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unit 8


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Brown v. Board of Ed
effectively reversed the ruling of "Separate but equal"
Freedom Rides
Freedom Riders rode in interstate buses into the segregated southern United States to test the ruling of unsegregated public places
"Living Room War"
broadcast of the vietnam war into the living room
Pentagon Papers
report about the history of the Government's internal planning and policy concerning the Vietnam War
a collection of recordings of conversations between U.S. President Richard Nixon and various White House staffice in February 1971
joseph mccarthy
United States politician who unscrupulously accused many citizens of being Communists (1908-1957)
Central HS, Little Rock
segregated school which would not allow the lr 9 to enter
Consumer Culture
A culture that is permeated by consumerism
an independent agency of the United States government responsible for collecting and coordinating intelligence and counterintelligence activities abroad in the national interest
Phyllis Schlafly
conservative political activist known for her best-selling 1964 book A Choice, Not An Echo, and her opposition to feminism and the Equal Rights Amendment.
Nixon- Southern Strategy
Strategy to win over the south by saying that law must be color-blind.
The Beatles
recognized for leading the mid-1960s musical "British Invasion" into the United States
Termination Policy
1953 gov eliminated economic support for native americans, stopped reservation system, redistributed tribal support
Robert McNamara
Secretary of Defense from 1961 to 1968, during the Vietnam War
Army of the Republic of Vietnam military component of the armed forces of the Republic of Vietnam
Geneva Accords
extra-governmental and therefore unofficial peace proposal meant to solve the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
Social Conformity
conforming to the social norm like in ways homes were built
Jack Kerouac
writter from the Beat Generation "on the road"
De Jure/ De Facto
de jure designates what the law says, while de facto designates action of what happens in practice.
rosa park montgomery bus boycotts
politics based on practical rather than moral or ideological considerations
Cesar Chavez
leading voice for migrant farm workers terrible working conditions
Equal Rights Amendment(ERA)
guarantee equal rights under the law for Americans regardless of sex.
racial integration of popular music owned by aa
My Lai Massacre
was the mass murder of 347 to 504 unarmed citizens of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) by U.S. Army forces on March 16, 1968.
Stokeley Carmichel
leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee Prime Minister" of the Black Panther Party.
Women's Roles in the 50s
climbing of women workers but still housekeeping and rasing family
Elvis Presley
"The King of Rock 'n' Roll","Hound Dog" and "Jailhouse Rock"
Gloria Steinem
founder and original publisher of Ms. magazine, and was an influential co-convener of the National Women's Political Caucus.
Kent State Incident
shooting of students(protesting invasion of cambodia) by members of the Ohio National Guard
James Meredith
civil rights advocate first aa to attend university of alabama
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People black civil rights
mikhail gorbachev
Soviet statesman whose foreign policy brought an end to the Cold War and whose domestic policy introduced major reforms (born in 1931)
a period of slow economic growth and high unemployment (stagnation) while prices rise (inflation)
hot line
a direct telephone line between two officials
residential areas on the outskirts of a city or large town
Suez War
was a military attack on Egypt by Britain, France, and Israel beginning on 29 October 1956. over suez canal
Civil Rights Act-1968
prohibited discrimination concerning the sale, rental, and financing of housing based on race, religion, national origin, sex, (and as amended) handicap and family status. It also provided protection for civil rights workers.
health care for the aged
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization for the use of military force in Southeast Asia
Black Panthers
African-American organization established to promote civil rights and self-defense
Ho Chi Minh
Vietnamese revolutionary and statesman, who later became prime minister led the Viet Minh independence movement
Dwight Eisenhower
United States general who supervised the invasion of Normandy and the defeat of Nazi Germany
Family Assistance Plan
workfare not welfare, required recipients to register for employment (brainchild Daniel Patrick Moynihan, attempts died in Congress but proved basis for welfare reform in the 90s)
john foster dulles
United States diplomat who (as Secretary of State) pursued a policy of opposition to the USSR by providing aid to American allies (1888-1959)
u2 incident
The incident when an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. The U.S. denied the true purpose of the plane at first, but was forced to when the U.S.S.R. produced the living pilot and the largely intact plane to validate their claim of being spied on aerially. The incident worsened East-West relations during the Cold War and was a great embarrassment for the United States.
