This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.

AP review


undefined, object
copy deck
The October Revolution
The October Revolution in Russia also known as the Bolshevik Revolution, is traditionally dated to November 6 and 7, 1917, (some sources say october 25th, 1917) The October Revolution was the second phase of the overall Russian Revolution of 1917, after the February Revolution of the same year. The October Revolution overthrew the Russian Provisional Government and gave the power to Bolsheviks. It was followed by the Russian Civil War (1917-1920) and the creation of the Soviet Union in 1922.
Great depression
The Great Depression was a time of economic down turn, which started after the stock market crash on October 29, 1929. began in the United States and quickly spread to Europe and every part of the world, with devastating effects in both then industrialized countries and those which exported raw materials. International trade declined sharply, as did personal incomes.
Russian revolutionary movement that rose in 1903 and opposed the Bolsheviks and battled them for power.
Hitler was really big on it, Mussolini also had a fascist country but not like Hitler. It means that you are born to serve the state.
Robert Owen
Factory owner, concerned with mistreatment of workers. organized one of the largest and most visionary of the early national unions, the GNCTU, or Grand National Consolidated Trades Union. Helped pass Factory Act of 1833, limiting work hours.
a religious institution established to ensure the Catholic Faith
Spartacist Union
Also known as the Sprtacist League, was a left wing Marxist movement organized in Germany, organized both during and after WWI.
Coup detat
Napoleon ended the Directory in a coup d’état and substituted a strong dictatorship for a weak one.
Albert Camus
(1913-1960) was the leading French existentialist; he became extremely influential, and joined the French resistance. Him and Sartre offered powerful answers to moral issues and the contemporary crisis.
Berlin Conference
The Berlin Conference regulated European Colonization and trade in Africa.
Dutch Calvinists
gained a following of rich merchants in the Netherlands, revolt against Habsburgs, Phillip sends Alva to pacify them
Father Gapon
a Russian Orthodox priest who organized the Assembly of Russian Factory and Plant Workers - which was an organization formed to defend worker's rights and elevate their moral and religious status. He was the one who presented the peaceful petition to the Tsar on Bloody Sunday - after which he called on radicals to violently overthrow the tsar.
Paris Commune
Established by a group of French radical patriots who refused to give up in the Franco-Prussian War, and wanted to independantly rule Paris. Didn't want to give up Alsace-Lorraine. NA under Thiers ordered French army to crush commune, 20,000 ppl died.
German Confederation
Created by congress of Vienna 1815, to assemble the remaiing German States. Was again tried to be reunited by BIsmark, but Prussia and Austria didn't get along.
Believed that Western civilization was in decline because of Christian humility and an overstress on rational thinking at the expense of passion and emotion. Believed there was a need for few superior men to lead rest of inferior people
Pablo Picasso
A Spaniard in Paris who formed a movement in 1907 called Cubism. Cubism concentrated on a complex geometry of zigzagging lines and sharply angled, overlapping plane.
"The Prince", exalts the supreme power of the gov. (prince) over the people, since the people are naturally selfish
October Manifesto
Written by Tsar Nicholas II as a response to the Revolution in 1905 which promised civil liberties to the people such as personal immunity, freedom of religion, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, freedom of association. Also, he promised to allow the Duma more power and participation and that no law could be passed without the Duma's consent.
1400-1600c., revival of humanism, classicism, art, music poetry, etc. Throughout Europe, diff. Places at diff. Times.
An ethnic group primarily associated with Hungary. Although the Magyars were one of the largest ethnic groups, that entire region had many ethnic groups who always ended up fighting. These conflicts made it extremely difficult to bring nationalism to the region.
Immanuel Kant
Professor in East Prussia, argued that if serious thinkers were granted freedom to exercise their reason in print, enlightenment would surely follow. He said that Frederick the Great was an enlightened monarch because he allowed this.
Christopher Marlowe
another Elizabethan era writer, wrote poetically beautiful plays Tamburlaine and The Jew of Malta; paved the way for Shakespeare
Battle of Verdun and Somme
Both battles were brutal. At the battle of Somme the French and British gained 125 square miles at the cost of 600,000 men and 500,000 for the germans. German offensive led to the battle of Verdun an additional 700,000 killed and the offensive proved unsuccessful.
Weimar Republic
Was the democratic government which ruled over Germany form 1919 to 1933. Was Germany's first democracy and it failed miserably. It had leaders such as Stresseman and Hindenburg.
Napoleonic wars
The Napoleonic Wars comprised a series of global conflicts fought during Napoleon Bonaparte's imperial rule over France (1804â€"1815). They formed to some extent an extension of the wars sparked by the French Revolution of 1789. These wars revolutionized European armies and artillery, as well as military systems, and took place on a scale never before seen, mainly due to the levee en masse(ability to call all able-bodied men to fight). French power rose quickly, conquering most of Europe; and collapsed rapidly after the disastrous invasion of Russia (1812), and Napoleon's empire ultimately suffered complete military defeat, resulting in the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy in France in 1814 and 1815. (just outline from wiki-details you should learn on your own)
Mein Kampf (My struggle)-
the autobiography (1925-27) of Adolf Hitler, setting forth his political philosophy and his plan for German conquest. He was in prison at this time.
The French foreign minster at the time of the Quadruple Alliance, was everybody's' counterpart. Was in power during the division of the land.
Tsar Nicholas I
Last emperor of Russia. He ruled from 1894 until his forced abdication in 1917. Commisioned priest, Father Gapon, to organize group to counteract the Marxists. Nicholas proved unable to manage a country in political turmoil and command its army in World War I. Dissolved Duma in 1906 His rule ended with the Russian Revolution of 1917, after which he and his family were executed by Bolsheviks.
E. Degas
French painter and sculpter, impressionalist
Algeciras Conference
International conference called to deal with the Moroccan question. French get Morocco, Germany gets nothing, isolated. Result is U.S, Britain, France, Russia see Germany as a threat.
British East India Company
Same thing as Dutch East India Company but it was made before the DEIC and was in India under British control.
Provisional Government
The provisional government was declared by the Duma and resulted in Nicholas II's abdication. The provisional government quickly established equality before the law, freedom of religion, speech, and assembly, the right of unions to organize and strike, and the rest of the classic liberal program. Kerensky became the prime minister and rejected social revolution because he, along with most people, believed that planning one last, successful war offensive would be more important than domestic affairs. Due to the strong and arduous war effort, many people suffered which lessened the popularity and ultimately led to the downfall of the Provisional Government. (906,908)
A French prime minister who was pissed cuz the british were willing to delay the debts that Germany owed but he was not. Thus after getting really pissed he got the Belgium chags to go with his French empire and acquire Ruhr. This lead to German unemployment.
The tiny island that Napoleon was granted after his abdication. Off the coast of Italy.
Soren Kierkegaard
(1813-1855) A Danish religious philosopher, he rejected formalistic religion. He eventually religiously commited to a formalistic and majestic G-d.
The Popular Front (French: Front Populaire)
was an alliance of the Communists, Socialists, and Radicals for the national elections of May 1936 due to the growing strength of the fascists. The Popular Front's clear victory reflected the trend toward polarization. The number of Communists in parliament increased and the Socialists led by Leon Blum became the strongest party in France, with 146 seats. The Popular Front attempted to deal with the social and economic problems of the 1930s in France. It encouraged the union movement and launched a far reaching program of social reform, complete with paid vacations and a forty hour workweek. The Popular Front collapses in 1937 due to rapid inflation.
Leon Trotsky
Lead the Bolsheviks of Russian along side Lenin. He was a spellbinding revolutionary orator and independent racial Marxist, who brilliantly executed the Bolshevik seizure of power by convincing the Petrograd Soviet to form a special military-revolutionary committee and make him its leader. His soldiers joined with the Bolsheviks to overtake members of the provisional government and win the vote of the Congress of soviets. He was also leader of the Red Army in the civil war.(908,910)
James Watt
(1736-1819) In early 1760s, this gifted young Scot was employed by the University of Glazgow as a skilled craftsman making scientific instruments. In 1763 he was called upon to Newcomen engine being used in a physics course. After a series of observations, Watt saw that adding a separate condenser could reduce the Newcomen engine's waste of energy. He patented the new steam engine in 1769, increasing the efficiency of the steam engine.
buildings should be useful and functional. Efficiency+clean lines. Architects had to work with engineers, town planners, sanitation experts. (ex: Le Corbusier)
National socialist German workers party
(Nazi Party) was a far-right, racist political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945.
1925 locarno agreement-
This political agreement ensured peace between the great nations. It included settled boundaries between countries and it ensured internvention from Britain and France if any one country starts to attack. This gave security and stability.
Central Powers
1914: Austria, Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire are known as Central powers during wars.
North German Confederation
Result of end of Austria-Prussian War, Austria doens't get involved in German affairs, North German Confederation made under rulership of Prussia. Bismark's first step towards German unification.
Ivan Pavlov
Russian physiologist, psychologist, and physician. Won the Nobel prize. Described classical conditioning, which is (thank you Wiki) Ivan Pavlov described the learning of conditioned behavior as being formed by pairing stimuli to condition an animal into giving a certain response. The simplest form of classical conditioning is reminiscent of what Aristotle would have called the law of contiguity, which states that
Kornilov Affair
in late 1917 Kerensky's commander in chief, General Laver Kornolov led a feeble attack against the provincial government in September; his forces were quickly defeated.
