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american history test 3 2


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explain what happened during the white man sufferage.
* this happened after the war of 1812
* the new states that entered the union during the early 19th century opened the vote to all adult white males, regardless of whether they owned property, and many states adopted secret balloting instead of public polling to assure fair voting.
* women and minorities are excluded
what was the significance of the white male sufferage?
*the sufferage was significant because it made more offices elective rather than appointive and reducing property requirements for holding office
how was the electorate expanded?
universal male sufferage and the increase of elective offices
how was the election popular to jackson?
* he won 56 percent of the popular votes
* won 2/3rds electoral college
* large turnout revealed not only the growth of the electorate but also greater public interest in national politics issues.
how did king caucus came to be?
*the system ended in 1824 as existing poli. parties began to decentralize as a result of the westward expansion of america.
*was known as "king caucus" because the power that these caucuses had to nominate a president was seen as undemocratic
give an example of what happened during the king caucus process.
The failure of the caucus nominee of 1824, William Crawford, to become elected *resulted in no candidate achieving an electoral majority and John Quincy Adams finally being elected in the House of Representatives
what is "corrupt bargin"?
* adams won the presidential election this way bc of clay.
* the corrupt bargin started bc the H.O.R chose Adams since Clay had his support at the last min. therefore, adams chose clay as his sec. of state.
*most of the ams. pres. up to this point has served previously as secretaries of state, and the position was commonly regarded to be the stepping stone to the presidency.
how was jackson effected by the corrupt bargin?
it deprived him of election in 1824.
who started the newspaper war against adams? what about jackson?
* jacksonians began a newspaper attack
* clay started newspaper to critize jackson and his people
what rumors were spread in the newspapers about jackson?
* that he shot a deserter who wanted to go home to care for his sick mother
* that he was an adulterer but that was true.
* tried to get a divorce but turns out that they were still married. they got permission to get a divorce bc rachel jackson was an adulterer as well.
what was the main purpose of this newspaper war?
was over the election of andrew jackson.
what was involved in the 1827 campaign?
mudslinging - campaigns were called things that are not true.
what is the tariff of abomination?
*southerners who imported many foreign goods and had no manufacturing of their own, cried out against the tariff
*they claimed that it made the yankees rich at their expense.
*calhoun led the protests against the tariff by writing an anonymous essay called "south carolina exposition and protest"
*it argued that the indiv. states in the south should declare the tariff null and void.
what happened when the ppl wanted to take out the tariff?
*for four years, south carolinians tried to get ppl to follow calhoun's proposal.
*congress tried to pass a lower tariff of 1832 as a good gesture to the southerners but they still were opposed to it.
*jackson stood firmly against nullification and disobedience of the federal government
*eventually,the South Carolinians succeeded, and legislators met at a special convention in 1832 to nullify the Tariff of Abominations within the state
*jackson dispatched the navy to SC coast and prepared an army task force of unionist troops.
what was the compromise tariff of 1833?
*henry clay suggested that congress draft a new tariff that would lower the duties over time to the percentage stipulated by the tariff of 1816.
*also passed the force bill, which means that the president can use military force for one to collect tariff duties
who is peggy eaton and what did jackson have to do with her?
it was said that peggy had an affair with mr. eaton before her first husband died. as some administration wives started a moral crusade against peggy, jackson launched a personal campaign to restore her reputation.
what did jackson veto?
bank bill so bank could not be extended
who wanted to run against jackson when he attempted to run for a second term? and what did his opponent try to do?
*Clay, in a bid to gain political support for the upcoming election of 1832, pushed a bill through Congress to renew the Bank’s charter for another twenty years.
*He hoped that this move would put Jackson in a bind: if the president signed the bill, he would loose western votes, but if he vetoed it, he would lose the support of wealthier eastern voters
what did jackson do about clay's plan with the bank?
*Jackson initiated a Bank War, vetoing the bill and claiming that the Bank of the United States was unconstitutional
*move backfired, however, because westerners hailed the president as a savior of the common American.
what was the end result of the election of 1832?
*nominated jackson for a second term
*had 219 electoral votes, became pres. again.
what did jackson do to the bank?
Jackson dismantled the Bank of the United States by withholding all federal gold and silver deposits and redepositing them in smaller “wildcat banks."
*The Bank withered away until its charter finally expired in 1836.
