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origins exam 1


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artistic and intellectual expressions of a people and their creative achievements
west of Asia and Asia Minor and north of Africa, especially europe
globalization of culture
something viewed one way in one culture can be interpreted another way in another culture
historical period
interval of time that has a certain unity because it is characterized by the prevelance of a unique culture, idealology or technology or because it is bounded by defining historical events
cultural style
combo of features of artisic or literary expression, execution or performance that define a particular school or era
ancient time period
3000 B.C.- 500 A.D.
major historical periods:
mesopotamian and egyptian- greek civilization-roman civilization prevailed after the war

cultural styles:
mesopotamian and egyptian, minoan and mycenaean; greek- greek archaic, classical (hellenic), hellenistic; roman- etruscan and greek influences, republican roman, imperial roman
medieval world
500-1500 AD
major historical periods:
early middle ages, high middle ages, late middle ages

cultural styles:
regional stles, romanesque, gothic
modern world
major movements;
reformation- restoring chrisitanity to ideals of early church
scientific revolution- birth of modern science
enlightenment- reform polics and society
romanticism- everything that cannot be proven scientifically
modernism-new ways of understanding
post modernism

cultural styles:
renaissance, mannerism, baroque, rococo, neoclassical & romantic, modern, post modernism
integrated approach to cultural history
to root cultural achievements in their historical settings, showing how the material conditions-the political, social and economic events of each period influences their creation
to better understand a work of art
keep emotional response and connection but further that so its not subjective or obvious... look for deeper meaning
concerned with aesthetic (artisic) elements of a work separate from context. focuses on medium and technique (line, shape, color, texture and composition, artists technical ability)
focuses on factors outside the work (why it was created, motives, time, place)
integrated approach to the study of culture
mixture of formalism and contextualism to develop the most effective analysis
perspectives brought to the study of cultural history by critics
psychologica, feminist, religious, economic and historical
group for whom a work of art, architecture, literature, drama, film or music is intended
arrangement of constituent elemts in an individual work
setting in which the art arose, its own time and place
subject matter of the work
agreed upon practice, device, technique or form
type or class to which a work of art, literature, drama or music belongs, depending on its style, form and content
material from which an object is made
combination of distinctive elements of creative execution and expression, in terms of both form and content
dominant idea of a work, the message or emotion the artist intends to convey
systematic procedure whereby a particular creative task is performed
`named after King Minos- cretan ruler
`organized into a complex class system that included nobels, merchants, artisans, bureaucrats and laborers
`major center at knossons
`religion- matriarchal-centering on worship of a mother goddess or great goddess, creator of the universe and source of all life
`1900-1100 B.C.
`events from the Iliad and the Odyssey occured during their era, stories furnished the Greeks with many of the heroes
`named for Mycenae- most prominent fortress city, developed on the rugged lower Greek peninsula known and the Peloponnesus
`political systemnwas feudal- similar to medieval europe
`through homer, mycenaeans gave greeks their myths, religion, ethics, perception of the universe and insight into human character
small, well-defined city-state
fortified hilltop which served as a citadel where the rulers usually resided
open area where political leaders held forth, citizens assembled, and the populance congregated to conduct business and socialize *center of a polis*
goverment by the few
poleis turned into rulers whom they entrusted with extraordinary powers to make sweeping economic and political changes
principle symbol of Dorian civiliaation chose to guarantee its integrity and future through stringent and uncompromising policies
symbol of ionian civilization, reached greater artistic, intellectual, and literary heights than did any other polis... more open than sparta
major characteristics of greek religious belief and practice
fate of each community depended on the civic diety
dieties dwelled in the sky or on mountaintops and were associated with the homeric heroes and aristocracy
lived underground and were associated with peasant life, seasons & cycles of nature & fertility
more than one god
major greek gods and goddesses
zeus(king), hera(mother goddess, poeison(sea), hades(underworld), hestia(protector of the hearth), apollo(wisdom and moderation-sun), artemis(virgin who aided women-moon), ares(war), aphrodite(love), hephaestus(crafts), athena(wisdom and warfare), hermes(messenger)
hellenic civilization
competitiveness & rivalry, increasingly urban lifestyle, most greeks still lived in the countryside, city dominated politics, society and economy, high regard for the balanced life and for moderation in acheiving it
peloponnesian war
`poleis that were not enamored of athenian aggression because convinced that war was the only way to protect themselves
`after war, athenians never recovered their military and economic power (sparta won)
popular leader and general, launched a glorious building program that was essentially a huge public works project, boasted that athens was the model for greece
characteristics and institutions praised by pericles
`democracy- power is in hands of the worle people, n ot a minority, everyone is equal before the law
`actual ability is measure, not social status in terms of running an office
`freedom in day-to-day relations with eachother
`respect and obedience for the law
`enjoy recreation
`attitude towards military security(little training, just natural reaction)
`not only interested in own affairs, but those of the state as well
`debate consequences before taking action
`good will to others continuously
how athens is diff than other city-states
`military- citizen soldiers, no allies, naturally brave
`continuous good-will towards others
`wealth is not bragged about
`only reason to be ashamed of poverty is if nothing is being done to change it
`rely on courage and loyalty-no weapons
effects of the plague on athens
`great amount of deaths
`birds of prey dissappeared
`no houses for incomers
`temples full of dead bodies
`became indifferent to every rule of religion and law
`funeral ceremonies were disorganized
`no fear of god or law
`recalled old oracles
facts about greece
`greeks used "hoplites"(footsoldiers with long spears)
`athens(sea power)army and navy(oar power)
`peloponnesian war(athens vs. sparta)
`athens democracy (free adult males) particpation
captured slaves and women were not involved in politics
`ekklesia (assembly of men democracy)- council at 500 -50 members served at one time, 1/10 of the year)
`elected officials- archons (tax collectors, etc.) board of 10 generals (military and foreign affairs)
ways athens and sparta differed
`athens had a both a large army and navy whereas sparta focues mainly on their army
`athenians had a "trireme"- fighting boats for navy, "3 level", sunk ships ny ramming them with the front of ships, 200 soldiers
`pericles reigned the athenians from 461-429 bc
`legal system was based on juries, all men in assemblies were randomly selected to become jurors- 250 people- majority rulers
society in athens
citizens- lived in community, free, men could serve