Sigmund Freud
Said that human behavior is irrational; behavior is the outcome of conflict between the id (irrational unconscious driven by sexual, aggressive, and pleasure-seeking desires) and ego (rationalizing conscious, what one can do) and superego (ingrained moral values, what one should do).
Modern working class; Bourgeoisie- middle class - Marx said that each of the groups exploited each other. Predicted that the proletariat would conquer bourgeoisie with violent revolution. Proletariat constantly growing in size and consciousness.
Woodrow Wilson
President Woodrow Wilson, in January 1918, created a peace proposal called the fourteen points, which stressed national self-determination and the rights of small countries. He was almost obsessed with creating the League of Nations. At the Paris Peace conference of 1919 Wilson helped create the Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations, which the United states never joined. He ensured that Germany's territorial losses after WWI were minor.
William Shakespeare
actor and playwright in Elizabethan literature; owned globe theater, which played his own work after 1603; famous for originality of characters, diversity of plots, understanding of human psychology, and unexcelled gift for language; he was a renaissance man in his appreciation for classical culture, individualism, and humanism; wrote comedies, tragedies, and histories; people see themselves in his characters
Decembrist Revolt
place in Russia on December 14 1825, Russian army officers led about 3,000 soldiers in a protest against Nicholas I's assumption of the throne after his elder brother Constantine removed himself from the line of succession.
Dayton Accord
On Nov. 21, 1995, after 21 days of intensive negotiations at an anything-but-luxurious American Air Force base in Dayton, Ohio, the three Bosnian leaders initialed a peace agreement and 11 annexes, known as the Dayton accords, to try to bring an end to nearly four years of terror and killing in the former Yugoslavia. About 250,000 people died and another 2.7 million were turned into refugees.
spinning mule
invented to spin cotton, by Crompton.
A tariff-free zone in Germany, in order to boost German economy. Also helps build German nationalism, advocated by Friedrich List.
Edict of Nantes
Henry IV (Navarre), 150 towns= freedom of worship for French Huguenots (Calvinists)
Lord Horatio Nelson
English admiral fought in battle of Trefalgar, died, became one of greatest naval heroes.
New Monarchs
exalted power of the sovereign, eliminated all opposition ruthlessly, ex.) Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain
Paul Gauguin
:(1843-1903) pioneered in expressionist techniques. painter doesn't need to represent objects how they actually look.
Kellog-Briand Pact
Proposed by American Secretary of State and French foreign minister Aristade Briand and was an international treaty planning for the renunciation of war an instrument of national policy. (pg.939)
Wright Brothers
Invented the airplane ((Ever seen around the world in 80 days?)
A system of local-self government instituted by Alexander II of Russia and after the October Revolution, the system was shut down. They consisted of a respresentative council and an executive board.
see above
Marie and Pierre Curie
Marie (1867-1934) a polish born physicist, and her husband Pierre discovered that radium constantly emits subatomic particles, which means it doesn't have a constant weight.
Max Planck
Discovered that atoms give off sub-atomic energy he called 'quanta'.
"Praise of Folly", humanist, education will lead to reform
F. Engels
Cowrote Communist Manifesto with Karl Marx, supported Marx, englishman. Publishes The Condition of the Working class in England, against middle class, says middle class corrupt and stealing wages of working class.
Thomas Edison
Inventor of the Lightbulb.
Greatest of enlightened philosophers; He was educated by Jesuits, and came to challenge Catholic Church. He believed in distant deistic God - a clockmaker who built an orderly world and let in run under laws of science. He hated religious intolerance and felt that religion suppressed human spirit. He wrote Candide against evils of organized religion. He argued for religious toleration in Treatise on Toleration. His deism was intended to construct a more natural religion based on reason and natural law. He was imprisoned in the Bastille for 11 months in 1717. Then he was exiled in England for 3 years, when he came to admire their system of government and advocated freedom of thought and respect for all. Lived on the court of Frederick the Great of Prussia from 1743, where he supporter Enlightened Despotism.
Mountain people
part of National convention. Led by Robespierre and Danton. Sat on uppermost left hand benches. More reactionary than Girondists; both competitive for power.
Mien Kampf
(My Struggle) is the signature work of Adolf Hitler, combining elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitler's political ideology of Nazism. Written while he was in prison for his role in the Beer hall Putsch
Charles Dickens
Realist novelist, Great Expectations, A Tale of Two Cities
Logical Empiricism
(logical positivism)- that philosophy was no more han clarification of thoughts and study of language, and couldn't answer great questions like the meaning of life.
for “ constitutional changes, uses national plebiscite( yes or no vote).
Joseph Lister
English surgeon. realizes aerial bacteria and wound infection. antiseptic principle. Very successful in limiting infection.
Wilson's 14 points
14 strongly emphasized points by Woodrow Wilson, these points were optimistic tried to strengthen countries with self determination. The most important point was to establish the League of Nations, all in all these ideas were discarded and dismissed.
Giuseppe Mazzini was the first person that tried to unify all of Italy. He preached a centralized democratic republic based on universal male suffrage and the will of the people. His brand of democratic republicanism seemed too radical for the people. Austria smashed Mazzini's republicanism in 1848.
Francis Bacon
English politician and writer, advocated that new knowledge was acquired through an inductive reasoning process (using specific examples to prove or draw conclusion from a general point) called empiricism; rejected Medieval view of knowledge based on tradition, believed it's necessary to collect data, observe, and draw conclusions. This was the foundation of the scientific method
Greek Independance
Greek patriots broke free from Ottoman rule, supported by Western countries of Britain and France, and Russia, popular support, broke free, led by Alexander Ypsilanti, nationalism rise.
T.S. Eliot
rejects progress, writes of "anti-utopias"; wrote The Waste Land, which depicts a world of growing desolation, although after his conversion to Anglo-Catholicism in 1927, Eliot came to hope cautiously for humanity's salvation
Pure Abstraction
Abstract, nonrepresentational art founded by Kandinsky, look at color combination and form as representation of mood, not objects. ((Subgroups=surrealism, dadaism))
Third French Republic
French Republic started after the end of the Franco-Prussian War, which led to the demise of Napolean III, and survived until the invasion of the German third Reich. It was the longest regime from after the French Revolution.
Nazi dictator of Germany, born in Austria: Chancellor 1933-45; right now however he did not have the power he wanted and was arrested for trying
Reaction to Classicism, love of nature, idealization of common man, civilization corrupts, emotions, boundlessness, imagination.
A subatomic particle, was the most important one, has the capacity to pass through other atoms. Led to the creation of the atomic bomb.
Edmund Spenser
author of Faerie Queene in Elizabethan era, one of the greatest moral epics in any language
Ottoman Empire
Centered in Constantinople, the Turkish imperial state that conquered large amounts of land in the Middle East, North Africa, and the Balkans, and fell after World War I.
see impressionalism above
Peterloo Massacre
Massacre which was supposed to be a peaceful protest, but turned out to be a horrible disaster in England.
Great Depression-
the economic crisis and period of low business activity in the U.S. and other countries, roughly beginning with the stock-market crash in October, 1929, and continuing through most of the 1930s.
Eugene Delacroix
French romantic painter, master of dramatic colorful scenes that stirred the emotions. Greatest romantic painters. Fascinated with remote and exotic subjects. Masterpiece: Liberty Leading the People
Roman Catholic Council of Trent
Cath. Church tries to combat problems: simony, pluralism, absenteeism, nepotism, etc., also tries to improve education of the clergy
Vincent van Gough
(1853-1890) Dutch. The Starry Night-moving vision of his mind's eye.
Russian Civil War
lasted around November 1918 - spring of 1920, White guard fought Red army under Bolsheviks + Lenin. Red army won.
a literary technique which seeks to portray an individual's point of view by giving the written equivalent of the character's thought processes
Jethro Tull
English innovator, better farming methods through empirical research. Using horses instead of oxen, sowing seed w/ drilling equipment instead of by hand.
Triple Entente
Great Britian, France, and Russia allied together to stop Germany's aspirations. They also worked to keep a hold on Austria-Hungary.
3. Perestroika
Is the Russian term (which passed into English) for the economic reforms introduced in June 1985 by the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. Its literal meaning is "restructuring", referring to the restructuring of the Soviet economy. To do this Gorbachev and his supporters permitted an easing of government price controls on some goods.
Herman Hesse
(1877-1962) A German born poet, novelist, and painter, his most famous works include Steppenwolf, Siddhartha, and The Glass Bead Game.
V. Da Gama
reached India
John Maynard Keynes
An English economist who eloquently denounced the Treaty of Versailles in his famous Economic consequences of peace (1919) He believed that astronomical reparations and harsh economic measures would impoverish Germany and also increase economic hardship in all countries and that only a complete revision of the foolish treaty could save Germany.
painter, "the Jewish Bride"
*G. Flaubert
Great French novelist. Madame Bovary
Ethnic cleansing
Refers to various policies or practices aimed at the displacement of an ethnic group from a particular territory in order to create ethnically pure society. The Serbs instituted a policy of "ethnic" cleansing, whose goal was to force non-Serbs out of all areas that the Serbs conquered.