*Jackson issued the Specie Circular in 1836, which required all land to be purchased with hard currency.
who was involved in the bank?
nicholas biddle
what did he do?
he was determined that he was going to have his bank extended for another 20 years. Refused to make any new loans. The bank also began to call in loans⬦. Told ppl that they have to make their payments to pay off loans.
what happened to biddle?
-Biddle charged for embezzlement and was in jail for life
- Jackson informed that US was debt free
describe what happened when jackson removed the native americans.
*he enforced the indian removal policy which would encourage indians east of MS that they can voluntarily move to the west.
*was trying to make room for white american farmers.
*cheerokes were forced to leave GA; half of them died
*this time period was called the trail of tears.
who was the next pres. after jackson?
martin van buren; he won 50.9% of the popular vote.
why did jackson have a frequent use of vetoing?
because he personally disliked stuff. he proved that presidents have the authority to make the nation's decisions like the supreme court.
what was the panic of 1837?
*it was a depression caused by A-DAWG
*His removal of federal funds from the Bank of the United States undermined the country’s credit and financial stability and prompted the wildcat banks to print their own paper money, which flooded the economy and spurred inflation.
how did the panic of 1837 affect the farmers?
*few farmers did not have hard currency so therefore, they had no way of purchasing land.
name three effects of the panic of 1837 while van buren was in office?
*prices fell
*hundreds of banks shut down
*millions found themselves out of work or too poor to farm
what did van buren do about this?
passed the Independent Treasury Bill to redeposit dollars in a new, independent U.S. Treasury.
explain the events that happened happened that lead to the catch phrase "tippecanoe and tyler too!"
*was during the election of harrison and tyler.
*harrison was the victor in battle of tippecanoe
*someone portrayed him as "log cabin born hard cider drinking frontiersman."
*this emphazised harrison's unpretentious democratic spirit.
*lots of Whig enthusiasm going around
*whigs chose tyler as nominee
*women enthusiastic about whig party by taking brroms and "sweeping" the demos. out and baking cakes in the shape of log cabins.
*harison won election; had whig victories in both houses in congress for the 1st and only time.
why was van buren out of the question? (what were his faults?)
*started an economic crisis, had regional conflicts, racial discords.
what was the purpose of reannixating TX?
to make TX a part of US territory and away from Mexico
what was required to make TX a part of US territory? what was the end result of the reannixation of texas?
*a 2/3rds ratification of the Senate.
*they got the territory but ordered all the native inhabitants to get out of the land.
*the president wanted to settle texas boundary at the rio grande.
explain what happened during the reoccupation of oregon?
*president polk claimed oregon as far north as the latitude of AL border (54-40 flight)
*he made a compromise with the british establishing U.S. border with canada at the 49th parallel.
*farming families who settled in Oregon proceeded to creat a nonslave territorial govt.
who was the adams-onis treaty negotiated by?
john q. adams and spanish foreign minister, luis de onis.
what was the treaty?
*the U.S. paid $5 million for the territorial rights of Florida and relinquished its claims of parts of Texas west of the Sabine and other Spanish areas.
what was the end result of the adams-onis treaty?
*Spain sold its territories of East and West Florida to the United States. The U.S. agreed to assume financial claims by residents against the Spanish government.
*the United States acquired the claims of Spain to the Oregon Country north of 42nd parallel
*Adams considered this to be his greater achievement, as he foresaw that Oregon would allow trade with the Orient and economic power in the Pacific.
what was the monroe doctrine?
*it informed the euros that the americans and euro. continents are different; only way to remain friendly is if they stay apart.
*america will not interfere with euro. affairs; will not let euros. interfere with any of their land and colonies.
*he denied the right of european countries to interfere in political affairs in western hemisphere.
explain what the lone star republic is.
*Texas, which had declared its independence from Mexico in 1836 and had immediately requested U.S. statehood
*for the time being, the United States could offer nothing more than formal recognition. Mexico tried several times over the next decade to reconquer their rebellious Texas province without success.
what was the northern opposition about tx?
Northern Whigs and opponents of slavery, however, protested the creation of another state in the South and blocked the move to annex the fledgling country in Congress.
what were the border disputes of tx?
the US wanted to get rid of all native inhabitants but they still kept coming in. they raided mexican territory for livestock.
what was the offer made to the mexicans by john slidell?
he asked if he could have CA for 25 million and NM for 5 million.
what happened after the mexicans declined john slidell's offer?
pres. polk sent zachary taylor in between the two territories as close to the rio grande as possible in hopes to start a war.
describe how the mexican war was like.