metic- not from athens, still lived there, not able to serve

slaves- every homr had a couple of slaves
neutral city state, was not on either side, athenians attempt to get melos to join way, they refused and athens attacked and killed all the men, making women and children slaves
epic poetry
`narrative poetry written about the life of lives of a hero or heroes- bravery, honor, fighting skilled, moderation
`homer is believed to be the originator
`shaped greek language and served as a guide to behavior
lyric poetry
poetry with personal, private thoughts, sung along with the lyre
tragic theater
`began with focus on chorus and less on actors but as time went on, the roles were reversed
`ideas and language were crucial
`performed in tetralogies (sets of 4) written for competition- religious festival for Dionysus, 3 tragedies, 1 comedy
serious and deeply moral drama, usually about a noble protagonist brought down by pride, conflict that looks unlikely to solve
group of performers who sang and danced in greek tragedies and comedies, at times narrorated
circular area where the chorus performed in front of the audience
tragic drama
`mortals cannot escape pain and sorrow
`about murder. incest, suicide, rape & mutilation
`violence was never depicted onstage
`based on legends of royal families
`fundamental human issues with no easy solutions
`purpose was to arouse pity & terror on the audience on the audience so these negative emotions would be eliminated
525-456 bc
`won first prize 13 times
`wrote 90 plays- 7 survived
`"oresteia" is only trilogy to survive
`agamemnon, libation bearers, eumenides
496-406 bc
`wrote 125 plays- 7 survive
`won first place 24 times
`antigone, oedpius
`90 or more tragedies-18 survive
`won 5 times
`unorthodox ways angered the audeince
`the trojan woman, the bacchae
post beam triangle construction
what the parthenon was made of, post-columns, beam- horizontal members, triangle-pediments
characteristics of doric style
originated in dorian polies, simplest and oldest of the greek architecture, temple columns have undecorated capitals and rest directly on the stylobate
differences of archaic statues of youths and maidens from egyptian and mesopotamian art
`greek delight in the splendor of the human body `rejected scared approach of egyptians and mesopotamians which stressed conventional poses and formal gestures, `created athletic, muscular males and lively, robust females
`health and beauty was very important
ictinus and callicrates to the doric style
`8 columns on the ends, 17 on the sides, ratio of 9:4
`propylaea- gate leading to the sanctuary
`erechtheum- temple dedicated to three dieties
ionic style
columns are slender, decorated columns
severe style
first sculptured style, associated with funeral customs, feeling of dignified nobility
high classical style
showing motion in stillness, numerical relation to bodys overall measurements
fourth century style
free expression, beauty for its own sake, delight in sensuality
weight of body is on one leg, and other leg is used as support
natural philosophy
greek thinkers invented it, mixes together science and philosophy, perisited for 22 centuries, questions power and existence of the gods, causes and effects were natural
585bc, founder of milesian school, everything was made out of matter, materialism
everything is made of numbers, founder of idealism (both physical and spiritual world)
found truth in constant change, belief in continual flux
traveling teachers who claimed to offer their students (for a fee) knowledge that guarenteed success in life
socratic revolution
the psyche (mind and soul)
ideas are basis of everything
natural world is the only world
young woman statues... clothed... one arm up... feet together
young men statues... naked... arms by sides... left leg extended

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