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Speech Midterm 2


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OUr perceptions are also shaped by _____ roles that other communicate to us. Both messages tell us we are expected to fulfill particular roles and actual demands of those roles affect how we perceive and communicate
social roles
How elaborately we think about situations and people and teh extent of our personal knowledge of others affect how e select, organize and interperet our experiences.
cognitive abilities
elaborates on how culture affects our perceptions- it claims that a culture includes a number of social communitities and each one distinctively shapes the perceptions, identitites and opportunities of its members
standpoint theory
society is organized in terms of a hierarchy of power and status
Explains that communication si the "sending and receiving of verbal and nonverbal messages to create shared meaning"
Explains that eh process of human communication involves making sense out of the world and attempting to share that sense with ohters, through verbal and nonverbal messages
Beebe, Beebe, and Ivy definition
The procedss of v erballyl and nonverbally sharing with anothe rperson or persons one's knowledge, interests, attituedes, opinions, feeling and ideas
A dynamic proccess in which people create exchange and construct meaning from those messages
Understanding both the econtent and intent of a message
shared meaning
Can help us more fully understand the process of communication
communication models
Doyle's Transmission View
Sending and receiving messages, encoding (is the act of creating messages by puttin ideas and feeling into codes), decoding (interpreting a message transmitted by a source), Noise-anything which interferes with a messages being understood
Doyle's Symbolic View
How meanings are symbolized. Symbols enable humans to form conceptions which are abstractions of experience and to generalize from one situation or circumstance to another.
Alphabet, numbers, non-verbal movements are symbols
symbols can change meaning over time
Doyle's Rational View
Messages are created within a specific context which are governed by specific rules. These messages are both content and relational. Interpretation is a key element of this view of communication. People play specific roles in theis particular view of communication.
Communication with oneself, inner speech/dialogue
Communications between people who are in a mutually defined relationship: more or less personal, exculusive, and informal. Friends, family, Lovers, Clubs/Rec groups that have a primary aim of social interaction
Interpersonal communication
Occurs in the workplace and is aimed at achieving work-related goals, working in groups and interviews
professional communication
Interaction between a speaker and audience that I guided by principle of rhetoric for the creation and evaluation of formal presentation
Public speaking
with a vary large an usually impersonal audience with messages that are commonly transmitted by way of electronic channel of communication
mass meditated communication
makes use of a computer as teh channel through which the message is transmitted; used as a tool to transmit information, as a place for interaction with people or for construction a way of being online
Computer Mediated Communication
Establish patterns of communication behavior and reflect how memmbers define the nature of the relationship. ex: you know when mom or dad comes home in a bad mood because you can establish and recognize communication behaviors
constitutive rules
Establish the boundaries of what is appropriate versus inappropriate. Ex: onc eyou realize a parent is upset you take actions in avoiding them or helping them
regulative rules
Sheer information that is exchanged
content dimension
of a message communicates attitudes and feeling taht each party has about themselves, the other, and the relationship itself.
relational dimension
Relationship roles
roles are larned, we have multiple roles wihcih constantly change, we define ourselves by our roles, we compare our roles to others
How many spoken languages are on this planet
170 countries English is official language of ____
Meaning are in _____, not the ________ or _______
people, word, language
Society and cultures are bound together by their common use and interpretation of symbols
symbolic interaction theory
Sociaetal units can look at the following ways to say hello and depending on how they look at those symbols would suggest what culture or society they are a part of
symbolic interaction theory
Specialized language used by a group, ex: medical terms
figures of speech that are deliberately used in place of standard terms. ex: words for someone who is attractive (hot, smoking...)
