Math Vocab. Review

Math vocabulary review for the 8th Grade SOL. Prentice Hall Course 3 Mathematics Book (Virginia)

Terms

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States that changing the order of the addends does not change the sum (A+B) = (B+A)
To Evaluate
To do this on an algebraic equation, replace each variable with a number and then symplify
Slope Intercept Form
y = mx + b
Congruent
The same size, length or shape.
Polyhedron
A solid with a polygon for each face.
Multiplication Property of Inequality
states that if you multiply an equality by a positive number, the direction of the inequality is unchanged. If you multiply the inequality by a negative number, it will reverse the direction of the inequality.
Irrational Number
A number that cannot be written as the ratio of two integers. In decimal form, this cannot be written as a terminating or repeating decimal -- ex: pi 3.14)
Plane
Flat surface that extends indefinitely in all directions.
Image
The result of a transformation of a point, line or figure
Complementary
Two angles are this if the sum of their measures is 90 degrees (it is right to give someone a compliment)
Counting Principle
Suppose there are m ways of making one choice and n ways of making second choice, then there are mxn ways to make the first choice followed by the second. (ex: toss a coin and roll a number cube -- the total number of outcomes is 2x6=12)
Inequality
A mathematical sentence that contains less than, greater than, less than or equal to, greater than or equal to, or not equal
Hypotenuse
The longest side of a right triangle, opposite the right angle.
Isoceles Triangle
A triangle with at least two equal sides.
Algebraic Equations
mathematical phrase that uses numbers, variables and operation symbols
Reciprocal
Two numbers are this if their product is 1 (4/9 is 9/4)
Compound Interest
Interest paid on the original principal and on any interest that has been left in the account. ( you can use the formula B=p(1+r) to the power of n). B=balance in the account, p = principal, r= annual interest rate and n=number of years the account earns interest
Scale
The ratio that compares a length in a drawing to the corresponding length in the actual object.
Isometric View
A corner view of a solid. It allows you to see the top, front and side of an object
Surface Area
The sum of the area of each of a solid's surfaces
Prime Number
Whole number with exactly two factors one being the number itself. (ex: 2, 5 and 13)
Like Terms
Terms with the exact same variable factors that you can combine.
Biased Questions
Unfair questions in a survey that can make assumptions that may or may not be true. They can also make one answer seem better than the other.
States that the sum of zero and A is A (A+0=A)
Linear Equation
An equation is this if all of its solutions lie on a line.
Inverse Operations
Operations that undo each other. (Addition and subtraction are this)
Arithmetic Sequence
Each term is the result of adding the same number to the previous term. (The sequence 4, 10, 16, 22, 28...is this -- you add 6 to each term to find the next term)
Tessellation
Repeating pattern of congruent shapes that completely covers a plane without gaps or overlaps.
Odds in Favor of an Event
The ratio of the number of favorable outcomes to the ratio of the number of unfavorable outcomes.
Subtraction Property of Inequality
When you subtract the same number from each side of an inequality, the relationship between the two sides, does not change.
Factorial
The product of all positive integers less than or equal to a number (5! = 5x4x3x2x1)
Subtraction Property of Equality
States that the same number subtracted from each side of an equation, the results are equal.
Independant Events
The occurrence of one event does not effect the probability of the occurrence of the other
Common Ratio
Each term of a geometric sequence is found by multiplying the previous term by a fixed number (the geometric sequence 3, 18, 108, 648....the common ratio is x6)
Multiplication Property of Equality
states that if each side of an equation is multiplied by the same number, the two sides remain equal.
Rhombus
Parallelogram with four congruent sides
Base Plan
This shows the shape of the base and indicates the height of each part of a solid.
Vertical Angles
Angles formed by two intersecting lines. These are opposite each other.
Reduction
A dilation with a scale factor less than 1.
Least Common Denominator
The least common multiple of the denominators of two or more fractions.
Greatest Common Factor (GCF)
The greatest number that is a factor of all the numbers (GCF of 12 and 30 is 6)
Conjecture
Prediction that suggests what can be expected to happen.
Transversal
A line that intersects two or more lines at different points* **
Angle Bisector
A ray that divides an angle into angles of equal measure.
Circumference
The distance around a circle. (3.14 x diameter or 3.14 x the radius squared)
It states that if you add the same value to each side of an equation, the results are equal. (If A = B, then A + C = B +C)
A polygon with four sides.
Composite Number
A whole number greater than 1 with more than two factors
Two numbers whose sum is zero are this.
Unit Price
A unit rate that gives the cost per unit.
Arc
Part of a circle.
Rational Number
Any number written as a quotient of two integers where the denominator is not zero.
Polynomial
One term or the sum of difference of two or more terms.
Variable
A symbol that stands for one or more numbers
Congruent Angles
Angles that have the same measure.
Unit Rate
The rate for one unit of a given quantity.
Alternate Interior Angles
Angles that lie within a pair of lines and on opposite side of a transversal.
Angle of Rotation
The number of degrees that a figure rotates.
Trend
Relationship between two sets of data.
Acute Triangle
A triangle with three angles that have less than 90 degrees each.
Alternate Exterior Angles
Angles that lie outside a pair of lines and on opposite sides of a transversal.
Odds Against an Event
teh ratio of the number of unfavorable outcomes to the ratio of the number of favorable outcomes.
Random Sample
Where each number of the population has an equal chance of being selected (population of customers at a mall this would be every 20th customer entering during a 2-hr period)
