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MH3 Essay 2


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Who formed character pieces
Mendelssohn two most popular symphonies
no4 Italian, and no 3 scottish
Musical genius at painting musical landscapes in his overtures
Classical overture form
Mendelssohn, sonata without repeats
3 main Late 19th century aesthetics
Technology, Politics, Nationalism
Sparked a change in the countries.
1848 revoltions
unification through common characteristics
19th century aesthetic involving the nature of the content of music
Opera became associated with?
Operas became refined?
in hopes of earning royalties on multiple stagings
Wagner viewed art as
a kind of religion
Music Genre (Wagner)
a category (or genre) of pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language"
Who developed the idiom to abandon tonality
Who saw himself as beethovens TRUE successor
oneness of music and drama (Wagner)
Which parts do the orchestra and voice convey in Wagner drama
Orchestra inner aspect, and voice outer.
what three topics did Wagner address in his writing
Addressed literature, political, and moral topics in his writings
What was the ring cycle about?
the value of love and peoples willingness to abandon it for worldly ends.
themes and motives that are that are associated with a particular person, thing, emotion, or idea. Established by sounding the leitmotiv (orchestra) at the first site of the object.
1848 (Wagner)
out of germany for Switzerland, wrote essays/prose
Before 1848 (Wagner)
Wrote grand operas
Wagner Prose
1.) Art and revolution: all art is predicated upon certain social and philosophical ideas.
2.) Judaism in music- jews are not inferior, but they are foreign/different and ruin the basic natural feeling of the Germanic people
3.) Opera and Art: words or music? Unified! Proper subject for opera is myth. Oposed to choruses (None in the ring cycles)
Wagner 5 characteristics that relate to the ring cycle
1.) Sense of tonality- expanding chromaticism and the circle of fifths. Does not destroy key center. Extended periods without tonic.
2.) Writes in forms:
Strophic: same music, different words, repeats
Bar Form: AAB
Arch form: ABCBA
3.) Leitmotiv- themes and motives that are that are associated with a particular person, thing, emotion, or idea. Established by sounding the leitmotiv (orchestra) at the first site of the object.
4.) Uses voice in the orchestra
5.) Mythological
Classical Music (Brahms)
music that was written for similar performing forces as the works of the past, and meant to performed alongside them..
Did not want to compose symphonies because he was intimidated by Beethoven
Drew allusions from the past in his music
Developing Variation (Brahms)
building on early/intro ideas
Chromatic Saturation (Wolf)
A phrase where all 12 tones appear is
Known for his work with german lieder
German conductor
Put instruments into solo prominence, which usually would not (tuba, sax)
French, drew his music towards the French tradition of sensibility, taste, and restraint.
Set up different scales that had never been used before (whole tone, pentatonic)
5 things debussy uses to create musical images
motives, harmony, exotic scales, instrumental timbre
2 areas that lead us into the 20th century
Post Romanticism, and Impressionism
4 composers that lead us ionto the 20th century
Wolf, Mahler, Bruckner, and Strauss
What destroyed the tonal center
4 types of 18th century opera
Zingspiel, Opera Comique, Comic Opera, and Opera Buffy
Characteristics of 18th century opera
⬢Libretto: not funny, but of human condition
⬢Emphasis on the aria
⬢Smaller scale production
⬢Language details the comedy of the nations background.
Characteristics of Grand Opera
⬢reaction against 18th century opera.

1. huge scale spectacle
2. libretto is of no interest
3. aria is of primary importance, huge stage, massive sets

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