# Math Vocab. Review

Math vocabulary review for the 8th Grade SOL. Prentice Hall Course 3 Mathematics Book (Virginia)

## Terms

undefined, object

copy deck

- Communitive Property of Addition
- States that changing the order of the addends does not change the sum (A+B) = (B+A)
- To Evaluate
- To do this on an algebraic equation, replace each variable with a number and then symplify
- Slope Intercept Form
- y = mx + b
- Congruent
- The same size, length or shape.
- Polyhedron
- A solid with a polygon for each face.
- Multiplication Property of Inequality
- states that if you multiply an equality by a positive number, the direction of the inequality is unchanged. If you multiply the inequality by a negative number, it will reverse the direction of the inequality.
- Irrational Number
- A number that cannot be written as the ratio of two integers. In decimal form, this cannot be written as a terminating or repeating decimal -- ex: pi 3.14)
- Plane
- Flat surface that extends indefinitely in all directions.
- Image
- The result of a transformation of a point, line or figure
- Complementary
- Two angles are this if the sum of their measures is 90 degrees (it is right to give someone a compliment)
- Counting Principle
- Suppose there are m ways of making one choice and n ways of making second choice, then there are mxn ways to make the first choice followed by the second. (ex: toss a coin and roll a number cube -- the total number of outcomes is 2x6=12)
- Inequality
- A mathematical sentence that contains less than, greater than, less than or equal to, greater than or equal to, or not equal
- Hypotenuse
- The longest side of a right triangle, opposite the right angle.
- Isoceles Triangle
- A triangle with at least two equal sides.
- Algebraic Equations
- mathematical phrase that uses numbers, variables and operation symbols
- Reciprocal
- Two numbers are this if their product is 1 (4/9 is 9/4)
- Compound Interest
- Interest paid on the original principal and on any interest that has been left in the account. ( you can use the formula B=p(1+r) to the power of n). B=balance in the account, p = principal, r= annual interest rate and n=number of years the account earns interest
- Scale
- The ratio that compares a length in a drawing to the corresponding length in the actual object.
- Isometric View
- A corner view of a solid. It allows you to see the top, front and side of an object
- Surface Area
- The sum of the area of each of a solid's surfaces
- Prime Number
- Whole number with exactly two factors one being the number itself. (ex: 2, 5 and 13)
- Like Terms
- Terms with the exact same variable factors that you can combine.
- Biased Questions
- Unfair questions in a survey that can make assumptions that may or may not be true. They can also make one answer seem better than the other.
- Identity Property of Addition
- States that the sum of zero and A is A (A+0=A)
- Linear Equation
- An equation is this if all of its solutions lie on a line.
- Inverse Operations
- Operations that undo each other. (Addition and subtraction are this)
- Arithmetic Sequence
- Each term is the result of adding the same number to the previous term. (The sequence 4, 10, 16, 22, 28...is this -- you add 6 to each term to find the next term)
- Tessellation
- Repeating pattern of congruent shapes that completely covers a plane without gaps or overlaps.
- Odds in Favor of an Event
- The ratio of the number of favorable outcomes to the ratio of the number of unfavorable outcomes.
- Subtraction Property of Inequality
- When you subtract the same number from each side of an inequality, the relationship between the two sides, does not change.
- Factorial
- The product of all positive integers less than or equal to a number (5! = 5x4x3x2x1)
- Subtraction Property of Equality
- States that the same number subtracted from each side of an equation, the results are equal.
- Independant Events
- The occurrence of one event does not effect the probability of the occurrence of the other
- Common Ratio
- Each term of a geometric sequence is found by multiplying the previous term by a fixed number (the geometric sequence 3, 18, 108, 648....the common ratio is x6)
- Multiplication Property of Equality
- states that if each side of an equation is multiplied by the same number, the two sides remain equal.
- Rhombus
- Parallelogram with four congruent sides