Firmly committed to the vision of a constitutional monarchy, the Octobrists were a liberal party who pushed for the enforcement of the October Manifesto.
Dawes Plan
A plan to revive the German economy, the United States loans Germany money which then can pay reparations to England and France, who can then pay back their loans from the U.S. This circular flow of money was a success.
Lateran Treaty
(1929) Recognized the Vatican as an independent state, also agreed to give the Vatican heavy financial support. This led the Pope to urge his fellow catholics to support Mussolini.
John Kay
In the early eighteenth century, Kay invented the flying shuttle, which enabled the weaver of a loom to throw the shuttle back and forth between the threads with one hand.
Otto von Bismark
Prussian Diplomat responsible for the unification of Germany. Cunning politician, fights Danes with Austrians and Germans. Expels Austrians from Zollverein, fights Austrian-Prussian war w/ help of Germans. Gets North Germkan Confederation, led by Prussia. Then fights French, Franco-Prussian war, gets rest of Germany and Alsace-Lorraine. Diplomat under William I of Prussia, and then Wiliam II, who makes the mistake of firing him.
Seated Germany's lower house of Parlimrent, it burned in 1933 and Hitler blamed it on the communist, this event led to Hitler becoming the absolute dictator in Germany.
Dreyfus Affair
A Jewish captain was falsely accused and convicted of comitting treason, really done by Catholic. Family and leading intellectual individuals and republicans like Zola wanted to reopen the case. Split in two, first army who are antisemetic and Catholic, and other side the civil libertarians and more radical republicans. Result is government severed all ties with church, no longer priests in state schools, catholicism loses a lot of power of indoctrination.
Hundred Days
The return of Napoleon after Louis XVIII fled. Tried to fight against the allies, but was crushed at Waterloo on June 18,1815.
Treaty of Westphalia
Ended 30 Years War; Treaty signed at Munster and Osnabruck, ending religious wars; the sovereignty of over 300 German princes recognized, limiting power of Holy roman Emperor; independence in United Provinces of the Netherlands recognized; France received Alsace, Sweden received large cash indemnity and control over German territories along Baltic Sea; Papacy denied right to participate in German religious affairs; Augsburg agreement remained permanent; Calvinism became legally permissible creed.
a new artistic movement during the 1920's and 1930's that attacked all accepted standards of art and behavior, delighting in outrageous conduct. Its name came from the French word dada meaning "hobbyhorse" which is deliberately nonsensical. The most famous example is the Mona Lisa by Da Vinci.
Socialist realism
a style of realistic art, the art was meant to further the goals of communism and socialism.
Gustav Streseman
German liberal politician, served as Chancellor and Foreign Secretary during the Weimar Republic. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1926.
Russian federation
A new Russia not part of the Soviet Union.
James Hargreaves
a gifted carpenter invented the cotton-spinning Jenny about 1765. The spinning Jenny was simple and inexpensive. In early models, from six to twenty-four spindles were mounted on a sliding carriage, and each spindle spun a fine, slender thread. The woman moved the carriage back and forth with one hand and urned a wheel to supply power with the other.
Cardinal Richelieu
minister of King Louis XVIII, appointed by Marie de Medici , had the real power, wanted to curb power of nobility, 32 generalities, military provinces France was divided into
Dialectical Materialism ( Hegel 's Theory) -
Hegel believed that each age is characterized by a dominant set of ideas. These ideas oppose to old ideas, forming an antithesis, and this thesis and antithesis are the dialectic. Marx based his economic dialecxtic on this that the decline of agrarian feudalism is rise of industrial capitalism. (766)
Constitutional Democrats/Kadets/KDs
Mainly supported by professionals, the Const. Dem. Was a liberal party in Tsarist Russia. They demanded universal sufferage and a Constituent Assembly around 1905, the Russian Revolution. They were the left of the other movement, the Octobrists.
the Allies
After WWI, United States, Britain, {Japan}, France, Western powers who defeated Germany and dictated terms of treaty of Versailles.
Thomas Hobbes
Wrote Leviathan during English civil war, which claims that humans are unhappy and locked in a war against all in their original state of nature, but was protected by the absolute monarch. Thus man enters a social contract with the ruler in order to maintain law and order. A ruler had the right to put down rebellion by any means possible. He was overshadowed by John Locke.
Eastern Front
the eastern portion of the schleiffen plan, the intent was to quickly attack the Russian with the help of the Austro-Hungarian empire and take advantage of the slow Russian mobilization, 2,000,000 Russians were killed and it ended in the treaty of Brest-Litovsk.
Ems Dispatch/Telegram
Report that instigated the Franco-Prussian War. Part of plan to unify Germany, Bismark waving red flag in front of France.
Response to Romanticism, delighting in the everyday life, presenting small ordinary things and exulting them.
Quadruple Alliance
Met at the Congress of Vienna circa 1815. Consisted of Metternich- Austria, Great Britian- Castlereagh, Russia- Tsar Alexander , and Prussia. Divided up the power in Europe
Victor Emmanuel III
King of Italy from 1900-1946, was the king who gave Mussolini the right to rule.
Boccacio, survey of entire England before Ren., historically accurate
Triple Alliance
Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy.
National idea said that each people had its own genius and its own cultural unity. Unity in common language, history, and territory. Tried to turn cultural unities into political unties. Brought citizens together through emotion-filled ceremonies and symbols, like Independence Day. Most nationalist were also Liberalists. We-They outlook.
Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis
end of the Habsburg-Valois wars, Spain was victor, France had to pay huge indemnity to Spain.
April thesis
The Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin returned to the capital of Russia, Petrograd, on April 3, 1917, just over a month following the February Revolution which had brought about the establishment of the liberal Provisional Government. He set out his analysis of where Russian politics should develop in his famous April Theses published in the newspaper, Pravda. The theses dealt with various areas - for instance, the Bolshevik attitude to the First World War, their attitude to the Provisional Government, and how Russia should be governed in the future and the future of the Bolsheviks
Putting out system / Cottage system
The merchant loans raw materials to several cottage workers, who processed the raw materials in their own homes and returned the finished product to the merchant.
Treaty of Westphalia
1648, ended Thirty years' War with the following results: Peace of Augsburg renewed, Calvinism recognized; Edict of Restitution revoked; Power of Holy Roman Emperor weakened because every prince of the 300 German states gained sovereignty; France and Sweden gain territory from Holy Roman Empire; Switzerland and Holland (Netherlands) ger independence from Hapsburg rule; Papacy expelled from German religious affairs, symbolizing reduced role of Church in European politics; Age of religious wars ended, now wars fought to maintain balance of power
or expressionalists, desire to know and depict worlds other than the visible world of fact. Wanted to portray unseen, inner owrld of emotioins and imagination, like Romantics.Fascination with form instead of light.
Black Shirts
Mussolini's private army. He convinced the Black Shirts that they were not just the antitheist to the Red Shirts (the Communists) but that they were actually creating their own Revolution.
Red Guard
were armed groups of workers formed in the time frame of the Russian Revolution of 1917.
Carlsbad Decrees
Issued by Metternich, required 39 independent German states, including Prussia and Austria, to root out subversive ideas. (censorship) Also established permanent comittee with spies to punish any liberal or radical organization.
Marc Chagall
French painter, modern movements of Impressionalism.
Augustus Comte
French philosopher, first utopian socialist, wrote System of Positive Philosophy realism, all intellectual activity progresses through predictable stages. Believed applying scientific method, or positivist method,would soon discover the eternal laws of human relatiions
Dutch East Indies
The Netherlands. These were the colonies set up by the Dutch East India Company - Founded in 1602, this joint-stock company had total control over trading (mainly in spices) between the East Indies and the Netherlands.
Rene Descartes -- Believed it's necessary to doubt everything that can be doubted; Said, "I think therefore I am."
proving his belief in his own existence and nothing else; His view of the world, called Cartesian Dualism reduced natural law into matter and mind, or physical and spiritual; This, combined with Bacon's empiricism, became the Scientific method.
Pieter Brughel
Ren. Painter, realism (outside Italy)
Peninsular war
Napoleon puts his brother Joseph on throne of Spain;angers Spanish people , they revolted waging guerrilla war for a while. Eventually, British and Spanish forces under Duke of Wellington drive French out. One of reasons for Napoleon’s decline.
Henry Bessemer
(1813-1898) An English engineer who created the Bessemer procces, a process of producing steel, in which impurities are removed by forcing a blast of air through molten iron.
Alexander Kerensky
was elected Prime Minister of Russia in July 1917; he was a moderate socialist; he refused to confiscate large land holdings and give them to the peasants fearing this would destroy the peasant based army.
John Locke
Wrote Two Treatises on Government as justification of Glorious Revolution and end of absolutism in England. He argued that man is born good and has rights to life, liberty, and property. To protect these rights, people enter social contract to create government with limited powers. If a government did not protect these rights or exceeded its authority, Locke believed the people have the right to revolt. The ideas of consent of the governed, social contract, and right of revolution influenced the United States Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution. He also laid the foundations for criticism of absolute monarchy in France.
Prince Henry the Navigator
founded schools of navigation, his sailors found Guinea
Gustav Stresemann
Assumed leadership of Germany in August 1923. He called off passive resistance in the Ruhr and in October agreed in principle to pay preparations but ask for a re-examination of Germany's ability to pay.