American Indian Movement
advocating Indigenous American interests, inspired cultural renewal, monitored police activities and coordinated employment program
united nations
an organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security
Great Society
President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
two civil rights groups focusing on non violent protest
Black Power
emphasized racial pride and the creation of black political and cultural institutions
fidel castro
Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba (born in 1927)
Satellite Nations
country that is dominated politically and economically by another nation
Modern Republicanism
President Eisenhower's views. Claiming he was liberal toward people but conservative about spending money, he helped balance the federal budget and lower taxes without destroying existing social programs.
Ed Sullivan
American entertainment writer and television host
the easing of tensions or strained relations (especially between nations)
Planned Obsolescence
process of a product becoming obsolete and/or non-functional after a certain period
george kennan
US State Dept. Employee who authors the Containment Doctrine
an economic policy adopted in the former Soviet Union
loyalty review board
Overt manifestation of Red Scare "security risk" govt employees (hundreds) fired
Domino Theory
speculated that if one land in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow
flexible response
the buildup of conventional troops and weapons to allow a nation to fight a limited war without using nuclear weapons
The House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) was an investigating committee which investigated what it considered un-American propaganda,
Martin luther King Jr.
pivital civil rights leader, "i have a dream speech", assassinated for beliefs
hollywood 10
• Ten people were accused of being a spies but refused to testify and were sent to prison
Harry S. Truman
elected Vice President in Roosevelt's 4th term
silent majority
hypothetical large number of people in a country or group who do not express their opinions publicly
Beat Movement
group of American writers who came to prominence in the late 1950s and early 1960s cultural phenomena
Fannie Lou Hamer
organizer of the freedom summer campaine
Interstate Highway System
Ike backed the interstate highway act of 1956, a $27 billion plan to build forty-two thousand miles of sleek, fast motorways.
Agent Orange
nicknames given to the herbicide and defoliant used by the United States military in its herbicidal warfare program during the Vietnam War
Vietnam Memorial
war memorial located in Washington, D.C., that honors members of the U.S. armed forces who fought in the Vietnam War
Baby Boom
end of World War II brought a baby boom to many countries
"I Like Ike"
Popular slogan for republican Eisenhower
eisenhower doctrine
President can preempt congress's power to declare war in times of crisis
Rebel without a cause
story of a rebellious teenager expose the rift between two generations
National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam fighting against the government of the Republic of Vietnam
Marshall plan
a United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952)
Strategic Defense Initiative
Popularly known as "Star Wars," President Reagan's SDI proposed the construction of an elaborate computer-controlled, anti-missile defense system capable of destroying enemy missiles in outer spaced. Critics claimed that SDI could never be perfected.
Students for a Democratic Society
student activist movement student radicalism
Affirmative Action
policies intended to promote access to education or employment to non dominant group
Rolling Thunder
us aerial bombardment campaign conducted against the Democratic Republic of Vietnam1965-1968
The Graduate
college graduate with no well-defined aim in life, who is seduced
Peace Corps
a civilian organization sponsored by the United States government
John F. Kennedy
US President 1960-1963
Warren Commission
investigation of conspiracy theory for JFK murder; decided there wasn't one
julius rosenberg
Communists who received international attention when they were executed having been found guilty of conspiracy to commit espionage in relation to passing information on the American atomic bomb to the Soviet Union
Watts Riots
riot which lasted six days in the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles, California
38th Parallel
place of korean war cease fire and the border established between the north and south
Federal Communications Commission
regulating all non-Federal Government use of the radio spectrum
James Dean
starred as troubled high school rebel Jim Stark Rebel Without a Cause
Dean Rusk
United States Secretary of State from 1961 to 1969 under presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson.