- Base Plan
- This shows the shape of the base and indicates the height of each part of a solid.
- Vertical Angles
- Angles formed by two intersecting lines. These are opposite each other.
- Reduction
- A dilation with a scale factor less than 1.
- Least Common Denominator
- The least common multiple of the denominators of two or more fractions.
- Greatest Common Factor (GCF)
- The greatest number that is a factor of all the numbers (GCF of 12 and 30 is 6)
- Conjecture
- Prediction that suggests what can be expected to happen.
- Transversal
- A line that intersects two or more lines at different points* **
- Angle Bisector
- A ray that divides an angle into angles of equal measure.
- Circumference
- The distance around a circle. (3.14 x diameter or 3.14 x the radius squared)
- Addition Property of Equality
- It states that if you add the same value to each side of an equation, the results are equal. (If A = B, then A + C = B +C)
- Quadrilateral
- A polygon with four sides.
- Composite Number
- A whole number greater than 1 with more than two factors
- Additive Inverse
- Two numbers whose sum is zero are this.
- Unit Price
- A unit rate that gives the cost per unit.
- Arc
- Part of a circle.
- Rational Number
- Any number written as a quotient of two integers where the denominator is not zero.
- Polynomial
- One term or the sum of difference of two or more terms.
- Variable
- A symbol that stands for one or more numbers
- Congruent Angles
- Angles that have the same measure.
- Unit Rate
- The rate for one unit of a given quantity.
- Alternate Interior Angles
- Angles that lie within a pair of lines and on opposite side of a transversal.
- Angle of Rotation
- The number of degrees that a figure rotates.
- Trend
- Relationship between two sets of data.
- Acute Triangle
- A triangle with three angles that have less than 90 degrees each.
- Alternate Exterior Angles
- Angles that lie outside a pair of lines and on opposite sides of a transversal.
- Odds Against an Event
- teh ratio of the number of unfavorable outcomes to the ratio of the number of favorable outcomes.
- Random Sample
- Where each number of the population has an equal chance of being selected (population of customers at a mall this would be every 20th customer entering during a 2-hr period)
- Prime Notation
- Used to identify an image point.
- Quartile
- Numbers that divide data into four equal parts
- Balance
- The principal plus the interest earned.
- Central Angle
- An angle whose vertex is the center of a circle and a sum of the measures of the central angles is 360 degrees.
- Binary
- This system uses the digits 0 and 1 as place values using powers of 2.
- Factor
- An integer that divides another integer with a remainder of zero (1,2,3, 4, 6, 12, 18, and 36 are factors of 36)
- Compatible numbers
- Numbers that are easy to compute mentally.
- Permutation
- Arrangement of objects in a particular order
- Segment Bisector
- A line, segment, or ray that goes through a midpoint of a segment.
- Geometric Sequence
- Where each term is the result of multiplying the previous term by the same number (1,3,9,27, 81.... you multiply each term by 3 to find the next term)
- Pythagorean Theorem
- a squared + b squared = c squared
- Slope
- A ratio that describes steepness (rise over run)
- Real Numbers
- Together rational and irrational numbers form this set
- Improper Fraction
- A fraction that has a numerator that is greater than or equal to its denominator (ex: 24/15 and 16/16)
- Sequence
- This is series of numbers that follows a pattern.
- Interest Rate
- The rate usually expressed as a percent used to calculate interest
- Quadrants
- The x and y axis divide the coordinate plane into these four regions
- Percent of Change
- Percent in quantity increases or decreases from its original amount (original minus new or new minus original divided by original = this)
- Addition Property of Inequality
- This states that if you add the same value to each side of an inequality, the relationship between the two sides does not change. (Since 4>2 then 4+11> 2+11)
- Corresponding Angles
- Angles that lie on the same side of the transversal and in corresponding positions.
- Base
- When a number is written in exponential form, the number that is used as a factor is this. (5 to the 4th power = 5x5x5x5)
- Conversion Factor
- Rates equal to one. (3/1 and 1/3 is an example)