Scientific Revolution
Began with the Heliocentric Theory of Copernicus; Shattered the Medieval view of the world based on Aristotelian; Ptolemaic and theological astronomers
Moroccan Crisis
British and French make deal, French accept Brit. rule in Egypt, Brit. support French to dominate Morrocco. Germany don't like alliance, don't accept, call international conference, Algeciras Conference of 1906, brings Brit+French closer together, Germany gets nothing except no friends except for Austria/Hungary. Anglo-French Entente of 1904 settled all colonial issues
Italian painter + sculptor, exs.) Statue of David, Sistine Chapel Ceiling
National Convention-middle class writes a constitution in 1795. Elect members of a reorganized legislative assembly-5 man executive. Continued to support French military expansion. Actions reinforced widespread disgust with war and starvation(shown in national elections). Use army to nullify elections, govern dictatorially.
Used observation rather than speculation to formulate ideas, such as laws on motion of falling bodies. Thus, he established experimentation as the cornerstone of science; Used telescope to discover 4 moons of Jupiter and the mountainous terrain of the moon, thus destroying the notion that planets were crystal spheres revolving around earth; Published Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems, which led to his arrest for heresy and having to publicly recant his views. This has come to symbolize the conflict between religion and scientific knowledge.
Thomas Coke
First Methodist Bishop, known as Father of Methodist Missions
Adolf Hitler
see chapter 29
Battle of Trefalgar-
British forces destroy French navy; gives England command of seas and end Napolaon’s plan to invade British isles. ]
Schlieffen Plan
Attack plan by Germans, proposed by Schliffen, lightning quick attack against France. Proposed to go through Belgium then attack France, Belgium resisted, other countries took up their aid, long fight, used trench warfare.
Sergei Witte
A highly influential policy maker who presided over extensive industrialization within the Russian Empire. He was the author of the October Manifesto and was the Prime Minister of the Russian Empire. He was heavily involved in economics of Russia and pursued an ambitious program of railway construction.
Robert Fulton
(1765-1815) An American engineer and inventor who developed the first useful submarine and torpedo (1800) and produced the first practical steamboat, the Clermont (1807). (not in book, sounds right)
Frederick Chopin
Composer romantic Revolutionary Etude
Civil war broke out in Yugoslavia. As the Communist regime fell, Yugoslavia was divided up into Serbia, Bosnia-Hergezovenia, Macedonia, Croatia and Slovenia. Fighting soon broke out inside these areas, as Serbs attempted to gain control of the entire territory. The Serbs instituted a policy of "ethnic" cleansing, whose goal was to force non-Serbs out of all areas that the Serbs conquered.
Sir Isaac Newton
Greatest figure of the Scientific Revolution; organized ideas of previous scientists into one system of mathematical laws to explain the orderly manner in which the planets revolve around the sun. The key feature of this thesis was the law of universal gravitation, which states that every body in the universe attracts every other body in precise mathematical relationships. Such proof showed that the universe operated by rules, which could be explained through math, and that religious interpretation was not the sole means of comprehending the forces of nature.
Catherine de Medici
wife of Henry II, holds power during reigns of her sons, orders assass. Of Gaspard de Coligny, ignites St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre.
Franz Schubert
Austrian romantic composer
Published work of many philosphes in his Encyclopedia. He hoped it would help people think more rationally and critically.
A member of a secret political association in Italy, organized in the early part of the nineteenth century for the purpose of changing the government into a republic. (not in book, sounds right...)
Treaty of Versailles
Says that Germany loses all colonies and European territories, they were obligated to limit their army to 200,000 men and pay appx. $38 billion. They also had to admit responsibility for the war. From many nations were created such as Yugoslavia and Serbia. The treaty proved a failure and America and Britain backed out, carving the way to WWII.
Reign of terror
(1793-1794).used revolutionary terror to solidify homefront.special courts judged severely, 40,000 executed, 300,000 in prison. Some say wasn’t directed at any single class, but whoever opposed the revolutionary government.
B. Dias
Rounded Cape of Good Hope, then forced to turn back
In literature, Symbolism was an aesthetic movement that encouraged writers to express their ideas, feelings, and values by means of symbols or suggestions rather than by direct statements. Symbolist writers, in reaction to earlier 19th-century trends (the romanticism of novelists such as Victor Hugo, the realism and naturalism of Gustave Flaubert and Émile Zola), proclaimed that the imagination was the true interpreter of reality.
Concern for the capability and uniqueness of the individual personality
this word refers to a village or community with the idea that all members of a community must work together cooperatively to assure mutual survival (thus the sharing of work, food and in the cold winter months warmth).
Ursaline Order
female-only group of Catholics formed to combat the Reformation (counter-reformation) with the Jesuits.
Leo Tolstoy
Greatest russian realist, combines realism in description &character development w/ atypical moralizing. War and Peace
Marcel Proust
20th century French author; wrote semi-autobiographical Remembrance of things Past, which recalls bittersweet memories of childhood and youthful love and tries to discover their innermost meaning; lived like a hermit in a soundproof apartment for ten years, withdrawing form the present to live in the past.
4. Demokratizatsiya
Beginning as an attack on corruption in the Communist party, it led to the first free elections in the Soviet Union since 1917. It was a slogan introduced by General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev in January 1987 calling for the infusion of "democratic" elements into the Soviet Union's increasingly old political process. For Gorbachev, demokratizatsiya meant the introduction of multi-candidate--not multiparty--elections for local Communist Party (CPSU) and soviet offices. In this way, he hoped to rejuvenate the party with progressive personnel who would carry out his institutional and policy reforms. The CPSU would retain sole custody of the ballot box.
like philosophes, but with economics instead of social ideas
German Empire
Unified by Bismark of Prussia, the German empire was created after the Franco-Prussian war. This Empire evolved into Germany, which played a key part in both WWI and WWII.
German philosopher, helped develop Existentialism. author of Being and Time (1927).
George Orwell
(1903-1950) 1984 -ultimate anti utopian literature. Dictator(Big Brother) and totalitarian state strip a weak individual of his dignity. "if you want picture of the future, imagine a boot stamping on a human face." Bestseller.
Social Revolutionaries
The Social Revolutionaries were a group of people who directly opposed the Russian Duma and performed acts of terrorism, both political and agrarian, in order to get their points across. This broke off into the Bolsheviks and Mensheviks.
Hans Holbein
Ren. Painter, drew portrait of Erasmus
revival of the old classics of literature
Rotten buroughs
parliamentary constituency in Great Britain and Ireland which, Because of size and population, ruled and used by a patron to exercise undue and unrepresentative influence within parliament.
Pierre Bayle
wrote Historical and Critical Dictionary examining religious beliefs and persecutions of the past. He found that human beliefs were very varied and often wrong. He concluded that nothing can ever be known beyond all doubt, and that one's best hope was open-minded toleration. This skepticism was very influential. His Dictionary was the most popular book in private French libraries at that time.
repeated Cortez' feat in Peru, established "Viceroyalty of Peru" for Spanish crown
Johannes Kepler
Assistant to Brahe; used Brahe's data to prove that the earth moved in an elliptical, not circular, orbit; Wrote 3 laws of planetary motion based on mechanical relationships and accurately predicted movements of planets in a sun-centered universe; Demolished old systems of Aristotle and Ptolemy
5. Solidarity
Is a Polish trade union federation founded in September 1980 at the then Lenin Shipyards, and originally led by Lech Wałęsa. It was the first non-communist trade union in a communist country. In the 1980s it constituted a broad anti-communist social movement. The government attempted to destroy the union with the martial law of 1981 and several years of repressions, but in the end it had to start negotiating with the union.
Labor Party
English political party, champion of the working classes and of greater social equality, wanted moderate revisionist socialism (emerged pre-WWI), replaces Liberty party as against Conservatives.
Franco-Prussian War
Bismark starts a war with France to get the rest of Germany to ally with Prussia to complete the unification of Germany. They win and France gives up Alsace-Lorraine, which makes France eternally hate Germany.
I. Turgenev
Major Russian novelist and playwright, writes Fathers and Sons, (Realist)
The prime minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown. He established a repressive fascist regime that valued nationalism, militarism, anti-liberalism and anti-communism combined with strict censorship and state propaganda. Mussolini became a close ally of German dictator Adolf Hitler, whom he influenced. Mussolini entered World War II in June, 1940 on the side of Nazi Germany. Three years later, the Allies invaded Italy. In April 1945 Mussolini attempted to escape to German-controlled Austria, only to be captured and killed near Lake Como by Communist Resistance units.
printing press
invented by Johann Gutenberg in 1454; first book was Gutenberg Bible; changed private and public lives of Europeans; used for war declarations, battle accounts, treaties, propaganda; laid basis for formation of distinct political parties; enhanced literacy, people sought books on all subjects
People's Budget
Strongly advocated for by Winston Churchill, the People's Budget was a philosophy of a very liberal form of government which included many unprecedented taxes on the wealthy and radical social welfare programs to Britain's political life.
Opium Wars
England's successful efforts to force China to allow the sale of opium in China, beginning in 1839. China's imperial government opposed the sale, but England's forces were too strong. England's colony, India, was a major source of opium and needed markets for the supply it produced.