Geneva Summit
meeting in 1955 between us uk ussr and france to reduce international tension
Kennedy Assassination
Kennedy was assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald in Dallas 1963
berlin airlift
airlift in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin
Rosa Parks
civil rights advocate would not give up seat on bus to white person
Thurgood Marshall
American jurist and the first African American to serve on the Supreme Court of the United States
Nixon- "Checkers" Speech
One of the First televised speeches to directly appeal the the public
Orval Faubus
gov. of arkansaw that would not let the lr 9 to attend school
health care for the needy
nikita khrushchev
Soviet statesman and premier who denounced stalin (1894-1971)
Jimi Hendrix
American guitarist, singer and songwriter appeared at woodstock
Mass Media
media designed to reach a very large audience
War Powers Act
stated that the President can send troops into action abroad only by authorization of Congress or if America is already under attack or serious threat.
Economic Opportunity Act
Part of Johnson's Great Society campaign and its War on Poverty.
party of the Democratic Party in the mid-20th century determined to protect what they saw as the Southern way of life
union of farmworkers rights organization
cuban missile crisis
the 1962 confrontation bewteen US and the Soviet Union over Soviet missiles in Cuba
MLK Assassination
assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee in 1968 sparked riots
mao zedong
Chinese communist leader (1893-1976)
exemplified the counterculture of the late 1960s
Ngo Dinh Diem
first President of South Vietnam
Marilyn Monroe
popular movie stars of the 1950s and early 1960s death at age 36
Alliance for Progress
a program in which the United States tried to help Latin American countries overcome poverty and other problems
building up the strength of the South Vietnamese armed forces, and re-equipping it with modern weapons so that they could defend their nation on their own
"Daisy Girl"
Political Ad For Johnson that implied opponent would start nuclear war
National Organization for Women(NOW)
largest American feminist organization
Rock n Roll
form of music that evolved in the United States in the late 1940s and early 1950s
unscrupulously accusing people of disloyalty (as by saying they were Communists)
francis gary powers
pilot of the U-2 plane shot down by the U.S.S.R. (Yes, we were spying and were caught). He didn't die, but was captured. We had to negotiate to get him released. We exchanged Rudolph Abel (A USSR spy we captured) for him.
social rebellion of youth after ww2
Richard Nixon
Vice President under Eisenhower and 37th President of the United States
Truman's Fair Deal
social and economic reforms, establishing a call for universal health care
truman doctrine
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
Dr. Jonas Salk
American biologist and physician best known for the research and development of a killed-virus polio vaccine, the eponymous Salk vaccine.
warsaw pact
treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania
Credibility Gap
describe public skepticism about the Johnson administration's statements and policies on the Vietnam War
Saturday Night Massacre
dismissal of independent special prosecutor Archibald Cox, and the resignations of Attorney General Elliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus during the Watergate scandal 1973
"Iron Curtain"
symbolic, ideological, and physical boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas
bay of pigs invasion
Failed CIA plan to overthrow Castro in April of 1961.
berlin wall
Became a sympol of the Cold War that divided Europe.
New Federalism
a policy in 1969, that turned over powers and responsibilities of some U.S. federal programs to state and local governments and reduced the role of national government in domestic affairs (states are closer to the people and problems)
a political scandal involving abuse of power and bribery and obstruction of justice
William Westmoreland
American General who commanded American military operations in the Vietnam War served as US Army Chief of Staff afterward
1968 Democratic Convention
Hubert Humphrey nominated riots broke out between protesters and police over vietnam war
Tet Offensive
strike military and civilian command and control centers throughout the Republic of Vietnam
chiang kai-shek
Leader of the nationalist party.