- Multiplicative Inverse
- The reciprocal of a number. (4 out of 9 ((4/9)) is 9/4)
- Associative Property of Multiplication
- States that changing grouping of factors does not change the product. ((AxB)C = A(BxC))
- Identity Property of Multiplication
- States that the product of 1 and A is A (Ax1=A)
- Prime Factorization
- Writing a composite number as the product of its prime factors is this of the number (this of 12 is 2 x 2 x 3 or 2 to the second power x 3)
- Parallelogram
- Quadrilateral with both pairs of opposite side parallel.
- Complement
- This of an event is the collection of outcomes not contained in the event
- Coefficient
- The numerical factor in any term of a polynomial (the expression 2x + 3x - 16 with a coefficient of y is 3 and the coefficient of x is 2)
- Sale Price
- Regular price of an item minus the discount = this
- Indirect Measurement
- Uses proportions in similiar triangles to measure the distances that would be difficult to measure directly. (5ft. tall person standing near a tree has a shadow of 4 ft. long, the tree has a shadow 10 ft. long, you use this to find the height of the tree which is 12.5 ft.)
- Regular Polygon
- Polygon with all the side congruent and all the angles congruent.
- Measures of Central Tendency
- A single central value which summarizes a set of data (mean, median and mode)
- Simple Interest
- Interest calculated only on the principal. (i = prt) i is interest, p is principal, r is annual interest rate and t is time in years
- Absolute Value
- The distance of a number from zero on a number line.
- Principal
- Original amount deposited or borrowed.
- Sample Space
- The collection of all possible outcomes in a probability experiment. (this for two coins is HH,HT, TH, TT.)
- Skew Lines
- Lines that lie in different planes. They are neither parallel or intersecting
- Selling Price
- Mark up is added to the cost of merchandise.
- Probability of an Event
- When outcomes are equally likely.. P(E)= number of favorable outcomes/total number of possible outcomes.
- Opposites
- two numbers that are the same distance from zero on a number line, but are in opposite directions. (-2 and 2)
- Relatively Prime
- A fraction A/B is in simplest form when A and B are this which means they only have 1 as their common factor. (simplest form)
- Vertex of an Angle
- The point of intersection for two sides of an angle or figure.
- Dependant Events
- The outcome of one event does effect the outcome of a second event.
- Odds
- When outcomes are equally likely, this is expressed as the following ratios (odds in favor of an event and odds against an event)
- Chord
- The segment that has both end points on the circle.
- Rate
- A ratio that compares two quantities measured in different units
- Area
- The number of square units a figure encloses.
- Linear Function
- A function whose points lie on a line.
- Adjacent Angles
- Angles that share a vertex and a side, but have no interior points in common.
- Commission
- Percent of sales.
- Standard Form
- A number written using digits and place value.
- Scalene Triangle
- A triangle with no congruent sides.
- Sample
- Part of the population. (in a class of 25 students, this is 25)
- Variable
- A letter that stands for a number (x is this in 9 + x = 7)
- Origin
- The point of intersection of the y and x axis in a coordinate plan (0,0)
- Graph of an Inequality
- A graph containing a variable that shows all the solutions that satisfy the inequality.
- Tangent
- This of an angle is the ratio of the length of the side opposite the angle to the length of the side adjacent to the angle.
- Segment
- This has two end points and all the points in the line between the two end points.
- Associative Property of Addition
- States that changing grouping of the addends does not change the sum.
- Common Difference
- Each term of an arithmetic sequence is found by adding a fixed number to the previous term. (in the arithmetic sequence -2, -4, -6, -8... the common difference is -2)
- Least Common Multiple
- The smallest number is the multiple of both numbers. (the LCM of 15 and 6 is 30)
- Polygon
- Closed figure formed by three or more line segments that do not cross.
- Integer
- Set of positive whole numbers, their opposites and zero
- Perpendicular Lines
- Lines that intersect to form right angles. (X)
- Solution
- Any value that makes an equation or an inquality true.