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Native American Studies


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How were Navajo's influenced by Spanish Contact?
They raided Spanish for horses and other live stock, learned to raise sheep, learned silversmith and weaving
What is a Kinaalda ceremony?
Ceremony to assist Navajo girls as they enter womenhood.
How did Navajo's adapt Pueblo religion ideas into their perspective?
They refocused religion to restoring the health of individuals.
Why was the US in contact with the Hopi?
US tried to force Hopi to put their childern into boarding school and elect a government.
Why did the Navajo and Hopi have conflict?
They had disputes over land.
Why was the removal of NA's from Nebreska to Kansas refured to as the 2nd trail of tears?
Their was a loss of land and property, forced removal and many died on the walk.
annual distribution of trade goods to NA's with treaties
food brought to NA's on reservations
Congree act allowed reservations to be carved up and given to individuals
Ghost Dance of 1890
New religion started in Neveda and plains people promised if rituals were done the world would return to goodness. (old ways)
What 2 main indigenous traditions in southwest?
Pueblo and semi nomdic people
How do eastern and western pueblo societies differ?
Eastern: farm with irrigation systems, governments more centeralized, more spanish, surplus of food.
Western: dry form of farming, more clan cheifs, harder to reach for spanish, less food
How did Navajo and Apache life change after contact with the Pueblos?
Adopted farming, matrilineal clans and some religious concepts
How did eastern pueblos perserve religion traditions as the spanish dominated?
compartmentalized ceremonies into catholic and native realms. (had night time underground native ceremonies)
Who was pope?
leader of pueblo revolt in 1680
Who was Manuelito?
Navajo band leader who organized resistant to US.
What is the Hopi house called?
What is the Apache house called?
What is the Navajo house called?
Why were clowns important in Pueblo ceremonies?
Ridiculed non-conformist and transgressions. Also made people smile which made the gods happy.
What was the focus point of hopi religion?
Rain and imitation
Who was redbird smith?
Founder of new religion in 20th century (cherokee) revived and strengthened native life.
How did southeast people adjust to oklahoma?
they started to rebuild their school systems, towns, native government, farms and continued to hold common lands. (traditional costomes)
what were 2 plains traditions?
villagers and nomadic peoples
Difference between plains villagers and nomadic peoples
Villagers: earth lodges, clans (uniliner), social clan chiefs, med. bundle owned by clan, ranked social orgnizations
Nomatic: teepees, bison hunting, bilateral kinship, extended families, individual vison quest, egaliterian social orgnizations
How was bison used?
food, clothes, weapons, tools, containers
What was the consequence of the introduction of horses?
more effective hunting, wealth differences, more elaborate ceremonies, increased in warefar, changed natural warefare
What colonial powers traded with the plains?
North: french and English
South: spanish and french
What is the consequence of the fur trade?
Slaves and horses raids dislocated populations, populations decreased, greater influence of women, trade goods adopted (guns, metal, beads, clothes)
What did plains people traded to american traders after the collapse of the beaver trades?
buffalo robes and horses
What is a treaty council?
A meeting of representatives from the US or Canada and NA's in which territories were defined, leaders designated and promise of compensations made
Why did plains NA's become scouts for the US army?
Protection from enemies, rights to territories, prestige and provisions
What did the false face society do?
cured illness
Who founded the longhouse religion? Why did it thrive?
Handsome Lake, helped Iroquois adapt to new reservation life by combining old ceremonies with a new code of conduct that encouraged cooperation and solidarity
Who were Joseph Brant and Red Jacket?
Two Iroquois leaders: Brant allied with English and Red Jacket with the Americans during the revolutionary war
In the 18th century what was a "creek" town?
A group of villagers that shared ceremonial grounds
How did the southeast people subsist at the time of contact?
Farming and supplements from hunting
Who governed the council in creek towns?
representatives from high ranking families
What was the green corn ceremony?
Annual religious ritual to renew and re-energize the natural and social worlds
Why did the english help settlers push NA's off thier land?
english wanted colonist to open farms and plantations to export food
What were the consequences of the deer skin trade?
NA's depended on european goods, warefare increased, and marrage between european men and NA women
When did the seminoles settle in florida?
Refugees from the several of the southeast people, 18th centurey to early 19th
Who was Oscoowa?
A military leader of seminole in 19th century
What was the Indian Removal Act of 1830?
Legislation that allowed the government to remove NAs from east of the mississippi to the west of it
What was the Curtis Act of 1898?
Congress alloted the cherokee, choctaw, chickasaw, creek and siminole lands in Oklahoma
What are the major contributions of NAs to transportation?
Network of trails and roads, kayaks and canoe
Why did the europeans want colonies?
raw materials, cheap labor, consumers for their manufactured goods
Who were the 2 main groups of Algonkian speakers in the northeast?
New England and the mid atlantic peoples
How did northeastern Algonkians obtain food before Europeans?
Farming, hunting, fishing and gathering
Who was the 17th century leader of the Algonkian confedery?
What was the significants of the Peqout war and King Phillip war in new england?
Most Algonkians were killed or put into slavery, surviors stayed on a small piece of land
What were Algonkian houses called and made out of?
Wigwaums made from poles and birch bark
What were Iroquois houses called and made out of?
longhouses made from poles and elm bark
Who belonged to Iroquoise clans and what rights did they have?
Matrilienal kin, owned fields and chief titles
What did Iroquois use to decorate hide clothing?
Porcupine quills and horse hair
What was the League of Iroquois and who founded it?
Hiawatha and dekanawidan, 5 iroquous people
Who made decisions for the league of iroquois?
50 cheifs who inherited titles through clans and appointed by female heads of clan
What was the role of Iroquois in the fur trade during the 17th and 18th century?
They used thier geography postion to obtain fur by dominating other peoples and playing the french and english against each other
What did Eropeans want fur for?
to make hats of beaver
Why did the Iroquois want to trade with Europe?
Guns, clothes, metal items, and other items (glass beads)
What is wampum?
Shell beads used by NA to record important events and used by Europeans as money
How many state names come from NA language?
What medicine developed by NA's was used as a cure for scurvy?
Hemlock tonic
What is the most important plant domesticated by NA's that feeds most of the world?
What are the general areas of NA contributions to the global society?
Food, medicine, technology, language, travel, art and architecture
Most important food contributions from NAs?
Corn and squash
Clothing (technology) contribution from NAs
Poncho, parka, moccosins
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