*the war was to gain MX territory
*mexico forced to surrender because so many of their men were dying in battle
*war went from 1846-47; scott and taylor were the generals.
*president wanted scott to take it easy in the war so cass could have victory since the pres. wanted a democrat to win.
*cass did not play any role in the was the whigs.
treaty of guadalupe-hidalgo.
required mexico to cede CA,NM, and the rio grande region in exchange for 15 million and the US assumption claims against mexico.
describe the election b/t taylor vs. cass
*cass was a democrat who made a new party called the free-soil party.
*taylor was a whig...ended up winning the election.
*whigs won bc of the southerners
what did zachary taylor do in his presidency?
-he made WI, MISS, SD, ND, and NB all non slave states.
-he offered spain 100 million dollars for cuba; wanted to make a slaveholding state
what was the gold rush?
james marshall employed by john sutter found gold nuggets in the sand in CA in 1848.
what happened after the gold was discovered?
the "forty-niners" went to CA. 6,000 miners harvested gold that was worth 10 mil., by 1850 it was worth 42 mil., and in 1852 the gold was 81 mil.
*population went from 10,000 to 100,000 in one yr.
what did the president want california to be?
a nonslave state; southerners wanted a piece of it but henry clay saved CA as a part of the union (west..whatever).
what was the fugitive slave law?
it was to punish those who assisted slaves to run away.
what did clay want to do with D.C.?
forbid it to have slave slave state.
*congress did not have the authority to get slaves from state lines (interstate)
what compromise did clay offer to make and what was taylor's opposition?
*clay wanted to admit CA as a nonslave state
*wanted to make a popular sovreignty to see if NM should be a nonslave or slave state
*clay wanted to propose a stronger slave fugitive law
*taylor didn't want to pass the slave fugitive law
who took over the presidency after taylor's death and what did douglas do?
fillmore took over and douglas divided the bills for the compromise of 1850.
what was the compromise of 1850?
*it enforced the fugitive slave law; made it a crime to assist runaway slaves; officials were required to return the runaways slaves back to their owners
*CA was now a nonslave state
*NM and Nevada was organized by popular sovreignty
*slave trade banned in D.C
what was nat turner's rebellion?
he believed to have seen visions of retribution against slaveowners; him and other slaves killed their master and other whites in VA..there was 60 victims. he hid in the woods for 2 months and then was finally discovered and hanged for murder.
who is william lloyd garrison?
*he made The Liberator expressed controversial opinions, such as the belief that blacks deserved legal rights equal to those of whites
elijah lovejoy
he was a part of the abolishonist movement.
fredrick douglass
wrote an autobiography about himself while he was a slave;was a slave who lived in baltimore...became friends with the white kids and relized that he wanted to learn how to read and write. was sent to rural maryland and had a master who treated him badly...he made his own little sunday school where he said he taught the other slaves religion but he was really teaching them how to read and write.
second great awakening.
*a backlash against the spread of rationalism, and partly in response to calls for an organized religion more accessible to the common man
*camp meetings were rowdy gatherings filled with dancing, singing, and shouting. The Methodists, who emphasized that religion was a matter of the heart rather an issue of logic, came to dominate frontier revivals. By 1845, Methodism was the most popular denomination of Protestantism in the U.S.
women's rights.
*had the chance to get a higher edu.
*Mary Lyon established Mount Holyoke Seminary, the first college for women. That same year, Oberlin College became the first institution of higher learning to open on a coeducational basis.
*had opportunity to vote as well
Mann fought for higher teacher qualifications, better pay, newer school buildings, and better curriculum. Catherine Beecher, sister of novelist Harriet Beecher Stowe, also crusaded for education but believed that teachers should be women.
*the people relized that edu was essential
elizabeth blackbell
wanted to be a dr. so she disguised herself as a man so she can attend med. school...people found out so they expelled her but then relized that she was smart so they wanted her back.
penal reform
*debtors prisons began to disappear
*govt. should use prisons for criminals
*dorthea dix was head of the insane asylum reform
*she made one of the first asylums that cared for the mentally ill

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