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Western Civ Exam Terms

Terms

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Balian
In reality, born and raised in Jerusalem,
Calpurnia
Caesar's wife, dreams of the Romans bathing their hands in Caesar's blood
Song of Roland
An epic that talked of a chivalric knight named Roland, it revealed the popular image of Charlemagne in later centuries
Pagans
All who believed in the the Greco-Roman Gods
Crossing the Rubicon
The irreversible step Caesar took. it was the borderline of Italy, it was forbidden for a general to cross it accompanied with an army.
Jihad
First meant "struggle" but later changed to "holy war"
Law of Nations
Laws best for the Nation, Supersede what benefits you, ex. taxes
Nicea
Destroyed by the Peasants Crusade even though the city was filled with Christians but the Crusaders did not care.
5 Pillars
declaration of faith, praying, fasting, charity, and travel to Mecca and visit the Hajj, all Muslims must follow
Charlemagne
King of the franks who conquered much of western Europe
Zealots
Extremists who worked and fought to keep Romans out of Judaea
Baldwin IV
Ruled Jerusalem wisely, had Leprosy and died of an early age
Feudalism
A system that gave everyone certain "roles" in society, some are more important than others
Saint-Denis
...
Bibulus
Co-consul to Julius Caesar, he was treated poorly and dirt was thrown at him by Caesars body guards and was not accepted into meetings
Carolignian Dynasty
Pippin III's dynasty after using the pope's help to overthrow the previous emperor, split the kingdom between Lous the Pious, Pippin IV, and Charles the Great
Worms
the place where the church leader, nobles, and representatives of the Holy Roman Empire met in 1122 to create the Concordat of Worms
Cassius
prime mover in the conspiracy against Julius Caesar (died in 42 BC)
1st Triumvirate
The first attempt of the men by the names of Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey who try to save the republic. Caesar gains this power
Clovis
Wanted to spread and expand, wanted to recruit, believed in Arianism but if others did not then he did not, governed Frankish Kingdom
Battle of Poitiers
Spread of Islam vs. the spread of Christianity, Islamics vs. the Frankish kingdom, franks win because of more motive, knowledge of land, phalanx warfare, winter arrived as the Arabs did
Richard the Lionheart
Became King of England and helped lead the Third Crusade, Had a dilemma with Saladin and made the Treaty of Ramla, feared Philip I would take over if he was gone too long
Justinian Code
Emperor Justinian's desire that existing Roman law be collected into a simple and clear system of laws, or "code"
Al-Adil
Saladin's brother. wrote the treaty of Ramla, was killed by Saladin
Pope Urban II
Pope who developed reforms begun by Pope Gregory VII, began the Crusades, and built political power for the papacy
Imperial Coronation
.....
Gentiles
non-Jewish people
Medina
City in western Arabia to which the Prophet Muhammad and his followers emigrated in 622 to escape persecution in Mecca. (p. 231)
5 Good Emperors
Ruled wisely and intelligently, Flavians, Antonines, Severi, "Barracks Emperors", And Tetrarchy
Joan of Arc
...
Tiberius
In Jerusalem to observe Saladin's treaty be brought out, left after he thought it was over for Jerusalem
Augustas
The highest rank in Diocletian's succession system
Peasants Crusade
The First Crusade, liked by serfs and peasants because it was an escape to their difficult lives, 60,000 led by Peter the Hermit. There was a lack of unity and preparation resulting in failure.
Mecca
City in Saudi Arabia where Muhammad was born
Lay Investiture
The selection of church officials by authority
Four Gospels
Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John; of the New Testament, talk of the teachings of Jesus
Judaea
Province in Jerusalem where Jesus was known to almost be killed by Herod's order to kill all boys
Jesus
Said to be the Messiah, crucified to please the people because of his non-appeal to the Roman republic
Pippin V
Son of Louis the Pious, died before the Treaty of Verdun was set
Coenobitic Monasticism
Communal living in monasteries
Roger II
...
Ovid
Wrote the Fasti, shared simple pleasures of life, celebrated popular culture of that time
Domesday Book
From the Anglo-Saxon word "doom" meaning "judgment". Has important social and economic information on medieval England
Kerak
A small battle protecting Reynauld's castle until Baldwin came, happened because Reynauld killed the Muslims.
