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The New Deal


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The period between Franklin Roosevelt's inauguration as president (March 4, 1933) and the adjournment of Congress on June 16, 1933. During the period, Congress passed an immense body of legislation requested by Roosevelt to try to stimulate the depressed
Hundred Days
Placed an embargo on the export of gold and temporarily closed all banks while they were investigated by federal examiners to determine their solvency. Most banks were open again within a month.
Banking Holiday
Ended prohibition
Twenty-First Amendment
FDR’s reassurement quote during inauguration
“The only thing we have to fear is fear itself”
Reduced the salaries of federal employees by 15 percent and cut various veterans’ benefits.
Economy Act
During the depression years of the 1930s, President Roosevelt used the radio to communicate with the American people, using plain language to explain complex issues and programs.
“Fireside chats”
This government agency guarantees bank deposits, thereby protecting both depositors and banks.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation-(FDIC)
This federal agency rescued individual homeowners from foreclosure by refinancing mortgage loans.
Home Owners Loan Corporation-(HOLC)
When created it required promoters to make public full financial information about new stock issues and giving the Federal Trade Commission the right to regulate such transaction.
Federal Securities Act
Created during the Hundred Days, it provided government jobs in reforestation, flood control, and other conservation projects to young men between eighteen and twenty-five. This popular New Deal program eventually employed over 300,000 people.
Civilian Conservation Corps- (CCC)
This 1933 law created the National Recovery Administration and, in Section 7a, guaranteed workers the rights to organize unions and bargain collectively.
National Industrial Recovery Act- (NIRA)
This federal agency was established in 1933 to promote economic recovery by promulgating codes to control production, prices, and wages.
National Recovery Administration- (NRA)
Drafting posed difficult problems, first because each industry insisted on tailoring the agreements to its special needs and second because most manufacturers were unwilling to accept all the provisions of this dealing with rights of labor.
Section 7a of NRA
employers agreed to the pledge _____ in order to receive the Blue Eagle symbol of NRA. Slogan of people.
“We do our part”
the symbol of NRA
Blue Eagle
President of the United Mine Workers Union in the 1930s, and he took full advantage of Section 7a of the NIRA to expand his union's membership. He and others formed the Committee for Industrial Organization in the AFL, which in 1938 became the separate C
John L. Lewis
Organized the workers in mass-production industries like steel and automobiles. It did much to improve the working conditions of unskilled factory workers, increase the political influence of labor, and bring minorities into the labor movement.
Congress of Industrial Organization- (CIO)
Placed restrictions on farm production and paid government subsidies to growers of staple crops. Money for the payments was raised by a processing tax on middlemen. The object was to raise farm prices, but it proved counterproductive for tenant farmers a
Agricultural Adjustment Act- (AAA)
- The Agricultural Adjustment Act (1933) was designed to give subsidies to farmers in order to lift agricultural prices to ______ with industrial prices based on the 1909 to 1914 ratio of the two. It meant that the price farmers received for their goods
Franklin Roosevelt's secretary of agriculture in the 1930s and was elected vice president in 1940. He unsuccessfully ran for president on the Progressive party ticket in 1948.
Henry A. Wallace
The building of federally owned dams and power plants on the Tennessee River, and the sale of fertilizer and electricity to individuals and local communities. In addition, its programs for flood control, soil conservation, and reforestation helped raise
Tennessee Valley Authority
Nebraska Senator, helped block plans to turn over government-built hydroelectric power plants at Muscle Shoals, Alabama to private capitalists. He sponsored the 1933 Tennessee Valley Authority Act.
George W. Norris
Willkie led the private-business community's opposition to the TVA. In 1940 he was the Republican nominee to oppose Franklin Roosevelt's bid for reelection to a third term. He focused his unsuccessful campaign on the president's increasingly intervention
Wendell L. Wilkie
A group headed by Raymond Moley, a Columbia political scientist, which included Columbia economists Rexford G. Tugwell and Adolf A. Berle, Jr., and a number of others. They attracted a great deal of attraction, but never impressed Roosevelt much. Rooseve
Brains Trust
members of the Brains Trust
Raymond Moley, Rexford Tugwell, Adolf Berle
Historian who said that the government is not under control of big business, but “interest groups” such as the Farm Bureau Federation, the unions, the trade associations, the silver miners.
William Leuchtenburg, “interest group democracy”
Described the bad conditions of the Great Depression.
