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Foundations of Reading


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Define phonological awareness
the awareness that oral language is composed of smaller units, such as spoken words and syllables
Define phonemic awareness
a specific type of phonological awareness involving the ability to distinguish the separate phonemes in a spoken word.
Name some levels of phonological and phonemic awareness skills.
1) rhyming
2) segmenting
3) blending
4) deleting
5) substituting
Phonemes are represented by:
letters and letter pairs
Phonemic Awareness is:
the ability to hear, identify, and manipulate the individual sounds, phonemes, in spoken words.
What do children need to become aware of before they learn to read?
They must become aware of how the sounds in words work.
Phonemes are:
the smallest parts of sound in a spoken word that make a difference in the word's meaning. For example, changing the first phoneme in the word hat from /h/ to /p/ changes the word from hat to pat, and so changes the meaning.
What does a letter between slash marks show us?
Shows a phoneme, or sound, that the letter represents, NOT the name of the letter.
example: h represents /h/
How can children show us they have phonemic awareness?
1) recognizing which words in a set of words begins with the same sound - bell, bike, boy all have /b/ in the beginning
2) isolating and saying the first or last sound in a word. - beginning sound of dog is /d/, the ending sound of sit is /t/.
3) Combining or blending the separate sounds in a word to say the word /m/,/a/,/p/, map.
4) Breaking or segmenting a word into its separate sounds - up - /u/, /p/
Phonemic awareness is sometimes also mistakes as the same thing as:
Phonics. But it is not the same thing as phonics.
Phonics is:
the understanding that there is a predictable relationship between phonemes (the sounds of SPOKEN language), and graphemes (the letters and spellings that represent the sounds in WRITTEN lanaguage.)
Phonemic awareness is a subcategory of:
phonological awareness, but is NOT the same thing, and the names can not be used interchangebly.
Phonological awareness includes:
identifying and manipulating larger parts of spoken language, such as words, syllables, and onsets and rimes, as well as phonemes. Also encompasses other aspects of sound, such as rhyming, alliteration, and intonation.
Children can show us they have phonological awareness by:
1) identifying and making oral rhymes
2) identifying and working with syllables in spokes words. - My name has two syllables - An-drew
3) identifying and working with onsets and rimes in spoken syllables, or one-syllable words. "The first part of sip is s-.", "The last part of win is -in."
4) Identifying and working with individual phonemes in spoken words - the first sound in sun is /s/.
About how many phonemes are there in the english language?
About 41
Can a phoneme be represented by more than one letter? Give an example.
Yes. /ch/
A grapheme is:
The smallest part of of WRITTEN languag that represents a phoneme in the spelling of a word. A grapheme may be just one letter, such as b,d,f,p,s or several letters, such as ch, sh, th, -ck, ea, -igh.
A syllable is:
a word part that countains a vowel or, in spoken language, a vowel sound. e-vent. news-pa-per. ver-y
Onsets and rimes are:
parts of spoken language that are smaller than syllables, but larger than phonemes. An ONSET is the initail consonant(s) sound of a syllable (the onset of bag is b-, the onset of swim is sw-). a RIME is the part of a syllable that contains the vowel and all that follows it (the rime of bag is -ag, of swim, -im)
Name some activites that build phonemic awareness:
1) Phoneme Isolation
2)Phoneme Identity
3)phoneme categorization
4)phoneme blending
5)phoneme segmentation
6)phoneme deletion
7) phoneme addition
8)phoneme substitution
How can phonemic awareness and segmenting words into phenomes help children learn how to spell?
children whp have phonemic awareness understand that sounds and letters are related in a predicatble way.
Phoneme Manipulation (a phonemic awareness term)
when children work with phonemes in words, they are manipulating the phonemes.
types of manipulation-
blending phonemes
segmenting phonemes
adding phonemes
deleting phonemes
substituting one phoneme for another to make a new word
Phonemic awareness is most effective when it focuses only on ______ __ ____ types of phoneme manipulation, rather than __________ types.
one or two, rather than several types.
phonemic awareness should be taught to:
1) small group
2) individual
3) entire class

small group is more effective - children benefit from listening to their classmates respond and receive feedback from the teacher
Phonics instruction:
helps children learn the relationships between the letters of written language and the sounds of spoken language
phonics instruction is important because:
it leads to an understanding of the alphabetic principle - the systematic and predictable relationship between written letters and spoken sounds.
What two factors make phonics instruction most effective:
must be systematic - plan of instruction includes a carefully selected set of letter-sound relationships that are organized into a logical sequence.

must be explicit- the programs proivde teachers with precise directions for the teaching of these relationships
What does an effective phonics program provide for children?
ample opportunity for the to apply what they are learning about letter and sounds of the reading of words, sentences, and stories.
systematic and explicit phonics instruction :
significantly improves children's word recognition, spelling, and reading comprehension

is most effective when it begins in kindergarten or first grade.
fluency is:
the ability to read a text accurately and quickly
fluency is important because
it fress students to understand what they read
reading fluency can be developed by
modeling fluent reading

having students engage in repeated oral reading
monitoring students progress in reading fluency
is useful in evaluating instruction and setting instructional goals

can be motivating to students
vocabulary refers to
the words we must know to communicate effectively

oral vocabulary refers to words that we use in speaking or recognizing in listening

reading vocabulary refers to words we recognize of use in print
What are the tweo types of vocabulary?

why is vocabulary important?
beginning readers use their oral vocabulary to make sense of the words they see in print

readers must know what most of the words men before they can understand what they are reading
vocabulary can be developed in two ways:
indirectly - when students engage daily in oral language, listen to adults read to them, and read extensively on their own

directly - when students are explicitly taught both individual words and word learning strategies
text comprehension is important because:
comprehension is the reason for reading
text comprehension is:

text comprehension can be developed by:
teaching comprehension strategies
text comprehension can be taught in three main ways:
through explicit instruction

through cooperative learning

by helping readers use strategies flexibly and in combination

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