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Forensics Unit 5

Hunter Tysver
Chapter 9


undefined, object
copy deck
tandem repeat
A region of a chromosome that contains multiple copies of a core DNA sequence arranged one after another.
DNA Transfer
The deposition of just a few microscopic cells from a perpetrator onto a victim or an item at the crime scene which can be enough to allow for the development of a DNA profile.
DNA Profiling
The act or process of extrapolating identifying information about a person based on DNA levels in the range of one-billionth of a gram.
The process of joining two complementary strands of DNA from a double stranded molecule.
low copy number
A sample containing fewer than eighteen DNA-bearing cells.
Four Bases of DNA
Adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine.
polymerase chain reaction
A technique for copying or multiplying small quantities of DNA found in crime-scene evidence outside a living cell.
A short strand of DNA used to target a region of DNA for replication by PCR.
A threadlike structure made up of DNA and protein, along which genes are located.
The concept of simultaneously extracting, amplifying, and detecting a combination of STRs.
Mitochondrial DNA
Located outside the cell's nucleus and inherited directly from the mother only.
The suffix meaning enzyme.
Chromosomes that are not identical, but carry genes that code for the same traits.
short tandem repeat
Locations on the chromosome that contain sequences of three to seven base pairs that occur over and over within the DNA molecule.
DNA backbone
The bonds formed between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate group of the next nucleotide.
The specific site of a particular gene on its chromosome.
An extract of sea weed used to solidify gels in electrophoresis.
degree of discrimination
The ability to separate the pattern under study from one produced using a random sample from the population.
An individual having two different alleles for a give trait
the power of STRs
What makes them so attractive to forensic scientists is that hundreds of different types are found in human genes.
The alternate form of a gene.
three advantages of PCR
Best used with small fragments of DNA no longer than a couple hundred bases; short segments are more stable and less subject to degradation; it can amplify minute quantities of DNA, overcoming the limited sample size problem often associated with crime scene evidence.
human genome
The order of bases on all twenty-three pairs of human chromosome that can be passed down from parent to offspring.
nitrogenous base
Any of the five nitrogen containing molecules in a nucleotide.
A polymer of amino acids connected in a specific order to produce a 3-D structure that allows its function.
A technique used to determine the order of bases in a DNA segment.
The number of nucleotides in a codon.
a random change in the DNA sequence that can be inherited by succeeding generations.
A large segment of DNA that contains a core sequence of 15-35 bases that repeat up to a thousand times.
DNA at work
DNA directs the production of proteins, which are made by combining unit molecules called amino acids.
DNA Polymerase
The enzyme that adds nucleotides together in DNA replication.
The suffix meaning sugar.
A substance made up of repeating unit molecules.
Short tandem repeats found on the Y chromosome used for analyzing samples containing a mix of DNA from more than one male.
substrate control
An unstained object adjacent to an area on which biologic material has been deposited.
The motion of charged particles in a colloid under the influence of an electric field; particles with a positive charge go to the cathode and negative to the anode.
The individual who discovered the rules of complementary base pairing in DNA.
The natural charge of DNA molecules.
The unit molecule of all nucleic acids.
The allele that is not expressed in an organism heterozygous for a particular trait.
germ line
Cells that ultimately produce gametes.
RFLP analysis
Restriction fragment length polymorphisms that form the basis for one of the first DNA typing procedures.
sex in humans
A characteristic determined by the presence or absence of the Y chromosome.
A segment of DNA that codes for a specific protein.
Any cell having two copies of each chromosome.
positive RFLP test
When comparing the DNA fragment patterns of two or more specimens, one merely looks for a match between the band sets.
The synthesis of new DNA from existing DNA.
The physical appearance of an organism with regard to a trait, such as eye color or blood type.
buccal sample
Using a swab to collect cells from the mouth and cheek.
A known sequence of nucleotide bases from a DNA strand used to detect a complementary sequence in the sample by means of base pairing.
A biologically active protein that speeds up chemical reactions in a cell.
nucleic acids
Large polymers of nucleotides such as DNA or RNA in a cell.
All the alleles present in the chromosomes of a cell.
A phosphorus atom surrounded by four oxygen atoms that gives DNA an overall negative charge.
Combined DNA Index System
A computer software program developed by the FBI that maintains local, state, and national databases of DNA profiles from convicted offenders, unsolved crime scene evidence, and profiles of missing persons.
restriction enzymes
Proteins manufactured by bacteria and used by scientists to cut DNA into fragments that can later be incorporated into other DNA molecules.
paternity testing
DNA testing procedures that can conclusively determine who the farther is in a disputed case.
The organelle that manufactures ATP in eukaryotic cells.
Metric prefix meaning one-trillionth.
An allele that is expressed in an organism heterozygous for a particular trait.
Standardizing STR testing
Currently, U.S. crime laboratories utilize 13 STRs for entry into CODIS.
A circular molecule of ribose or deoxyribose.
Southern blotting
A technique used to transfer DNA bands from an electrophoresis get onto a membrane so they can be stained and compared.
disadvantages of mDNA
Forensic analysis is more rigorous, time consuming, and costly when compared to nuclear DNA analysis; all individuals of the same maternal lineage will be indistinguishable.
three advantages of STRs
They are made up of very few base pairs so they may be recovered from bodies or stains that have been subjected to extreme decomposition; they are ideal candidates for multiplication by PCR; 100 times less DNA is required for analysis than that normally required for RFLP.
Four bases of RNA
Adenine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil.
The ability to identify an evidence sample as originating from a specific person.
complementary base pairing
An orderly arrangement of nucleotides where A binds to T and C binds to G.
multiplicative law
The probability of two independent events occurring at the same time is the product of their individual probabilities.
A series of three nucleotides in a DNA sequence which determines the shape and function of the protein.
recombinant DNA
The joining of DNA segments from two different sources.
genetic code
The relationship between the base letters on a DNA strand and the type of protein specified for manufacture by the sequence of these letters.
The physical manifestation of an individual's genes.
The number of chromosomes in each diploid human somatic cell.
Franklin, Wilkins, Watson, Crick
Four individuals credited with discovering the double-helix design of DNA.
Haploid sex cells.
The unit molecules of a polymer.
Body cells.
Key to understanding DNA Typing
The knowledge that numerous possibilities exist for the number of times a particular sequence of base letters can repeat itself on a DNA strand.
the central dogma of biology
DNA is used to make RNA which is used to make PROTEIN (helps us understand how different cells do different things)
The first 22 pair of human chromosomes.
Cells on body surfaces such as skin and mucus membranes.
Key to understanding electrophoresis
The smaller DNA fragments will move at a faster rate through the gel than the larger ones.
Short strands of DNA used to target specific regions of DNA for replication.
Any cell having a single copy of each chromosome.
tracking dye
A material used to visualize the movement of DNA molecules during electrophoresis.

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