Malcolm Little
This agency was set up to provide direct federal grants to the states for assisting the unemployed during the Great Depression.
Federal Emergency Relief Administration- (FERA)
In 1935, President Roosevelt put his close friend and personal advisor _________ in charge of the WPA. He had earlier administered the FERA and later would administer the Lend-Lease Act, and was chairman of the World War II War Production Board.
Harry L. Hopkins
Congress created the ________ in 1935 and President Roosevelt placed Harry Hopkins in charge of it. It eventually spent $11 billion on federal works projects and provided employment for 8.5 million persons. They built roads, bridges, schools, etc., but i
Works Progress Administration -(WPA)
Was a United States federal government project to fund written work and support writers during the Great Depression.
Federal Writers’ Project
Author of the trilogy U.S.A. It was a massive, intricately constructed work with an anti capitalist and deeply pessimistic point of view.
John Dos Passos
Wrote "The Grapes of Wrath" which brilliantly portrayed the plight of millions impoverished by the Great Depression in the 1930s.
John Steinbeck
Wrote: "Look Homeward Angle, You can’t go home again." Described the problems of urban life.
Thomas Wolfe
Wrote "Sound and the Fury", "Light in August", and "As I Lay Dying" were his literaure- Southern pride, poverty, racism
William Faulkner
Faulkner created a local world, Yoknapatawpha County, and peopled it with some of the most remarkable characters in American Fiction-the _______ family, typical of the old southern aristocracy worn down at the heels; the _____ clan, shrewd, unscrupulous,
Sartoris and Snopes
A left-wing critic of the New Deal, contending it did too little to help the poor. He advocated a "Share Our Wealth" program to transfer wealth from the rich to the poor. He was assassinated in 1935.
Huey P. Long
Long’s slogan. Trying to give a chance to all poor men; Black and White.
“Every Man a King”
A Catholic priest, contended on his popular radio show that inflating the currency could solve the Great Depression. He turned against the New Deal, and verbally attacked bankers, New Dealers, and Jews.
Father Charles Coughlin
The author of the old-age revolving pension plan, which called for a guaranteed monthly income for the unemployed elderly on the condition they spend the total income within thirty days to stimulate the economy. New Dealers rejected this plan in favor of
Dr. Francis E. Townsend (Townsend Clubs)
Case (also known as the "sick chicken case") that the NIRA was unconstitutional. The court ruled that the NIRA gave too much legislative power to the executive branch and code authorities.
Schecter v. U.S
The policies adopted by the Roosevelt administration from 1935 to 1937 that emphasized social and economic reform comprised the ______.
Second New Deal
After the launching of the second new deal followed this. It was one of the most productive periods in the history of American legislation.
Second Hundred Days
Sometimes called Labor's Magna Charta, it gave workers the right to organize and bargain collectively. It also created the National Labor Relations Board to supervise union elections and stop unfair labor practices by employers.
National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act)
Established a system of old-age, unemployment, and survivors insurance funded by wage and payroll taxes. It did not include health insurance and did not originally cover many groups and individuals, especially the poor and minorities.
Social Security Act
This law gave the Securities and Exchange Commission extensive regulatory powers over public utility companies.
Public Utility Holding Company Act
This federal agency transformed American rural life by making electricity available in areas that private companies had refused to service.
Rural Electrification Act
another important measure, its supporters and opponents claimed, raised taxes on large incomes considerably. Estate and gift taxes were also increased. Stiffer taxes on corporate profits reflected the Brandeis group’s desire to penalize corporate giant
Wealth Tax Act
A British economist who greatly influenced many New Deal advisors to President Roosevelt. He argued that the world depression could be conquered if governments would adopt deficit spending--reducing interest rates and taxes and increasing expenditures in
John Maynard Keynes
Governor of Kansas, was the Republican presidential nominee in 1936. He and his party were defeated in a landslide victory for Democrat Franklin Roosevelt and the New Deal.
Alfred Landon
third candidate who was radical in the Election of 1936, he was a congressman from North Dakota who ran on the Union part ticket.
William Lemke
In 1934, they made available low-cost, long-term loans for modernizing old buildings and constructing new ones.
Federal Housing Administration
On January 20th, in Roosevelt’s inaugural address, he spoke of the plight of millions of citizens “denied the greater part of what the very lowest standards of today call the necessities of life.”
“A Third of the nation is ill-housed, ill-clad, ill-nourished”
The nine justices that viewed the New Deal sympathetically.