New Left
college campus mass protest movements and radical leftist movements
Allen Ginsburg
American poet poem Howl
was a national liberation movement formed by Hồ Chí Minh in 1941 to seek independence for Vietnam from France as well as to oppose the Japanese occupation.
a policy of the Soviet government allowing freer discussion of social problems
urban Renewal
program of land re-development in areas of moderate to high density urban land use
member of a subgroup of a counterculture,created their own communities, listened to psychedelic rock
Betty Friedan
American feminist, best known for "Second Wave" her book The Feminine Mystique
(military) the act of containing something or someone
1968 Election- Protests
idespread protests against the Vietnam War
Kerner Commission
created in July, 1967 by President Lyndon B. Johnson to investigate the causes of the 1967 race riots in the United States
Limited Test Ban Treaty
prohibits nuclear weapons tests "or any other nuclear explosion" in the atmosphere, in outer space, and under water
pro war anti war parties
A business method that involves the licensing of trademarks and methods of doing business
Disagreement about whether to attack china USSR intervention?
Easy Rider
1969 road movie two bikers travel the south
committee to re-elect the president
korean war
a war between North and South Korea
Reagan's strategic defense initiative that attempted to create a defensive shield, reducing the threat of MAD; nicknamed "star wars"
Andy Warhol
American artist and a central figure in the movement known as Pop art
Title IX
No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance
War on Poverty
President Lyndon B. Johnson's program in the 1960's to provide greater social services for the poor and elderly
potsdam conference
Conference where Truman, Atlee and Stalin complete post-war agreements. Trinity test is successful during this time
an international organization created in 1949 by the North Atlantic Treaty for purposes of collective security
hungarian uprising
*Hungary against Russia *Gain independence from Russia *A new Hungarian government in 1956 announced its withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact
MLK March on Washington
resulted in public awareness and the "I have a dream speech"
Chuck Berry
inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame on its opening in 1986
Civil Rights Act-1964
outlawed segregation in the U.S. schools and public places
the policy of pushing a dangerous situation to the brink of disaster (to the limits of safety)
Lyndon B. Johnson
signed the civil rights act of 1964 into law and the voting rights act of 1965.
Malcolm X
American Black Muslim minister and a spokesman for the Nation of Islam father of Black Power
SALT 1/2
roze the number of strategic ballistic missile launchers at existing levels and limit manufaturing
Roe v. Wade
laws against abortion in the United States violated a constitutional right to privacy under the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
segregation of differing peoples and mainly took place in the south
New Frontier
label for Kennedy's administration's domestic and foreign programs
Little Rock 9
students were initially prevented from entering the racially segregated school eisenhower interviens
alger hiss
state department offical. was accused of giving secret government documents to the Soviets
henry kissinger
United States diplomat who served under President Nixon and President Ford (born in 1923)
Sit ins
peaceful protest by staying but not being served, started when a group of black college students were refused service
1960 Presidential Debates
26 September 1960 first televised debate
Sesame Street
educated children November 10, 1969,
Bob Dylan
singer-songwriter"The Times They Are a-Changin'",,figurehead of American unrest
Plessy v. Ferguson
upholding the constitutionality of racial segregation "separate but equal"
Nixon- China/Moscow
china moscow relations waver nixon swoops in an streghtened ties with china(nixon visits china 1972) and russia
Voting Rights Act 1965
outlawed discriminatory voting practices
White Flight
working and middle-class white people move away from racial-minority suburbs or inner-city neighborhoods to white suburbs and exurbs
used in the Vietnam War to clear landing zones for helicopters
an independent agency of the United States government responsible for aviation and spaceflight
Freedom Summer
June 1964 to attempt to register to vote as many African American voters as possible in Mississippi
Free Speech Movement
students insisted that the university administration lift a ban on on-campus political activities and acknowledge the students' right to free speech and academic freedom
word used to describe kennedy's way of handling the nation
Fall of Saigon
North Vietnam Captures Saigon the capital of the south
La Raza Unida
first third party to be formed around ethnic lines
Montgomery Bus Boycotts
bus boycott in alabama that lasted for 20 days resulted in desegregation of buses

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