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Micro: Systemic Mycoses


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Histoplasmosis mimics which disease?
resembles miliary tuberculosis
What are two important characteristics of the pathology of histoplasmosis?
primary lung process manifest as respiratory ilness and miliary spread

may be primarily in the hilar lymph nodes and may be chronic with cavitation or heal with calcification
H. capsulatum is ecologically associated with what types of environments?
Mississippi / ohio river valey

Southeast US river basins
Who gets life threatening infections due to H. capsulatum?
AIDS patients
What are the characteristics of the mold and yeast phase of H. capsulatum?
mold grows on media agar slants at 20-30 degrees; grows as saprophytic mold in soils

Yeast phase present in man, grows on Brain Heart infusion agar or enriched agar at 37 degrees
How are Histoplasmosis classified?
-usually mild and asymptomatic but rarely causes Symptomatic Primary

- Disseminated Histoplasmosis (immune defect- AIDS)
- Chronic Pulmonary Hisotplasmosis (structural Defect)

- Mediastinal Fibrosis or Collagenous
What is a characteristic X ray finding in Histoplasmosis?
diffuse calcification
B. dermatididis is characterized by what type of tissue form?
necrotic ulcers due to dissemination (Erythma nodosum)
What is characteristic of pulmonary disease caused by P. brasiliensis?
begins abruptly with high fever, cough and respiratory insufficiency

more usual is the anorexia, weigth loss and malaise
Whay is the epidemiology of paracoccidioidomycosis?
South America and Mexico

found in warm, wet tropical areas; tropical or subtropical rainforests

most important systemic mycoses in Latin America
What is the clinical presentation of paracoccidioidomycosis?
chronic granulomatous disease and pulmonary disease

extensive fibrosis of the lungs
What are the characteristics of the tissue phase and yeast phase of P. brasiliensis?
tissue phase is budding yeast
What are the ecology and epidemiology of Coccidioides immitis?
resides in warm, alkaline arid soils as a saprophyte in the Southwestern United States, Mexico, and Central America

grows 3-4 inches under soil, comes to the surface follwing late spring rains and carried by wind to unsuspecting host (usually a visitor to the region)

dark skinned individuals are more susceptible

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