Pippin III
Mayor of the palace under Mervognian Dynasty, wanted to overthrow the emperor by allying with the pope, made the donation of Pippin by aiding the pope and giving him land
Charles the Bald
Louis the Pious' fourth son. given some land after the other three had land making civil war break out between the four
Antony
One of Caesar's top generals; after Caesar's death he took over the eastern part of the Roman Empire, fought against Caesars nephews for Rome
Gentes
Entirely large ethnic groups. defeated by larger more powerful groups. sold for slaves and treated terribly,
Pompey
Had powerful military and statesman who quarreled with Caesar and fled to Egypt where he was murdered (106-48 BC)
Acre
Saladin's officers without his knowing, charged fees for freedom in Acre, a port near Jerusalem, if money not remunerated, then the hostages would be slaughtered
Dhimmis
A person of a non-Muslim religion whose right to practice that religion is protected within an Islamic society
Hattin
A battle which defined the turn of events, Guy sought out Saladin far away from water and ended up failing miserably, Angered Saladin and he attacked Jerusalem
Marius
Is killed by Sulla
Caesaropapism
The thought of the unlimited power the emperor had over the church
Christmas
Said to be made as a syncretic faith, Babylon goddess of nature hosted parties, North Europe, mistletoe, and seasoned decorations in the harvest season, Singing and caroling from Rome
Mayor of the Palace
Does dirty work, taxes, prevention of revolts, alliance with tribes and annihilation of tribes
Livy
Loved and admired heroes, wrote the prose counterpart of the Aeneid.
Godfrey
Lord of Ibelin in movie, ideal lord, not real
Saladin
Nureddin's trusted officer, was sent to Cairo and named Caliph, waited for Nureddin to die and took Damascus and Jerusalem, became very powerful
Missi Dominici
Official appointed by Charlemagne who investigated if the counties were obeying his rules
Thomas Becket
...
Saint Augustine
Lead a group of monks to England and England eventually accepted Christianity. Became the Archbishop of Canterbury.
Horace
Friends with Augustas, received a good education.
Penitentials
Manuals for the examination of conscience
Peter the Hermit
Led the Peasants Crusade and wanted credit for defeating the Seljuk Turks
Caliph
A title taken by Muslim rulers who claimed religious authority to rule
Laeti
Refugees, want a better life and be apart of Rome, from different places, given jobs by farming in poor areas
Frederick Barbarossa
...
Arianism
Belief that Jesus was not on the same level with God, he is an important person but human
Diocletian
Doesn't Promote Christianity, Made Augustas, Caesar succession system, gets in a quarrel with Maxentius within the system
Zangi
First led the Second Crusade as revenge for the Al-Aqsa Mosque Massacre but died and handed his wealth to his son
Treaty of Ramla
Treaty between Saladin and Richard the Lionheart, Jerusalem would be under Muslim control and the coastal cities belonged to Richard, If Christians were attacked in Jerusalem blame would go to Saladin
Abbasid Dynasty
750-1265: Succeeded Umayyad Dynasty, Baghdad, Persian Influence, Trading, LEARNING
Alexius
Emperor who sent a letter requesting an army to rid the Seljuk Turks using religion as an excuse
Knights
Army, trained from a young age, do not question lord and are trained to be brave, loyal and fierce
Islam
Religion of the Muslims, means "submission to God"
Kaphus
Chief priest of the temple in Jerusalem, wanted Jesus dead
Agrippa
Extremely violent , one of the choices to be heir to Augustas but Tiberius was chosen and Agrippa was executed
Henry IV
Is excommunicated by Pope Gregory VII
Hastings
...
Enrico Dandolo
94 year old "mythical" man, the crusaders of the fourth crusade asked for his approval on a plan to take what was lost in the Treaty of Ramla
Theodosius the Great
Promoted Christianity, was angered and killed many in Thessalonica, wanted to repent for sins.
Pope Gregory VII
Wanted to end Lay Investiture and excommunicated those who supported it including the king, Three kings also went against the pope, bishops went against pope but lords went with the pope
Serfs
Worked the land, cannot fight, own land, need permission to get married
Treaty of Verdun
Land is split evenly between the four and stopped civil war between Louis the German, Lothar, Charles the Bald, Pippin V died
Foederati
Somewhat large group avoiding to be conquered by larger groups, want Rome's protection, were sent to different cities and build more cities for Rome, were given part of tax revenue
1st Settlement
30% of land, Certain provinces, Augustas tricks senators by giving them land far from Rome
Reynauld
Other enemy of Baldwin. Was Jailed because of his attack on Muslims and freed because his Templar knights were needed
2nd Settlement
Senators wanted more, can have meetings and make laws but can be vetoed and buildings can be made but cannot put your name on it
100 Years War
...
Cornelia
Caesars first wife
Justinian
Created the Justinian system, Byzantine emperor who held the eastern frontier of his empire against the Persians
Natural Law
Deals with laws the apply to everyone, right to live, right of freedom, etc.
Saint Benedict
Created rules to govern monks' lives. Established the monastery at Monte Cassino, the mountains of Central Italy.
Bishop Ambrose
Bishop of Milan, Refused to allow Theodosius to repent for sins unless he made a law that gave someone sentenced to death a week in case the sentence was unreasonable.
Sulla
Rival of Marius, He marches on Rome and takes control of the senate, he kills all who oppose him. Tries to reestablish a new senate.