Mary Shelly
Wife of Percy, writer of Frankenstein
Weimar Republic
The new German republic the in 1921 owed 33 billion annually to the allied reparations commission. In order to recover from its severe economic issues the annual fees were reduced each year depending on the level of German economic prosperity and Germany received large loans each year from the United States.
Developed by Comte, believed that progress and advancement in technologies, intellectually, and socialogically through the use of the scientific method
Concordat of Bologna-
French kings gained right to appoint all French priests/abbots in exchange for giving papacy power over a supreme universal council
*factory system
people would move to cities, work in factories, initially textile industries.
a group of friars with the Dominicans, can't find much other than that srry.
Alexander Pushkin
Greatest Russian Romantic poet, rejecting classical forms, molds modern literary language.
The "majority" - Communist party led by Lenin. Although they were not the majority and actually received a terrible percentage of the Russian Congress's vote, Lenin kept the name to create attraction and support. After the Russian Congress received the low voting, the Bolsheviks and Lenin took over and simply disregarded the Russian Congress from there on out.
Max Planck-
(1858-1957) built on the discoveries of the Curie's, he said that energy is emitted in uneven little spurts which he called "Quanta" and not in even streams. His discovery called into question the old sharp theory, that matter was different then energy. The old view that atoms were the stable, building blocks of nature was badly shaken because of Planck.
"Bloody Sunday"
When peaceful demonstrators marched to Tsar Nicholas II with a petition but were then gunned down by the Imperial Guard. The petition and march were organized by Father Gapon who was paid by the Okhrana, the Russian secret police. The Okhrana employed him so that he could disrupt the Russian government's activities from within the Russian government - I'm not sure of the point of that, but they did it. The term for someone who does this is "agent provocateur".
White guard
During the Russian civil war, the white army was the opposition to the red army, or the Bolsheviks, led by Lenin. The white guard was led by old army officers and consisted of Southern Russia, Ukraine, Siberia, and west of Petrograd. They came from many social groups and were united by their hated of the Bolsheviks. White lost the war because the Reds controlled the center, and Whites were disunited on the outside. Whites were vaguely conservative which did not unite all foes of Bolsheviks, who had a better army.
Army Order #1
stripped officers of their authority and placed power in the hands of elected committees of common soldiers; designed to protect the revolution from a counter revolution; issued in 1917.
any of certain associations of students formed to promote patriotism, Christian conduct, and liberal ideas. (not in book, hope its right....)
Tycho Brahe
Influenced by Copernicus; Built observatory and collected data on the locations of stars and planets for over 20 years; His limited knowledge of mathematics prevented him from making much sense out of the data.
Arnold Schonberg
A Viennese composer who led modern composer in abandoning traditional harmony and tonality. He composed 12 tone music of the 1920's that arranged all 12 notes of the scale in an abstract, mathematical pattern, or "tow Row"
Thinkers of the Enlightenment; Wanted to educate the socially elite, but not the masses; were not allowed to openly criticize church or state, so used satire and double-meaning in their writings to avoid being banned; Salons held by wealthy women also kept philosophes safe; They considered themselves part of an intellectual community, and wrote back and forth to each other to share ideas.
New Deal
the policies of social and economic reform introduced in the United States between 1933-1938 with the goal of relief, recovery and reform of the United States economy during the Great Depression under the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt. Roosevelt's basic goal was to reform capitalism in order to preserve it. Roosevelt created relief programs like the WPA to help him with his New Deal.
means leader in German language. mainly used as the term for Nazi Germany's absolute ruler Adolf Hitler.
2. Glasnost
is a Russian word for "transparency" or "openness." Mikhail Gorbachev used the term to describe a program of reform introduced to the Soviet Union in 1985 whose goals included combating corruption and the abuse of privilege by the political classes. The Glasnost's goal was to increase public discussion of issues and accessibility of information to the public. The policy met resistance during the 1986 Chernobyl disaster, when authorities hid the true extent of the nuclear accident for several days.
Johann von Goethe
German romantic, poetry and drama, Gotz von Berlichingen, play aobut a knight who revolted, championed individual freedom
James Joyce
wrote Ulysses, the most famous and disturbing of the stream-of-consciousness novels, an account of an ordinary day in the life of an ordinary man, and ironic parallel between his hero's aimless wanderings through the streets and pubs of Dublin and the adventures of Homer's hero Ulysses on the way home from Troy. Abandoning conventional grammar and blending foreign words, puns, bits of knowledge, and scraps of memory together in bewildering confusion, the language of Ulysses is intended to mirror modern life itself: a gigantic riddle waiting to be unraveled.
Balfour Declaration
a 1917 British mandate that declared British support of a National Home for the Jewish people in Palestine.
Karl Jasper
Was a philosopher, believed in modern existentialism, made it popular.
Concordat of 1801
reaffirmed the Roman Catholic Church as the major religion(but religious toleration for all) of France and restored some of its civil status(pleased Catholic French which were majority)government could nominate bishops, but pope can remove them. [During the French Revolution, the National Assembly had confiscated Church properties and issued the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, which made the Church a department of the State, removing it from the authority of the Pope. Subsequent laws abolished the traditional Gregorian Calendar and Christian holidays.] This restored some ties to the papacy, largely in favor of the state; the balance of church-state relations was good for Napoleon Bonaparte.
concern w/ here-and-now (physical) rather than the spiritual
what the hell is she talking about?
The party which opposed to the Bolsheviks. Started in 1903 by Martov, after dispute with Lenin. THE Mensheviks wanted a democratic party with mass membership.
Paul Gaugin
French painter, pioneers in expressionalist techniques, infused work with mysticism and tranquility.
Women's Suffrage
Due to the heavy involvement of women in the working force during World War I, after World War I most European countries granted Women's Suffrage - the right of women to vote.
developed radio with transatlantic 'wireless' communication. (?Developed vacuum tube for transmission of speech and sound?)
Sir Thomas More
"Utopia", perfiect life a Christain man should live
Count Di Cavour
Sardinian diplomat under Victor Emmanuel, sought to unite northern Italy under Sardinia. However, he knew that Sardinia alone could not kick out the Austrians. Therefore, he made a secret alliance with Napolean III of France. Cavour goaded Austria into attacking Sardinia, France and Sardinia winning. France losing alot of troops, decides doesn't want to lose any more forces, also doesn't want strong nation to lose, and alienating the Catholics in helping Pope's delcared enemy. Makes treaty with Austria, Sardinia only gets Lombardy, area around Milan. During war, alot of Italian nationalism, Central Italy joins kingdom of Sardinia. Eventually, after befriending Girabaldi, unites all of Italy.
Ignatius de Loyola
establishes Jesuits- take vow of poverty and attempt to keep people dedicated Catholics
Ruhr Valley
Is in Western Germany, it is part of the Rhineland. When Hitler took control of this area, if France would have attacked him, Hitler would have retreated, it was the allies last chance to stop Hitler.
of Valois, was going to be married before St. Barth. Day Massacre to Henry III of France (trying to unite Catholics w/ Protetants in France)
Western Front
the western part of the schleiffen plan, this is where France, Britain and later America battled Germany. Took place through the neutral Belgium. The front left
Wassily Kandinsky
A Russian-born artist who turned completely away from nature and focused on Dadaism.
Victor Hugo
Writes Hunchback of Notre Dame, equated freedom in literature with liberty in politics and society. Starts out Conservative, renounces ways, opposite of Wordsworth. Also Lai Miserabs-Miserable Ones, France from Napoleanic Wars to 1848. Romantic author
Is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). It is located in the Northern Caucasus Mountains, in the Southern Federal District. It borders Stavropol Krai to the northwest, the republic of Dagestan to the northeast and east, Georgia to the south, and the republics of Ingushetia and North Ossetia to the west. During the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Chechen-Ingush ASSR was split into the Republic of Ingushetia which wanted to remain part of Russia and the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria which sought independence. Following the bloody First Chechen War with Russia, which included a mass exodus of non-Chechen minorities, the republic gained a de facto sovereignty, although only the Afghan Taliban government recognized it in January 2000. Russian federal control was restored after the Second Chechen War. Since then there was a systematic reconstruction and rebuilding process, though unrest remains an issue.
Treaty of Utrecht
1713, ended War of Spanish Succession between Louis XIV's France and the rest of Europe; prohibited joining of French and Spanish crowns; ended French expansionist policy; ended golden age of Spain; vastly expanded British Empire
A movement against classicism and the enlightenment. Characterized by a belief in emotional exuberance and unrestrained imagination.
Congress of Trappau
conference of the Quadruple Allianceto discussss means of suppressing the revolution in Naples, and at which the Troppau Protocol was signed on November 19th.
Young plan
program for settlement of German reparations after World War I. Presented by American Owen D. Young. Set the total reparations at $26,350,000,000 to be paid over a period of 58½ years. Was adopted by the Allied Powers in 1930 to supersede the Dawes Plan.
Georges Boulanger
A French soldier who was among France's Third Republic members who attacked and destroyed the Paris Commune. He also introduced various reforms all on the path for better rights and benefits of soldiers.
Red Shirts
Girabaldi's Guerilla troops, volunteers fighting b/c inspired by nationalism.
The Courtier
Castiglione, explains the lifestyle of a proper gentleman, ex.) well-versed in poetry, literature, music, dance, etc.
Charles Darwin
Believed in evolution, spurred by struggle for survival, writes On the Origin of Speices by the Means of Natural Selection,. Influenced by Malthus.