An expression used when people want to find a polite or less direct way of talking about difficult or embarrassing topics. ex: (dying-bite the big one, going to the castle in the sky)
language shapes culture, culture shapes language, study words to understand a culture. Speakers of didfferent languages often see the world differently. ex: usted and Tu spanish examples- aware of formal vs. informal
Sapir Whorf hypothesis
Language and grammer rules-when words are out of place, can change meaning of message
syntactic rules
What a word actually means. (words have demnotative and connotative meaning, words have a content and a relational meaning)
content, what the word actually means, dictornary definition
the feeling or image that a word creates for the person. (think of names and what we think when we hear that name)
different parts of a culture/society can have a different name for something- example in the Midwest a carbonated beverage is usually called "pop", while on the east coast its called a "soda"
Any form of communication not involving language. This is a very broad definition but is a start for the discussion
non-verbal communications
Two difference between veryabl and on-verbal communication
1. Aware vs. unaware-we are usually aware of when we are using language not always aware of when we send non-verbal messages. 2. Number of channels-remember a channel is how a message is sent. Verbal language only has one channel. Non-verbal communication has multiple channels
An action replace, or substitutes for a word. Ex: nodding instead of saying yes, sign language, looking at watch, road rage, army commands, pointing
An action or sound reinforces spoken language. Saying something loudly for emphasis, often done by accenting.
Behaviors that manage the flow of communication. ex: raising hand for speak in class, uniforms, stop lights
Using nonverbals to communicate the opposite of the verbal messages. Ex: sarcasm- "I just loved the movie". - often used to tell if a person is lying to you because we tetect non-verbal messages which seem to contradict the verbal messages
The act of creating and controlling the ay other people perceive you. Ex: what we choose to wear depends on the image we ant to send.
managing Impressions
Non-verbal ____________ codes can control behavior- people can act differently in different seetings
How to create realistic and symbolic barriers to protect things
- how does non-verbal make things seemingly more difficult to break in, planting trees, sticker on the door for security
criminal detection
how does the structure sustain interest in eating at the partiuclar restaurant? - structural layout, fixed features vs. semi-fixed.
- different restaurants creat themes (Hard Rock Cafe)
Theme restaurants, bars
many people are religious and symbols like a cross take on significant non-verbal meaning for the person
how people use space is the study of
Different kinds of space
intimate (relational, hugging) personal (eating with someone at a table, being in an elevator) social (classroom, meeting room) public (airport, mall)
How do we know when we are suppose to start clappin gnad stop clapping? how do we know when we are suppose to give a standing ovation? cycle-few people, then clumps then big wave of people
Touching: support, appreciation, inclusion, sexual
positive affect rouches
Touching: compliance, attention getting, announcing a response
control touches
Touching: greetings, departures, sport tems
ritualistic touches
Touching: reference to appearnce, doctors, hairstylist
task related touches
Different types of touch
positive affect touches
control touches
ritualistic touches
task related touches
acting like you feel the emotion when no such emotion is present
giving the impression of having no feeling when one is truly feeling is emotion
completely hiding one's feelings non-verbally
the use of one's vocal elements to surround words with color, tone and inflection
paralanguage or vocalics
uses of time can communicate important messages often related to status and culture
chroemics time
All cultures develop a time schedule that dictates the right time to do things. You are socialized to know thse things. ex: get married in 20s (much before or after people think is odd)
social clock
Silence: silence can bring people together (moment of silence)
Silence: people express love and feeling thru silence
Silence: someone not saying something to you often reveals inforamtion when directly asked something
Silence: being on the receiving or giving end of the silent treatment sends definite messages
Silence: silence often spurs people to action because they are uncomforable with silence (teacher asking questions in class and waiting for answers)
gthe physiological process of decoding sounds, think of ear drum, sound waves tec... _hearing is a matter of perception of small changes in atmospheric pressure which goes on all the time (which means you can hear your alarm clock even though you are not
-identifying and determing which sounds are important to us and which ae not.
-selcct a sound, attend to sound, give sound meanign, respodnign.
