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CMT Chapter 14 Pathological conditions eye (copy)


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Refractive error causing the light rays entering the eye to be focused irregularly on the retina due to an abnormally shaped cornea.
Causes blurred vision and discomfort; individual may complain of the need to rub eyes, headaches, and squinting. DX verified thru as ophthalmoscopic examintation.
Inflammation of the eyelid margins stemming from seborrheic, allergic, or bacterial origin. Characterized by redness, swelling, burning, and itching of the margin of the eyelid. Also a mucous drainage and buildup of scaling, granulation, or crusting on t
Occurs when the eyelid partically or entirely covers the eye as a result of a weakened muscle.
The absence of vision or the need for assistive devices and/or assistance from others to accomplish daily activities due the inablility to see.
Total area that can be seen with one fixed eye.
visual field
Inability to sharply perceive visual colors.
color blindness (monochromatism)
Two forms of monochromatism
Achromatic vision
Monochromatism in which the person is unable to distinguish greens fro reds; this is a sex-linked inherited disorder.
Monochromatism which the person cannot distinguish any color, perceiving only white, gray, and black; this is a defect in the reinal cones or the absence of the retinal cones.
Achromatic vision
Lens in the eye becomes progressively cloudy losing its normal transparency and thus altering the perception of images due to the interference of light transmission to the retina.
Classifications of a cataract.
senile or secondary
Cataract that typically begins after the age of 50 at which time degenerative changes occur, resulting in the gradual clouding of the crystalline lens due to wear and tear and the change in fibers and protein as it ages.
Cataract that results from trauma, radiation injury, inflammation, taking certain medications such as corticosteroids, or metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus.
Secondary cataract
Cataract seen in infants usually caused by meternal infection during pregnancy and also considered secondary cataracts.
Congenital cataract
Cataracts in which only a portion of the lens is affected.
Immature cataracts
Cataract in which the entire lens is clouded, can be visualized with the naked eye and appear as a gray-white area behind the pupil.
Mature cataract
Cyst or nodule on the eyelid resulting from an obstruction of a meibomian gland, which is responsible for lubricating the margin of the eyelid.
Inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the eyelids and covering the front part of the eyeball. Also called "pinkeye". Can also be a result of allergies, environmental irritation or systemic diseases.
acute conjunctivitis
Extra sensitive to light
Disruption of the cornea's surface epithelium commonly caused by an eyelash, a small foreign body, contact lenses, or a scratch from a fingernail. May also occur as a result of a chemical irritant and/or dryness of the eye.
corneal abrasion
Stain which readily detects abrasions on the cornea.
Occurs as a consequence of an 8- to 10-year duration of diabets mellitus in which the capillaries of the retina experience scarring.
Diabetic retinopathy
Leading cause of blindness
diabetic retinopathy
removal of viteous hemmorrhages
"Turning out" or eversion of the eyelash margins from the eyeball leading to exposure of the eyelid and eyeball surface and lining.
"Turning out" of the eyelash margins resulting in the sesation similar to that of a foreign body in the eye.
___________ may result in damage to the cornea in the form of corneal ulcers due to the constant irritation of the conjunctive from the rubbing lashes.
Abnormal protrusion of the eyeball(s) usually with the sclera noticeable over the iris, typically due to an expanded volume of orbital contents.
Ocular disorders identified as a group due to the increase in intraocular pressure.
Disorders that occur because of a barrier in the normal outflow of aqueous humor or an increased production of aqueous humor.
Occurs as a primary disorder with a breakdown in the drainage system in the circulation of aqueous humor. Most common type of glaucoma.
Chronic open-angle glaucoma
Rapid primary occurrence of increased intraocular pressure in short period of time. Due to the mouth of the drainage system being narrow & closing completely, allowing not flow of aqueous humor.
Acute closed-angle glaucoma
Occurs as a complication of another disorder, trauma, or surgery.
Secondary glaucoma
Abnormal eyesight in one-half of the visual field.
Bacterial infection of an eyelash follicle or sebaceous gland originating with redness, swelling, & mild tenderness in the margin of the eyelash.
hordeolum (stye)
Another name for hordeolum
A refractive error in which the lens of the eye cannot focus on an image accurately, resulting in impaired close vision that is blurred due to
the light rays being focused behind the retina because the eyeball is shorter than normal. Also called far
A bleed into the anterior chamber of the eye resulting as a postoperative complication or from a blunt eye injury.
hyphema (hyphemia)
Corneal inflammation caused by a microorganism, trauma to the eye, a break in the sensory innervation of the cornea, a hypersensitivity reaction, or a tearing defect (may be due to dry eyes or ineffective eyelid closure.
Refractive error in which the lens of the eye cannot focus on an image accurately, resulting in impaired distant vision that is blurred due to the light rays being focused in front of the retina because the eyeball is longer than normal. Also called near
Creating microscopic incisions in the outside segment of teh cornea, making it flatten in specific ares. TX for myopia.
radial keratotomy
Inadequate vision at night or in faint lighting following reduction in the synthesis of rhodopsin, a compund in the rods of the retina that enables the eye to adjust to low-density light. Causes: retinal deterioration, vit. A deficiency, congenital defec
nyctalopia (night blindness)
Vertical, horizontal, rotary, or mixed rhythmic involuntary movements of the eye caused by use of alcohol or certain drugs, lesions on the brain or inner ear, congenital abnormalities, nerve injury at birth, or abnormal retinal development.
A purulent inflammation of the conjuctiva and/or cornea in the newborn.
ophthalmia neonatorum
Two categories of ophthalmia neonatorum.
Neisseria gonorrheal conjunctivitis
chlamydial conjunctivitis
A refractive error occurring after the age of 40, when the lens of the eye cannont focus on an image accurately due to its decreasing loss of elasticity resulting in a firmer and more opaque lens. Also called farsightedness.
Irregular growth developing as a fold in the bulbar conjunctiva on the nasal side of the cornea that can disrupt vision if it extends over the pupil.
Partial or complete splitting away of the retina from the pigmented vascular layer called the choroid, allowing the leakage of vitreous humor and thus creating a medical emergency.
retinal detachment
An opening in the retina that allows leakage of vitreous humor. Repair can be accomplished w/ cryosurgery or photocoagulation.
retinal tear
Presence of inflammation in the white, outside covering of the eyeball, the sclera.
Defined area in one or both eyes, which has a decreased visual function.
failure of the eye to gaze in the same direction due to weakness in the muscles controlling the position of one eye.
Most common bype of strabismus, __________, an inherited defect in which the eye position of the 2 eyes has no relationship.
nonparalytic strabismus
Two types of nonparalytic strabismus
1.Convergent strabismus or crosseye (esotropia).
2. Divergent strabismus or walleye (exotropia)
Adhesion in the eye that develops as a complication of trauma or surgery, or secondary condition of: cataracts, glaucome, keratitis, or uveitis.
An infectious eye disease caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, which is chronic & will lead to blindness if not treated.

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