F. Dostoevsky
Russian author, some say founder of existentialism, deals with emotional and destructive elements of father-son relationship in novel The Borthers Karamazov
William Faulkner
America's greatest 20th century novelist; wrote The Sound and the Fury, much of whose drama is confusedly seen through the eyes of an idiot.
Dawes Plan
The U.S lent money to Germany to help pay France&Britian so they could pay the U.S. this plan ensured payments of reparations by Germany after World War I, it was devised by an international committee headed by Charles Gates Dawes and put into effect in 1924.
Industrial Revolution
a term first coined by awed contemporaries in the 1830s to describe the burst of major inventions and technical changes they had witnessed in certain industries. C. 1760-1850. Ms. Newton says its still continuing today though.
John Knox
reformed Church of Scotland, Presbyters (Presbyterian movement), "Book of Common Order" for prayer services
Citizen Capet
Louis convicted in front of national convention of treason, voted guilty. Stripped of all titles and honorifics by the egalitarian, republican government, Citizen Louis Capet was guillotined in front of a cheering crowd
Dilectical materialism
Marx's edition to Hegels theory, Dialectic in terms of economy, two conflicting view will make a third, better one.
WPA (Work Projects Administration)
Roosevelt and his advisers tried to stop mass unemployment and by doing so they created agencies. One popular one was the Work Projects Administration of 1935, it employed millions of people. One fifth of the entire labor force worked for the WPA at some point in the 1930s, constructing public buildings, bridges, and highways. The WPA was part of Roosevelt's commitment of the New Deal; The commitment to use the federal government to provide for the welfare of all Americans.
Vincent van Gough
(1853-1890) Dutch. The Starry Night-moving vision of his mind's eye. Painter. Paints Inner emotion, wild imagination, expressionalism
Thomas Newcomen
Invented the first steam engine in 1705. (Thomas Savery created first one in 1698. Maybe Newcomen's was more widespread.) Both burned coal to produce steam, which was then used to operate a pump. By earl 1770s, many of the engines were operating successfully, though inefficiently, in English and Scottish mines.
Brown shirts
another name for the Storm troopers (S.A.) (see above)
Duke of Alva
sent by Phillip II to "pacify" Netherlands, establishes Council of Blood- 12,000 people killed in one day
Pablo Picasso
Artistic who founded cubism, concentrated on geometry of zigzagging lines and sharply angled, overlapping planes.
Lech Walesa
A Polish politician, a former trade union and human rights activist, and also a former electrician. He co-founded Solidarity, the Soviet bloc's first independent trade union, won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983, and served as President of Poland from 1990 to 1995.
Peter Stolypin
Prime minister of Russia from 1906-1911. He was very involved in fighting radical groups and he also took upon himself various agrarian reforms - which he thought and were proven to be essential for the Russian economy.
Franz Kafka:
(1883-1924) The Trial, The Castle, short stories-portray helpless people crushed by very hostile forces.
the style of art depicting objects in real proportions, begins in Ren., contrasts with Medieval Art (out of proportion)
Socialist who came to power and created the Bolshevik (Russia Communist) party. Along with Trotsky, he defeated the Whites in the Russian Civil
Gustavus Adolphus
joins Thirty Years' War in 1629, king of Sweden, Protestant leader, stands up for fellow Protestants, military genius, wins a lot for Protestant team; supported by Richelieu, who wants to end Hapsburg power; killed in 1632 at battle of Luetzen
30 Years' War
a) began w/ Defenestration of Prague, Bohemian Phase, Ferdinand II (HRE) makes Bohemia fully Catholic. B) Danish Phase- Albert of WSallenstein defeats Christain IV of Denmark, begins feuding w/ Catholic League, divided into factions now. C) Swedish Phase- Gustavus Adolphus (Protestant), ened Habsburg ambition of uniting all German states under Catholic Rule. D) French/International Phase- Richelieu helps Swedes, war drags on, ends in Peace of Westphalia.
David Hume
Building on Locke's teachings, he argued that the mind was just a bundle of impressions. These impressions originate only in sense experiences and our habits of joining these experiences together. Since out ideas ultimately reflect only our sense experiences, our reason can't tell us anything about questions that cannot be verified by sense experience (in the form of controlled experiments or math), such as the origin of the universe and the existence of God. These ideas undermined the Enlightenment's faith in the power of reason.
Thermidorean Reaction
Robespierre kills those who criticized him for being soft on the wealth, led by Jacques Hebert. Several of Robespierre’s collaborators and Danton guillotined. Radicals and moderates take down Robespierre on 9 Thermidor, next day guillotined. Middle class lawyers and professionals reasserted authority. National Convention abolished many economic controls, restricted organizations of sans-culottes…
Spanish and Austrian, ruling family, dreamed of uniting Europe under Catholic Rule, stopped by Adolphus, enemies of France/Richelieu.
July Days
refers to events in 1917 that took place in Petrograd, Russia, between July 4 and 7 July (Julian calender) (July 16-July 20, Gregorian calender), when soldiers and industrial workers in the city rioted against the Russian Provisional Government. Most significantly, the outcome of the July Days represented a temporary decline in the growth of Bolshevik power and influence in the period before the October Revolution.\
Henrik Ibsen
Norweigianplaywright, 'father of modern realistic drama'. Ibsen's work examined the realities that lay behind many facades, possessing a revelatory nature that was disquieting to many contemporaries.Ibsen largely founded the modern stage by introducing a critical eye and free inquiry into the conditions of life and issues of morality. Ibsen's work examined the realities that lay behind many facades, possessing a revelatory nature that was disquieting to many contemporaries.
Dual Monarchy
A union of two monarchies where the thrones of each monarchy are integrated. (Example - Austria-Hungary, Barndenburg-Prussia, etc.)
Chief minister and regent to Louis XIV; tried to continue Richelieu's centralizing policies, but his attempts to increase royal revenue led to the civil wars known as the Fronde; He could not control nobility as Richelieu had.
The Curie's
Marie (1867-1934) a polish born physicist, and her husband Pierre discovered that radium constantly emits subatomic particles, which means it doesn't have a constant weight.
Jean-Paul Sartre
(1905-1980) was a modern existentialist, believed that human beings just turn up on the scene, and once they "turn up" they seek to define themselves. He also believed that honest human beings were very lonely because they have no G-d to help them. Sartre epitomized the modern existentialist, because the belief in G-d, reason, and progress became shattered.
Treaty of Brest Litovsk
after losing major territory the Russians surrendered and agreed to sign the treaty. The treaty sliced about a third of the Russians western territory away. This officially brought the end of the Russian empire.
Self-proclaimed holy man who claimed to heal the sick and have prophecy. He had much influence over Tsarina Alexandra and she often went to him for advise on political issues. He was believed to be having a sexual affair with Tsarina Alexandra and was assassinated by three members of the higher aristocracy; Tsarina Alexandra was very distraught and depressed due to his death (coincidence? I think not). (905)
The rich farmers/peasants of Russia. Stolypin believed that if farmers and peasants were given help or provided with more rights which would increase their monetary benefits they would support the Tsar - and indeed, the kulaks did provide a lot of support for the tsar.
Ferdinand and Isabella
"new monarchs", stresses power of monarch and sovereign, and loyalty of all subjects, start Spanish Inquisition- the pope approves it, against Jews and any non-Catholics in Spain
Night of the long knives
Purge of Adolf Hitler's potential political rivals in the Sturmabteilung (SA). targeted SA leaders and members who were associated more with socialism than with nationalism, and were viewed as a threat to the continued support for Hitler within the Army.
Holy Alliance
Formed by Austria, Prussia, and Russia in September 1815, was first proposed by Russias Alexander 1, soo became symbol of revolutions in Europe.
Robert Schumann
German composer pianist and musician, one of the best of the romantics
W. Gladstone
British liberty party (from Whigs) statesman and prime minister. Rival of Disraeli. Under Peel's party. Free Trade Liberalism, worked to reduce public expenditures. Introduced bills to give Ireland own rule.
September Massacres
follows Louis’ imprisonment (1792). Stories that aristocrats and priests plotting with allied invaders. Angry crowds of sans culottes led by Danton invade prisons of Paris, killed 1,000 prisoners they thought were against the republic.
Joseph Stalin
Stalin became dictator of Russia after Lenin's death in 1924. He led the USSR through World War II and into the Cold War. He died in 1953 and is remembered for his brutal purges in his nation. (958,959)
Stalin Constitution
adopted on December 5 1936, also known as the soviet constitution, repealed voting restrictions, allowed every adult to vote. It also recognized social and economic rights in the USSR.
Da Vinci
epidemy of the Ren., painter, philosopher, writer, ex.) Mona Lisa
Emile Zola
giant of Realism movement in literature, articulated the key themes. Depicted life as it was, everyday life, rejected romantic search for exotic and sublime. wrote about typical and commonplace, focused on middle class and then working class. Zola a determinist, human actjion were casued by unalterable natural laws, heredity and environment determined human behavior.
British passenger boat sunk by a German submarine that claimed 1,000 lives. One of main reasons Amereica decided to join the war.
Joseph gobbles
German politician and Minister for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda during the National Socialist regime from 1933 to 1945. He was one of Adolf Hitler's closest associates and most devout followers.
