegro form
A musical form evolved during the eighteenth century that became the basis of the first movement (and sometimes also the last) of a sonata
Fetes galantes
In the eighteenth century, elegant festivals or parties, held outdoors
Theme
A short musical idea, or time, which a composer can then vary and develop
Exposition
The opening section of a sonata form movement, setting out its main themes
Scherzo
The Italian word for "joke." Beethoven first employed the term for the third, more light-hearted movement of his symphonies, and composers continues to use it either to describe a similar movement in a symphonies, and composers continued to use it either to describe similar movement in a symphony or for an in independent piece
Gnadenaltar
The German word for "Mercy Altar," generally found in pilgrimage churches in southern Germany and Austria
Sturm ind Drang
German for "Storm and Stress." A late-eighteenth-century German literary school that rejected Neo-Classicism and emphasized emotions and protest against established authority
Transcendentalists
An American literary school of the nineteenth century that emphasized the transcendental unity of humans and nature
Mazurka
A Polish folk-dance in fast triple time
Intermezzo
The Italian word for "interlude." Originally used to described a short musical piece between two longer ones, or between two acts of an opera, it became used by some Romantic composers to describe a short independent composition
Allegro
The Italian word for "fast," used to indicate the speed at which a piece of music should be played
Bel canto
Italian for "beautiful singing;"term applied to a school of early nineteenth-century opera
Paste
Dry sticks of colored chalk that leave a soft, powdery hue when rubbed on paper
Tempo
The Italian word for "time": the speed, indicated by the composer, at which a piece of music should be performed
Ensemble
In opera, a scene in which several characters sing simultaneously
Development
The central section of a sonata form movement, in which a composer changed and combines the themes stated in the opening exposition
Luminism
School of landscape painting that developed in mid-nineteenth-century America
Nocturne
Short, dreamy piece of music, generally for solo piano. Invented by the Irish composer John Field, it was popularized by Chopin
Coda
The Italian word for "tail"; the concluding section of a sonata form movment
Natural selection
According to Charles Darwin, the process of evolution by which some variations of each species die out, while others survive
Movement
A self-contained section section of a musical work made up of several separate movements; the Classical symphony had four
Kettle drums
A kind of drum that can by turned to a specific pitch (note); known in Italian as timpani
Adagio
The Italian word for "very slow;" used by composers to indicate the speed at which music should be played
Minuet
A French seventeenth-century dance, the rhythm of which came to be used in the third movement of eighteenth-century sonatas and symphonies
Sonata
Generally, from the eighteenth century on, a piece of music for one or two instruments (piano sonata for solo piano, violin sonata for violin and piano, etc.) in several self-contained movements
Empfindsamkeit
The German word for "sensitiveness." In music, the term was used to describe the emotional music popular in the mid-eighteenth century
Recapitulation
The third section of a sonata form movement, which restates the themes heard in the first section, the exposition
Enlightened despots
Eighteenth-century rules who, while retaining full powers, sought the welfare of their subject
Gesantkunstwerk
German term invented by Wagner meaning "complete art work" to describe his combination of music, poetry, the visual arts and movement in a single work

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