Louis Brandeis, Benjamin Cardozo, Harlan Fiske Stone
the nine justices, these were the ones that were not capable of being swayed into the New Deal and were conservative
James C. McRenolds, Willis Van Devanter, Pierce Butler, George Sutherland
Of the nine justices, these were the ones that were more open-minded, but tended to side with the conservatives on many questions.
Charles Evans Hughes and Owen J. Roberts
Concerned that the conservative Supreme Court might declare all his New Deal programs unconstitutional, President Roosevelt asked Congress to allow him to appoint more justices, who would likely be more sympathetic to Roosevelt's program, to the Court. B
“Court-packing” Bill
Liberal judge, he replaced Justice Van Devanter. He was from Alabama, a New Dealer.
Hugo Black
Workers barricade themselves inside the factories. The objective is to shut down the factory by not allowing employers to continue production with strikebreakers. Sit-down strikes were popular with industrial unions in the 1930s, but not with employers o
Sit down strikes
Roosevelt cut back sharply on the New Deal. Between August and October the economy slipped downward like sand through a chute. Stock prices plummeted; unemployment rose by 2 million; industrial production slumped. This further damaged the president’s r
Roosevelt Recession
Head of the WPA
Harry Hopkins [Keynesian who clamored for stepped-up government spending.]
head of Federal reserve
Marriner Eccles [Keynesian who clamored for stepped-up government spending.}
Secretary of the Interior
Harold Ickes [Keynesian who clamored for stepped-up government spending.]
Treasury Secretary who led the conservatives. They advocated retrenchment.
Henry Morgenthau
AAA program that lend money to farmers on their surplus crops
Commodity Credit Corporation
abolished child labor, and established a national minimum wage (40 cents an hour, later raised) and a forty-hour work week.
Fair Labor Standards Act
- Roosevelt singled out a number of conservative Democratic Senators, especially these guys. He tried to “purge” them by backing other Democrats in the primaries.
Walter F. George of Georgia, Millard Tydings of Maryland, and “Cotton” Ed Smith of South Carolina
Wife of the president, was a force for civil rights and a spokeswoman for better treatment and equal employment opportunities for African Americans and women in the depression years of the 1930s.
Eleanor Roosevelt
head of the Women’s Division of the Democratic National Committee
Molly Dewson
Franklin Roosevelt's secretary of labor, was the first woman cabinet member. She helped draft New Deal labor legislation.
Frances Perkins
Eleanor Roosevelt’s newspaper column. This made her a major political force as well as a speaker on public issues.
“My Day”
Black contralto, the DAR refused to permit the use of their Washington auditorium for a concert by her. Eleanor Roosevelt resigned from DAR in protest, then the president arranged this person to sing at the Lincoln Memorial.
Marian Anderson
Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes appointed this person as a special assistant assigned “To keep the government honest when it came to race.”
Charles Forman
In 1936 Roosevelt appointed this person, who was the founder of Bethune-Cookman College, as head of the Division of Negro Affairs in the National Youth Administration (NYA). She developed educational and occupational training programs for disadvantaged b
Mary McLeod Bethune
he was another black lawyer in Ickes’s department
William Hastie
Along with Forman and Bethune, he was another black lawyer in Ickes’s department, and a few others made up an informal ________ that lobbied throughout the Washington bureaucracy on behalf of better opportunities for blacks.
Black Cabinet
President Franklin Roosevelt named commissioner of Indian affairs. He successfully urged Congress to pass the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 to replace the 1887 Dawes Severalty Act. This restored tribal government.
John Collier
This law reversed previous Indian policy by guaranteeing religious freedom and tribal self-government and providing economic assistance.
Indian Reorganization Act of 1934
FDR’s role in the New Deal
The credit of the New Deal is debatable. He had little to do with many of the details and some of the broad principles behind the New Deal.
Balance sheet of New Deal (accomplishments and shortcomings)- accomplishments:
·had immense constructive impact
·convinced people that government should accept responsibility for national welfare
·many formerly unregulated areas of American life became subject to federal authority, like stock exchange, agricultural prices and production, labor relations, and relief for the needy.
·prevented later economic declines from becoming catastrophes.
·helped workers obtain a larger share of the profits of industry.
·made farm life more civilized (TVA)
·shortcomings: agencies made it more difficult to monitor government activities.
·vastly increased federal bureaucracy
·failed to end the depression

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