College of Cardinals
(Roman Catholic Church) the body of cardinals who advise the Pope and elect new Popes
Sybilla
Guy's wife, used him as a way to stay in power, ruled after Baldwin V
Valentine's Day
From Lupercalia, drew names of women and gave things to them, promote fertility, Valentine was a priest who wanted to get soldiers married even though it was prevented from Claudius, supposedly executed February 14
Code of Chivalry
A code of behavior that governed the aspect of all knights behavior
Seljuk Turks
The threat of these new Muslims led to the call for a crusade.
Louis the Pious
Pippin III, the one son who dominated the other three in the partition of 806, had four sons
Qur'an
The holy book of the Muslims
Byzantine Empire
Eastern Half with some Roman elements, Constantinople is new capital, has legal code, brought church and government together
Magna Carta
...
Civil Law
Figuring out what is civil, divorce, who gets what, civil problems between people
Bethlehem
A small town south of Jerusalem where Jesus is said to have been been born
Crassus
Richest man in Rome, and was part of the first Triumverate
Sanhedrin Council
Established by Augustas, Jewish judicial group handling religious and local affairs
Pontius Pilate
Sentences Jesus' Crucifixion, Went brutally cruel to the Christians in the absence of Tiberius
Brutus
statesman of ancient Rome who (with Cassius) led a conspiracy to assassinate Julius Caesar (85-42 BC), One of Caesars dear friend, a noble person
Syncretic faith
Combination of different customs producing different cultures, like Christmas
Temple of Jerusalem
A temple that needed payment for entrance which Jesus did not agree with, Kaphus was the chief priest
Nureddin
Zangi's son who took Damascus though his father did not want him to, and wanted to capture Cairo and sent Saladin to take it for him, he died and Saladin took his wealth
Lothar
Favored by Louis the Pious and given much land and dominated
Al-Aqsa Mosque
Holy Temple in Jerusalem for Muslims, Al-Aqsa Mosque Massacre, Jews and Muslims were rounded up and 30,00-70,000 people were killed by the First crusade
Jerusalem
A holy city that was highly coveted by most people, it was a place of many religions that all lived in harmony.
Damascus
Zangi did not want to go because he thought it could lead to a Muslim to Muslim war, Nureddin took over and convinced the leaders to recruit and help Nureddin on his Crusade
Josephus
Jewish general who led the revolt of the Jews against the Romans and then wrote a history of those events (37-100)
Landfrieden
...
Shi'ite
Believed that Ali, Muhammad's son-in-law, should suceed him and that all future caliphs should be Ali's descendants.
Philip II
...
Virgil
Rome's greatest poet, wrote the Aeneid which is an epic tale of a hero and the making of Rome other than Romulus and Remus.
Cinna the Poet
Killed because his name is Cinna who was a senator who killed Caesar
Battle of Actium
The battle marking the beginning of the flourishing Roman empire, Octavian vs. Cleopatra and Mark Antony, Octavian wins, Antony and Cleopatra run away and are killed
Commodus
Attempts to stop the governor's expanding of power and removing of the emperor by exiling senators and putting more tasks in his own hands, does various attempts to gain popularity and is unsuccessful, he becomes too ambitious and allows governors to gain power
Edessa
First attacked by Baldwin and taken over, then Zangi attacked to get wealth and prepare for his crusade, he captures the city and then dies
Catacombs
the burial chambers of the ancient Christians in Rome; Secret meetings were held here
Antioch
Attacked by the first crusade, the strategy was siege and all resources were cut off, the city filled with disease and death until there was nothing left, irony
Simony
Sale of Church offices
Ibelin
......
Paul of Tarsus
A Jew from Asia Minor that played the most influential role in the spread of Christianity. Paul never met Jesus but he had a vision one day of speaking to him.
Julius Caesar
Gained popularity by aiding the poor, Sent to Gaul where he gained fame through conquests. Wrote "Commentaries on the Gallic War" about his conquests. Was killed by the senate because they were afraid of his power
Gallic Wars
Caesars military siege in Gail against Gallic tribes, he sent commentaries back to Rome to promote his popularity
Lords
Own 60-80% of kingdom given by the king, control soldiers and prepare for war
Merovignian Dynasty
Frankish Kingdom with no good bureaucracy while local tribes maintain peace and loyalty with the Franks, Pippin III is the Mayor of the palace and wanted to overthrow the emperor
Octavian
Formed Second Triumvirate in 43BC with Antony and Lepidus after Caesar's death,reduced power of the Senate, began a period known as Pax Romana or Roman Peace. accomplishments- greatly expanded the frontiers, reduced power of the senate
Barracks Emperors
A Period of Civil war, groups of emperors become popular and all want to become emperor and expand power
Constantine
Within the Diocletian's system, defeats Maxentius, promotes christianity, wanted to keep people happy, passes Edict of Milan
Guy
Married Sybilla. Powerful enemy of Baldwin, went with Sybilla to Cyprus and captured it with a couple of his men
William the Conqueror
Also William of Normandy, defeated Anglo-Saxon Claimant at Hastings

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