Charlie Chaplin
a funny Englishman working in Hollywood that was unquestionably the king of the "silver screen" in the 1920's. He symbolized the "gay spirit of laughter in a cruel and crazy world." He also demonstrated that in the hands of a genius, the new medium could combine mass entertainment and artistic accomplishment.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
He was committed to individual freedom, but thought that rationalism and civilization corrupt man. Spontaneous feeling was to replace the coldness of intellectualism. Man is born good and needs protection from society. This influenced the Romantic Movement of the nineteenth century. His book, The Social Contract tells how social inequalities develop when people sign a social contract agreeing to surrender to the general will in order to be free. This creates a government as a necessary evil to carry out general will. If general will fails, people can replace it. This has justified actions in the French revolution and in Hitler's regime. He also wrote Emile that attacked society and proposed a new theory of education. He called for focus on logical thinking, reason, love, tenderness, and understanding toward children. He wanted children to be raised naturally and spontaneously in order to raise their emotional awareness.
Beer Hall Putsch
was a failed coup d'état that occurred between the evening of Thursday, November 8 and the early afternoon of Friday, November 9, 1923 when the Nazi party's Adolf Hitler tried to overthrow the German government.
Before the early soviets, many nations that Russia ruled over adopted Russian culture, language etc. which is termed Russification. However, once the soviets took power, they believed they needed to reverse this russification so that their colonies and faraway lands would be socialist/soviet in content but also have a hint of their own nationality in order for it be a successful system.
Lord Byron
British romantic writer. (Also me)
Gropius merged schools of fine art(painting, sculpture)and applied arts(printing,weaving,furniture making). Stressed good design for everyday life. Major proponent of functional and industrial forms.
artist, during Ren., painted in "perspective"- depiction of distance and space on a flat surface
The Soviets formed the Petrograd Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies. This additional political body continually checked the provisional government's power and ultimately weakened the provisional government's power. Most notably they decreed the "Army Order No. 1" which took away officers of their authority and placed power in the hands of elected committees of common soldiers. This decree led to a total collapse of the army, which opened up new leadership positions and proved to be Lenin's perfect opportunity to seize power. (906)
Leon Blum
Leon Blum, who began as a literary critic, became active in politics as a result of the Dreyfuss Affair. In 1919, he was elected to the French Chamber of Deputies. In 1925, he became the head of the Socialist Party and, in May 1936, he became France's first socialist Prime Minister since 1870. During his one year in office, he instituted a number of important social reforms, including the 40-hour work week. He used the Popular Front very successfully and it was used the workers and lower middle class. Revolutions by conservatives and inflation ruined the Popular Front and because of this Blum was forced to resign in June 1937.
Storm troopers (S.A)
the brown shirts, functioned as a paramilitary organization of the NSDAP — the German Nazi party. It played a key role in Adolph Hitler's rise to power in the 1930s.
Virginia Woolf
used steam-of-consciousness technique; wrote Jacob's Room, a novel made up of a series of internal monologues, in which ideas and emotions from different periods of a time bubble up as randomly as from a patient on a psychoanalyst's couch.
League of nations
an international organization to promote world peace and cooperation that was created by the Treaty of Versailles (1919): dissolved April 1946. Germany joined this in 1926 after the "Locarno agreement."
Brunswick Manifesto
1792, during the radical stage. Austria and Prussia made this saying that they would destroy Paris if any harm came to the French king(Louis XVI)
Catholic Reformation
questioning of church beg. High middle Ages, starts with Luther, Catholics try to counter it w/ "Counter-Reformation" (see Reformation above)
more widespread impact than Luther, predestination, in communion the spirit of Jesus comes, but wine and bread are just physical
Balkan Powder Keg
The Balkans of the early part of the twentieth century. Many conflicts arose because of nationalistic parts of the Balkans began to rise against their oppressors, the Turks. World War I began in Sarajevo, in the Balkans, and it was the region of intense ethnic violence in the 1990s. The Balkans was like a ton of gun powder, and when war would set fire to it, there would be a serious explosion - not literally, but you get what I mean.
Maastricht Union
In December 1991 the European Union reached an agreement in the Dutch town of Maastricht. The Maastricht treaty set strict financial criteria for joining the proposed monetary union, with its single currency, and set 1999 as the target date for its establishment. The treaty also anticipated the development of common policies on defensive and foreign affairs after achieving monetary union.
Charles Townsend
neva heard of him
Albert Einstein
Undermines Newtonian physics, Theory of special relativity postulated that time and space are relative to the viewpoint of the observer and only the speed of light is constant. States that matter and energy are interchangeable and particle of matter contains enormous energy.
Baron de Montesquieu
French aristocrat who wanted to limit royal absolutism; Wrote The Spirit of Laws, urging that power be separated between executive, legislative, and judicial branches, each balancing out the others, thus preventing despotism and preserving freedom. This greatly influenced writers of the US Constitution. He greatly admired British form of government.
Karl Marx
the Communist Manifesto, Marx is a socialist, says after modern industry, society split between middle class (bourgeoisie) and modern working class(proletariat), that next working class would take over, should make a socialist society of revolutionary workers. Followed theory of Hegel
Van der Rohe
:(1886-1969) another leader in international style.followed Gropius as director of Bauhaus,immigrated to America. Lake Shore Apartments-symbolized triumph of steel and glass wall modern architecture. (brought European functionalism to Chicago)
The euro was established by the provisions in the 1992 Maastricht Treaty on European Union that was used to establish an economic and monetary union. In order to participate in the new currency, member states had to meet strict criteria such as a budget deficit of less than three per cent of their GDP(income minus foreign investments), a debt ratio of less than sixty per cent of GDP, low inflation, and interest rates close to the EU average. In the Maastrict Treaty, the United Kingdom and Denmark were granted exemptions from moving to the stage of monetary union which would result in the introduction of the euro.
"struggle for civilization', attack on Catholic Church by Bismark, alarmed by Pius IX declaration of papal infallibility. Seemed to say loyalty should be church before state. Only partially successful in Protestant Prussia. Bismark gave up after opposition from Catholics and made mutual economic alliance.
Constituent Assembly
a freely elected assembly promised by the Bolsheviks, but permanently disbanded after one day(January 18,1918) under Lenins orders after the Bolsheviks won less than one fourth of the elected delegates.
Toulouse Lautrec
French artist, The Reception room in the Brothel on the Rue des Moulins. (806) Wealthy nobleman disabled by accident, combines creativity and debauchery. Ironic.
humans can overcome meaningless of life by personal action. Popular because advocated positive human action at time of hopelessness. (Germany- Heidgdger and Jaspers; France- Sartre and Camus)
Italian Fascist dictator. Mussolini came to power legally. In October of 1922 him and his black shirt followers marched on Rome to demand that King Victor Emmanuel III appoint him the new leader of Italy, the threat worked and that's how he came to power. Mussolini was granted only one year of dictatorial rights but he decided that he would rather be the dictator forever so he ignored it. He made the Lateran Agreement of 1929 which recognized the Vatican as its own independent state.
see impressionalism above
Scientific Method
method still used today developed originally to help understand/test scientific hypotheses, hypothesis is tested through experiment w/ control, then results are recorded to answer scientific q's.
Battle of Austerlitz
1805France defeats Austria and Russian armies
John Stuart Mill
Philosopher, Benthamite, On Liberty, Essay that talked about problem of how to prortect the rights of individuals and minorities in the emerging age of mass electoral paricipation.
Jan Van Eyck
Flemish realist painter before the Ren.
1. Chernobyl
An abandoned city in northern Ukraine, in the Kiev Oblast (prvince) near the border with Belarus. The city was abandoned in 1986 due to the Chernobyl disaster at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, which is located 14.5 kilometers (9 miles) north-northwest. The power plant had been named after the city, and was located in Chernobyl Raion (district), but the city and the plant were not directly connected. At the time of power plant construction a twin city of the plant, Prypiat was built for power plant workers
Henry Cort
In the 1780s, Cort developed the puddling furnace, which allowed pig iron to be refined in turn with coke (made from coal, not the drink or drug). Cort also developed heavy-duty steam-powered rolling mills, which were capable of spewing out finished iron in every shape and form.
L. van Beethoven
Greatest Romantic composer. contrasting themes and tones to produce dramatic conflict and inspiring resolutions.
the study of the human mind and human behavior. Led by S. Freud.
Paris Peace Conference
The great rulers and countries excluding germany and Russia met in Versailles to negotiate the repercussions of the war, such leaders included Loyd George (Britain), Woodrow Wilson (America), Cleamancu (France) and Italy. The treaty of Versailles was made but not agreed to be signed and the conference proved unsuccessful.
Alexander G. Bell
Inventor of the Telephone
The re-established tsarist secret police, which hunted down and executed thousands of real or suspected foes, sowing fear and silencing opposition.
the movement for, and period of, political unification in Italy beginning about 1750 and culminating in the occupation of Rome by Italian troops in 1870 (not in book, sounds right...)
War of the Three Henrys
erupted after St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre, b/t Henry of Guise, Henry of Navarre, Henry III. Henry of Navarre wins and becomes Henry IV of France.
Igor Stravinsky
A modern composer who composed the ballet The Rite of spring. This ballet almost caused a riot when it first was performed in Paris in 1913, because its combination of pulsating, dissonant rhythms from the orchestra pit and an earthy representation of lovemaking by the dancers shocked the audience.