-understand someone, enjoy, learn, give help or solace, really key is wanting to hear and intending
Listenign barriers: individualistic behavior, interrupt more, get focus back on me, being preocccpied with other things
Listening barriers: emotions get in the way, racial slurs, etc...we tend to rememeber that people were emtional but not their words
emtional noise
Listenign barriers: we can think faster tahn waht people can speak. -125 words we can speak but we can process up to 600-800 words a minute (think they aren't paying attention but they can recite back)
speech rate vs. thought rate
Listenign barriers: too much information, news etc...story is too long, message is too complex
information overload
Listening barriers: too many TV's on, people yelling, normal distractions
outside barriers
Listening barriers: listening is hard work, and we just tune out, don't want to put forth the effort
Listening barriers: we think we know what the other person is going to say anyways, talk to the hand example
Listening barriers: being sick, whena person flies their ears pop, being dizzy
physical reaons
Bad responese to listening
comparing, mind reading, pseudo listening (pretending to listen), filtering (only listening to parts you want to know), juding, monopolizing, identifying, adveising (attempting to solve their problems), sparring
traits of pseudo listening
making people think you are interested in them, being alert to see if you are in danger. listening for one pieces of infomation and then rejecting everthing else, waiting for weak arguments, taking advantage of people
Good listening traits
paraphrasing, Ask the right types of questions ( USE- clarifying questions or open ended questions), provide minimal encouragers, remember eye contact, share insights only when asked, remember what they actually said, provide confirming messages, know the difference between sympathy and empathy
is simply feeling bad for someone
is being able to share similar experences
Attitudes are
learned opinions
Values are
enduring concepts of what is right and worng- good and bad-
way in which you achieve your goals in life
Befiefs are
how you view reality - the way you think the world should work.
-involves trust and faithsomethings
-very logical approach
-we tend to argue about beliefs, constructs claims and examples to support our beliefs
The view of your self that you want others to think of you -your image, your reputation
soical self
how you emotions affect you -your passions and love
emotional self
how thinking and logic affect you - how smart are you. how intellignet, what do you know, what skills or talents do you have
mental self
what you think is ethical, right and wrong, what is important, having religion guide you in life
moral self
how you take care of your body, appearnce, exercise, what people see, being fashionable
physical self
the expectations placed upon us in any given circumstance where something must be accomplished or performed
Roles: we are not born with knowledge of what are roles should be, instead culture and society place expectations upon roles
roles are learned
Roles: within certain roles, behavior expectations exist. For instance, a teacher is expect to teach, grad epapers, be available for help etc... the role and expectations of the teachers roles guide their behavior
roles are a guideline for behavior
roles: if your roel is a supervisor and something does not get done- we feel disappointed or angry with ourselves etc... our role was leadership and that didn't happen which in turn affects our self esteem.
roles affect how we view ourselves
Roles: we are students, brothers, sisters, workers, family memeber, boyfriend, girlfriends--- we have many expecations place on each of these roles- often difficult to balance and juggle all of them. OUr roles are constantly changing in life
multiple roles
roles: we judge and evaluate our roles performace to others to see how we are doing- the need for conforming to tohers often happens- we give in to pressure to conform- that person is prettier than me (I want to look like that)
compare ourselves to others
The theory which expalins how and why we compare our roles in life to those of other people
social comparison theory
an active process of selction, organizing and interpreting people, objects, events, situations and activities
The process of perception
selection, organization, interpereations
One important thing to remember about perception
that often what you perceive to be ture and what is actually true do not match up.
The tendency to use internal factors when explaining other's outcomes, and not consider situational or environmental factosrs
fundamental attribution error
the tendency to favor internal attributions following success and external attributions following failures
self-serving bias
A small group that is formed for specific purpose; to accomplish a task
task group
reflects how much group members are committed to working together and accomplishing the task at hand
task cohesion
reflects how much group members are interpersonally attracted to one another
social cohesion
3 characteristics of an effective informative speech
accuracy, unity, completeness
Limitations placed on speaker such as time and the speaking environment are
basic introudction for speech
attention getter, thesis, preview of main points
communication includs _________, __________, and __________ non verbal behaviors
kinesiscs (boyd movement), haptics (touch), proxemics (space)
ohh, uh-huh are examples of
:) are exmaples of
THe mental categories of word meanings developed by members of a speech community; the set of attributes of characteristics of those characteristics
semantic features

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