Prime Notation
Used to identify an image point.
Quartile
Numbers that divide data into four equal parts
Balance
The principal plus the interest earned.
Central Angle
An angle whose vertex is the center of a circle and a sum of the measures of the central angles is 360 degrees.
Binary
This system uses the digits 0 and 1 as place values using powers of 2.
Factor
An integer that divides another integer with a remainder of zero (1,2,3, 4, 6, 12, 18, and 36 are factors of 36)
Compatible numbers
Numbers that are easy to compute mentally.
Permutation
Arrangement of objects in a particular order
Segment Bisector
A line, segment, or ray that goes through a midpoint of a segment.
Geometric Sequence
Where each term is the result of multiplying the previous term by the same number (1,3,9,27, 81.... you multiply each term by 3 to find the next term)
Pythagorean Theorem
a squared + b squared = c squared
Slope
A ratio that describes steepness (rise over run)
Real Numbers
Together rational and irrational numbers form this set
Improper Fraction
A fraction that has a numerator that is greater than or equal to its denominator (ex: 24/15 and 16/16)
Sequence
This is series of numbers that follows a pattern.
Interest Rate
The rate usually expressed as a percent used to calculate interest
The x and y axis divide the coordinate plane into these four regions
Percent of Change
Percent in quantity increases or decreases from its original amount (original minus new or new minus original divided by original = this)
This states that if you add the same value to each side of an inequality, the relationship between the two sides does not change. (Since 4>2 then 4+11> 2+11)
Corresponding Angles
Angles that lie on the same side of the transversal and in corresponding positions.
Base
When a number is written in exponential form, the number that is used as a factor is this. (5 to the 4th power = 5x5x5x5)
Conversion Factor
Rates equal to one. (3/1 and 1/3 is an example)
Multiplicative Inverse
The reciprocal of a number. (4 out of 9 ((4/9)) is 9/4)
Associative Property of Multiplication
States that changing grouping of factors does not change the product. ((AxB)C = A(BxC))
Identity Property of Multiplication
States that the product of 1 and A is A (Ax1=A)
Prime Factorization
Writing a composite number as the product of its prime factors is this of the number (this of 12 is 2 x 2 x 3 or 2 to the second power x 3)
Parallelogram
Quadrilateral with both pairs of opposite side parallel.
Complement
This of an event is the collection of outcomes not contained in the event
Coefficient
The numerical factor in any term of a polynomial (the expression 2x + 3x - 16 with a coefficient of y is 3 and the coefficient of x is 2)
Sale Price
Regular price of an item minus the discount = this
Indirect Measurement
Uses proportions in similiar triangles to measure the distances that would be difficult to measure directly. (5ft. tall person standing near a tree has a shadow of 4 ft. long, the tree has a shadow 10 ft. long, you use this to find the height of the tree which is 12.5 ft.)
Regular Polygon
Polygon with all the side congruent and all the angles congruent.
Measures of Central Tendency
A single central value which summarizes a set of data (mean, median and mode)
Simple Interest
Interest calculated only on the principal. (i = prt) i is interest, p is principal, r is annual interest rate and t is time in years
Absolute Value
The distance of a number from zero on a number line.
Principal
Original amount deposited or borrowed.
Sample Space
The collection of all possible outcomes in a probability experiment. (this for two coins is HH,HT, TH, TT.)
Skew Lines
Lines that lie in different planes. They are neither parallel or intersecting
Selling Price
Mark up is added to the cost of merchandise.
Probability of an Event
When outcomes are equally likely.. P(E)= number of favorable outcomes/total number of possible outcomes.
Opposites
two numbers that are the same distance from zero on a number line, but are in opposite directions. (-2 and 2)
Relatively Prime
A fraction A/B is in simplest form when A and B are this which means they only have 1 as their common factor. (simplest form)
Vertex of an Angle
The point of intersection for two sides of an angle or figure.
Dependant Events
The outcome of one event does effect the outcome of a second event.
Odds
When outcomes are equally likely, this is expressed as the following ratios (odds in favor of an event and odds against an event)
Chord
The segment that has both end points on the circle.
Rate
A ratio that compares two quantities measured in different units
Area
The number of square units a figure encloses.
Linear Function
A function whose points lie on a line.
Angles that share a vertex and a side, but have no interior points in common.
Commission
Percent of sales.
Standard Form
A number written using digits and place value.
Scalene Triangle
A triangle with no congruent sides.
Sample
Part of the population. (in a class of 25 students, this is 25)
Variable
A letter that stands for a number (x is this in 9 + x = 7)
Origin
The point of intersection of the y and x axis in a coordinate plan (0,0)
Graph of an Inequality
A graph containing a variable that shows all the solutions that satisfy the inequality.
Tangent
This of an angle is the ratio of the length of the side opposite the angle to the length of the side adjacent to the angle.
Segment
This has two end points and all the points in the line between the two end points.
States that changing grouping of the addends does not change the sum.
Common Difference
Each term of an arithmetic sequence is found by adding a fixed number to the previous term. (in the arithmetic sequence -2, -4, -6, -8... the common difference is -2)
Least Common Multiple
The smallest number is the multiple of both numbers. (the LCM of 15 and 6 is 30)
Polygon
Closed figure formed by three or more line segments that do not cross.
Integer
Set of positive whole numbers, their opposites and zero
Perpendicular Lines
Lines that intersect to form right angles. (X)
Solution
Any value that makes an equation or an inquality true.

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