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Classical Music B


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Empfindsamer Stil
expressive style in Early Classic Symphonies and Chamber Music, emphasized lyrical and sentimental expression of feelings evoked by religious events and scenes in nature, impassioned melodic and rhythmic gestures, recitativo declamation
Mannheim school
Mannheim orchestra introduced new musical techniques soon imitated throughout Europe, Use of broader dynamic range (pianissimo to fortissimo), crescendo, Graduated dynamics - "gradual" changes,
mid 18th c. opera genre, usually comic and in German with spoken dialogue, adaptations of English ballad operas, later librettists made arrangements of French comic operas
lorenzo da ponte
Italian librettist most significant of generation. involvement in flowering of opera buffa in Vienna, his three librettos for Mozart (Le nozze di Figaro, Don Giovanni and Così fan tutte) peaks of the genre.
sonata allegro principle
Exposition: first theme on tonic, secondary theme on the dominant or relative major and a closing theme on the tonic or dominant, Development: modulations and variations of the opening themes, Recapitulation: material of the exposition is restated in the original order in the tonic key, Coda: concluding section, form of single movement, three main sections, often appears in middle movements and finales, and in moderate and slow tempo
concerto first-movement form
opening orchestral tutti presents much of the material that will later be stated during the solo exposition, preparing the entry of the soloist, Soloist and orchestra complete exposition together, orchestral passage in the dominant, concludes exposition. The development is structurally equivalent to sonata form, but often more sequential or episodic in style.The recapitulation, all in the tonic, synthesis of the exposition and opening ritornello, combining soloist and orchestra, At the close of the recapitulation, an orchestral passage leads to a tonic 6-4 chord over a fermata; the soloist then executes a cadenza, which leads through the dominant to a cadence on the tonic. The orchestra enters on this tonic and closes the movement
Charles Burney
English musician, composer and music historian, greatest success and legacy are his writings on music, His General History of Music was one of the first important music histories in English. The Present State of Music in France and Italy (1771) and The Present State of Music in Germany (1773). describes European society, life, customs, music and important musicians
London symphonies
symphonies written by Haydn for London,Unconventional tonal scheme, use trumpets and timpani, he composed symphonies designed to please the audience.
essay on the true art of playing keyboard instruments
Important source on ornamentation written by CPE Bach, it reveals much about the musical thought and practice of the period
Baron gottfried van swieten
Dutch Music enthusiast and patron, active in Austria, wrote the librettos of Haydn's last two oratorios, Introduced Mozart to Bach,
querelle des bouffons
A musical and literary dispute waged in Paris between 1752 and 1754 over the respective merits of French and Italian opera, turned into a social controversy: the conservative aristocracy sided with French music while the intellectual bourgeoisie sided with the Italian one.
domenico scarlatti
Chief Italian keyboard composer of the 18th century, music mostly known in spain and portugal, wrote 2-section/2 movement sonatas
sturm und drang
storm and stress, German literary mov't of the same period as CPE bach Empfindsamkeit technique, Similar aesthetic goals with Emphasis on subjectivity and emotion
heiligenstadt testament
Beethoven wrote it to his brothers, heartfelt expression of his anguish at his increasing deafness, The Testament recognized as a witness to the despair that often overwhelmed Beethoven at this time
Johann Peter Salomon
Invites Haydn to compose two sets of six ‘Salomon’ or ‘London’ symphonies for London, played a leading part in English musical life,
alberti bass
Left-hand accompaniment figure in keyboard music consisting of broken triads, Bass is subordinated to the melody, Repeated arpeggiations based on the underlying harmony, Used frequently by Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven
minuet and trio
Becomes standard part of Symphony through Haydn, ABA form, sonata-like minuet section is paired with a short trio in ternary form, and then repeated da capo, minuet paired with a single trio contrasting in key, thematic material, scoring and general mood, appearing frequently as the third of four movements in symphonies and string quartets
Haydn in residence at the estate of Esterhaza, had a standing orchestra of about 25 players, Esterhaza orchestra allowed Haydn to experiment and become original
Eine kleine nachtmusik
serenade/divertimento, Composed for garden parties, serenades, weddings, home-concerts, 5-movements,Chamber music for strings w/2 or more wind inst. Symphonic or concerto-like scoring, Mozart
gradus ad parnassum
best known collection of Clementi piano studies, monumental compendium of his work from all periods, represents a kind of summary of the composer’s career. shows full diversity of Clementi’s keyboard music
the Haydn quartets
6 quartets dedicated to Joseph Haydn by Mozart, broader in scale than Haydn's and more heterogeneous, multiplicity of motifs, chromaticism and a fusion of strict and galant styles as well as their elaborate, ornamental slow movements, highly influential; ‘the concept of a composition with four obbligato principal voices’.
a piece of music constructed on a single Theme, either in one movement or in several, throughout which that theme is used, sonata first movements derive the opening of their second-group material from the first group, deriving nearly all its themes from the main subject
johann philipp kirnberger
German theorist and composer, most significant of a remarkable group of theorists, centred in Berlin, Criticized for being inflexible, conservative, tried through his own teaching and writing to propagate ‘Bach’s method
Russian patron of music known throughout Europe, knew Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven through the musical and aristocratic circles of Vienna and was one of Beethoven’s first Viennese patrons, established professional string quartet at Beethoven’s disposal
Beggar's Opera
ballad opera, took London by storm, one of the most frequently performed operatic works in English, consists of spoken dialogue interspersed with thematically relevant songs, taken from a variety of popular sources
franz xaver sussmayer
Austrian composer, student of Mozart, now remembered for his primary role in completing Mozart's Requiem k626

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