S. Freud
Postulated much of human behavior is motivated by unconscious emotional needs whose nature and origins are kept from the conscious awareness by defense mechanisms.Says human behavior is basically irrational. id=primitive, irational unconscious, driven by sexual, aggressive, and pleasure-seeking desires and locked in a constant battle with ego (rationalizing conscious, what someone can do) and superego (what a person should do according to moral values)
beg. of Protestant Reformation, 35 theses, consubstantiation, rather than transubstantiation
Republic of Virtue
a speech given by Maximilien Robespierre in 1794. In it, provided his political theory. advocates the use of terror in defending democracy, which he equated with virtue. advocated many of the ideals expressed in the French Constitution of 1793.The "Republic of Virtue" was part of the dechristianization of the French Revolution. The leaders renamed the cathedral Notre Dame de Paris to 'The Temple of Reason. 'The new French Revolutionary Calendar was created too
"scramble for Africa"
It's like an entire section of our book, but I'll try to sum up. Basically, it was just a few countries such as England and others who wanted Africa and were going crazy in wars over land there. After the European countires seized lands, they often enslaved the native people and forced moral and religious values upon them.
Albert Einstein
(1879-1955) A German Jew, Stated that matter and energy are interchangeable, and that even a particle of matter contains enormous amounts of potential energy. He also stated that the speed of light is the only thing constant from all frames of reference.
Enabling act of 1933
signed by Hindenburg, gave special powers to Hitler's government and enabled him and his cabinet to enact laws without the participation of the Reichstag
Engineer/Inventor, Grandfather clock engine, precursor of modern petrol engine.
French painters like Monet, Renoir, Passarro, art type of "superrealism." Artist sought to cpature the momentary overall feeling, or impression, of light falling on a real-life scene before their eyes. Not exact copies like photographs.
noble family and dynasty of Electors, of Prussia and Germany.
conquered Aztecs for Spanish crown, "Viceroyalty of Mexico"
F. Nietzche
German philosopher, said G-d is dead.
Paul von Hindenburg
German field marshal who appointed Hitler as Chancellor in January 1933. In March he signed the Enabling Act of 1933 which gave special powers to Hitler's government.
Treaty of Nanking
1842 agreement ending the Opium War between China and England and giving the England control of Hong Kong and regional ports, as well as awarding the British citizens extraterritoriality rights.
Percy Shelly
Continental system
Napoleon forbade importation of British goods. He believed it would ruin their economy, but it failed. Europe needed their goods, and there was widespread smuggling. Resentment against this was one of the causes of nationalistic revival, which eventually ended Napoleon’s complete European dominance.
Tsarina Alexandra
After Tsar Nicholas II renounced the Duma and decided to go fight the war on the battlefield among the soldiers, Tsarina Alexandra was left to take power with the help of the infamous Rasputin, whom she was accused of having a sexual affair with. Due to the great political distress that followed, the Duma re-assumed power and declared a provisional government. (905)
Bubonic Plague
1/3 of all Europe's pop died, spread by rats, brought by sailors to Crimea, work shortage, wages for skilled laborers soared.
Franco-Russian Alliance
no clue, France and Prussia/Germany hated each other.
Nicholas Copernicus
Wrote On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres; Pioneered theory that the earth revolves around the sun; Destroyed the impression that the earthly world was different from the heavenly world; Condemned by Calvin, Luther, and the Catholic Church; Had his book published in 1543, the year of his death, to avoid ridicule from other astronomers
The foreign minister of Great Britian during the times of the Quadruple Alliance.
Pope Julius II
convenes ecumenical council, but only from Italy so no "universal", meet to discuss problems in church including education of clergy, etc.
The Prussian nobility
George Stephenson
In 1825, George Stephenson finished the first effective locomotive. In 1830, his Rocket sped down the track of he just-completed- Liverpool and Manchester Railway at 16 mph.
G. Girabaldi
An Italian involved in the unification of Italy. Personified romantic, revolutionary nationalism and the republicanism of mazzini and 1848. Independant force in italian politics, had own army of nationalist volunteers, fought Austria. Guerilla band of Red Shirts, supported by Cavour, won battles against kingdom of two sicilies, got volunteers, and took Palermo. Marched towards Rome to attack Pope but stopped by Girabaldi who feared war w/ France. Stops at Naples, nationalism resulted in united italy under kingdom of Sardina.
Jan Hus
burned at stake for rejecting transubstantiation at Council of Constance
Pope Leo X
excommunicates Luther
Social Darwinism
Formulated by Herbert Spencer, said that human race driven forward to ever greater specialization and progress by the brutal economic struggle. Struggle resulted in 'survival of the fittest': Rich were strong, poor were weak. Really liked by upper middle class.
Richard Arkwright
created the water frame in the 1780s, a weaving device that employed a new principle. It quickly acquired a capacity of several hundred spindles and demanded much more power-waterpower. The water frame thus required large specialized mills, factories that employed up to 1 thousand workers from the beginning. The water frame could only spin course, strong thread, which was then put out for respinning on hand-powered cottage jennies.
Albrecht Durer
pre-Ren./Ren. Painter
of Catholicism, exs.) Luther and Calvin, people begin to question faith and the worldliness of church, uneducated clergyman, corruptness, indulgences, etc.
Boris Yeltsin
Was the first President of the Russian Federation from 1991 to 1999. The Yeltsin era was a traumatic period in Russian history—a period marked by widespread corruption, economic collapse, and enormous political and social problems. In June 1991 Yeltsin came to power on a wave of high expectations. On June 12 Yeltsin was elected president of the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic with 57% of the vote, becoming the first popularly elected president in Russian history. But Yeltsin never recovered his popularity after endorsing radical economic reforms in early 1992 which were widely blamed for devastating the living standards of most of the Russian population. By the time he left office, Yeltsin was a deeply unpopular figure in Russia, with an approval rating as low as two percent by some estimates.
Congress of Vienna
The Quadruple Alliance met, to discuss the Balance of Power. Great Britian got to have their conquered colonies, Austria got Venetia and Lombardy and Polis lands, and Prussia and Russia were compensated.
has philosophy that each age characterized by a dominant set of ideas, which produces new ideas that eventually makes a synthesis. Marx uses this idea.. thesis, antithesis, synthesis. Mercantilism vs. Capitalism= socialism. German philosopher.
B. Disraeli
Extended vote to all middle class males and the best-paid workers. wants to broaden the conservative party's power base.
Ernest Rutherford
"Father of Nuclear Physics". Made model of the atom, and showed that it could be split.
1st European to sail to Pacific Ocean
Thomas Mann
(June 6, 1875 - August 12, 1955) was a German novelist, social critic, philanthropist, essayist, and 1929 Nobel Prize laureate, known for his series of highly symbolic and often ironic epic novels and mid-length stories, noted for their insight into the psychology of the artist and intellectual. His analysis and critique of the European and German soul use modernized German and Biblical stories, as well as the ideas of Goethe, Nietzsche, and Schopenhauer.
Belief in relying on reason and logic to explain occurrences
Jeremy Bentham
radical philosopher, says that public problems ought to be dealt with on a rational, scientific basis and according to the good of the greatest number.
Hundred Years' War
b/t Edward III (England) and Phillip IV (France), Edward denied kingship of France by barons who reinstitute salic law, Pragmatic Sanction.
The Age of Enlightenment
Between the publication of Newton's ideas in 1687 and the death of Louis XIV in 1715; Its core of thought was that natural law, through the scientific method, could be used to understand all aspects of society; It was a secular movement free from the restraints of religion, instead focusing on inevitable progress
Max Planck
(1858-1957) built on the discoveries of the Curie's, he said that energy is emitted in uneven little spurts which he called "Quanta" and not in even streams. His discovery called into question the old sharp theory, that matter was different then energy. The old view that atoms were the stable, building blocks of nature was badly shaken because of Planck.
Thirty-Nine Articles
basic tenets of Church of England, written by English bishops in 1563; part of Elizabethan Settlement
Sepoy Mutiny
The last serious uprising from the Indians against their British oppressors. After Britain crushed the Sepoy Mutiny, Britain had full control over the Indians.
Trench warfare
Fighting with trenches, mines, and barbed wire. Horrible living conditions, great slaughter, no gains, stalemate, used in WWI.
Gaspard de Coligny
assass. By Henry III (ordered by Catherine de Medici), prominent Protestant leader, ignites the massacre against the French Huguenots
German, =Machievellianism. realistic politics, or politics based on practical rather than idealogical notions. "a term to imply politics imposed by means of physical violence, political extortion or economic suppression, or to imply completely amoral politics aimed solely to achieve the goals by any means."
Was an international communist organization founded in March of 1919 by Lenin, this thing wanted to overthrow the international Bourgeoisie and create a socialist state.
same thing as thoroughgoing realism, called naturalism in U.S., epitomized by Dreiser in Sister Carrie.
Adam Smiths
Scottish economist; wrote Wealth of Nations arguing against government-controlled mercantilism; he outlined the nucleus of economic system that came to be known as capitalism; he believed in laissez-faire approach to business; he wanted individuals to be left to pursue their own economic gain, and this would work in the best interests of everyone.

Deck Info