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How did Piaget study cognitive changes in children?
He gave children of different age's problems to solve to see how they would deal with them. He asked questions along the way.
What is a schema?
A schema is an organization method to deal with knowledge and learning.

Schemas become more symbolic and mental as one ages.
What is meant by Operations?
Organized mental processes. EG: understanding that a tall 8 oz glass holds same amount as short, wide 8 oz mug.
Distinguish accommodation and assimilation. Why are these two A's important?
Accommodation is when you change your schema according to a new experience:

eg: if your music schema contains only Rock and Disco, they you hear opera, it grew to include a new category under music.

Assimilation is when you fit something new into an existing category:

eg: a new song goes into the category of Rock.

The two A's are important because they help you adapt to a changing world.
What 4 factors were involved in Development according to Piaget?
Maturation - genetic plan unwinds.

Social Transmission - learning from others.

Experiences - personal experiences with environment.

**Equilibration - seek balance between what you know and what you are experiencing.

**This is Piaget's mechanism for explaining change. A person believes X and experiences something different. Leads to a modification in thinking (and behavior).
What is occurring in the sensorimotor stage (0-2 years old)?
Use Sensory and Motor Skills to learn about the world.

8 Months - understand object permanence & symbolism (plate can be used as a hat).
What is occurring in the Preoperational Stage (2-7 years old)?
Use symbols & Understand some language
Before preschool are animistic and do not understand conservation problem.

Egocentric - world revolves around ME.

Don't understand that there are other views of the world.
What is occurring in the Concrete Operations stage (7-11 years old)?
No longer animistic or egocentric and are Not fooled by conservation problems.

BUT don't understand abstractions like glass house AND understand only their present reality, eg "Why can he stay up late and I can't?"
What is occurring in the Formal Operations (11- __)?
Changes are gradual. Begin to consider other alternatives and realities. May lead to not being satisfied by their current situation.

Now they can separate themselves from their current reality. Consider different realities, sometimes think of ideal situations. Like politicians.

Throw reality in back seat and consider other possibilities.

Think more critical and analyze arguments. Think more scientifically forming hypotheses.

From 13-15, get better with contrary to fact problems.

By 13, can solve yellow liquid problem and generate possibilities from a given situation. Can explain & deduce.

By 15, symbolic thought with topics like justice, religion. Did NOT have deep thoughts bout these beofore.

Piaget claimed that abstract symbolic thought was extremely important. Can explain sayings.
What were some of Piaget's ideas about education?
Activities should promote active discovery and be structured so that students can learn on their own.

Children are ACTIVE LEARNERS NOT just passive listeners.
What are some skills that adolescents should be competent at?
Plan experiments and use scientific logic.

Follow an argument and notice an illogical conclusion.

Understand abstractions and be more theoretical, explain political cartoons divorced from reality of what is being shown.

Consider alternative possibilities in situations and see that different courses of actions are possible.
What are some critiques of Piaget's formal operations stage?
-Not all adolescents and not even all adults reason at FO level.

-40-60% do and even less in Non Western societies.

-In many societies, people get along well without abstractions and alternate realities.

-Piaget's other 3 stages are ~universal but not FO.

-Weakness in types of problems he used because African seed game players have FO to play the game but cannot reason well to solve Piaget's problems.
What are some characteristics of post formal operations?
For a time, doubt that there are real answers to anything but then understand that some things are better researched.

-No longer see things as simple right and wrong.

-Understand practicality and context.

-understand that although 2 people see the same thing they may not interpret it the same way.

-Understand that one's knowlege depends on their subjective experience.

-Accept Contradiction, eg helping in-laws even though they hurt you.
Why did Vygotsky look at the context in which cognitive processes unfold?
Different societies consider different things to be important. Must consider culture, history and society because they have IMPACT on the individual.
According to Vygotsky, why is culture important?
Culture influences what adults must teach children. Cognitive processes begin with social interaction.
What areas does Vygotsky focus on as opposed to Piaget?
-Social origins of mental processes.

-Teaching and formal instruction.
What is the Zone of Proximal Development?
What the learner can do alone versus with an expert.

Expert teacher will use prompts, cues, modeling, explain, ask, use leading questions, discussion.

Individuals are active participants as they mvoe through ZPD.
How does the ZPD influence education?
According to Vygotsky, education should NOT be based upon what individuals can do by themselves. But upon their potential thru what they can do with the help of a guide.
What 3 elements are important for education according to Vygotsky?
-Expert must instruct.

-Expert gives structure and then little by little gives less help.

-ZPD and go BEYOND students mastery level.
What is scaffolding?
Give structure and supply necessary skills.

Skeletal frame of thinking such as check list to make things explicit.

Break problem into component parts.

Give support and structure then dismantle when the learning has become automatic.
What is cooperative learning?
Students work together to accomplish a goal but are graded separately.

Uses ZPD because the more advanced student guides other students.
What is reciprocal teaching?
Combine summarizing, questioning, clarifying, and predicting while reading critically.

Tell subject that will be studied and ask student what do you know know and what do you predict that you will know when lesson is finished.

Students play role as teacher.
What are the major differences between Piaget and Vygotsky?
Piaget emphasized inner discovery and a stimulating environment.

Vygotsky emphasized instruction from experts. To be a good teacher, must understand how the child is presently functioning and what he needs to know.
How does Information Processing differ from Piaget and Vygotsky?
We take in info and process it

Attention + Perception + Memory

Sensory Memory -> STM -> LTM
What are high scores on IQ tests correlated with?
Students that score high on IQ tests are likely to do well in school.

IQ tests have predictive power in adacemics.
How was IQ originally calculated?
Mental Age / Chronical Age.

Not good because intelligence is not linear, esp after 16 years old.
What is the WISC used for?
What 2 areas does it test?
Elementary school level and young adolescents. Verbal Questions and Performance.
With respect to Parent-Adolescent Relationships, which adolescent ends up being the most well adjusted?
Adolescents who are close to parents with moderate amounts of conflict.
What 2 characteristics are used to judge parenting styles?

Demandingness - rules and limits
Describe Authoritarian parent style.
Set rules and punish
LOW on responding to needs
Give little independence
Negative outcome on kid.
Describe Permissive parenting style
Lack of rules, let children regulate activities. Open communication. But kid lacks self reliance and gets depressed.
Describe Rejecting Parenting
Neither responsive nor Demanding. Most negative effect on kids
Describe Authoritative Parent Style
Set limits but give Reasons.
High Responsive
Adolescents THIRVE here.
This style is rare outside USA
Shows that the best parenting style is a balance of Demandingness & Responsiveness

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