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PSU-Lisa Stevens


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childhood - Age 6-puberty
Industry vs inferiority (Am I successful or worthless)
a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation). (Also called a scattergram or scatter diagram.) +1.00 to -1.00 Range from
Herbert Simon
advanced study of problem solving
George Miller
Scientist who advanced the study of memory
what is the genetic relatedness of fraternal twins
Primary emotions-common
fear, anger, joy, disgust, interest, surprise
giving priority to one's own goals over group goals, and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications.
Erikson's stage Childhood - 1st yr
trust vs mistrust
gender role
a set of expected behaviors for males and for females.
John Alan Lee love theory style - ludus
game-playing love, many sexual conquests with little long-term involvement
Charles Darwin
natural selection, evolution, organizing principle of biology, evolutionary psych perspective
James-Lange theory
the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli.
that personality is largely shaped by unconscious thoughts and desires and by how ppl cope with their sexual urges
Erik Erikson's stage - childhood, 4th thru 6th
initiative vs. guilt (parents should support emerging independence while maintaining appropriate controls)
social learning theory
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished.
statistical significance
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance.
control group consists of
similar subjects who receive no special treatment
James-Lange theory
the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli (autonomic arousal).
evolutionary psychology
the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection.
experimental group
subjects who receive special treatment in regard to the indep variable
the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role.
adapting one's current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information.
illusory correlation
the perception of a relationship where none exists.
David Buss, Leda Cosmides, John Tooby
3 scientists who believed that patterns of behavior in species are products of natural selection just like anatomical characteristics
purpose of experiment
find out how one variable effects another variable
the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism's chromosomes.
how to sort indep & dep variables
fit into equation "How X affects Y" x=independent, y=dependent
Love as attachment-Hazen & Shaver
similarities between love and attachment in infancy
a response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience.
inability to envision reversing an operation - can't "undo" something
Jean Piaget
helped bring together the views of psychology as a science of behavior and a science of mental processes
1956 conference
launched the cognitive revolution, 3 important scientists reported on major advancements
all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study. (Note: Except for national studies, this does not refer to a country's whole population.)
the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month.
agreed with philosophy of Socrates & Plato, was also a scientist, dissected animals, thought fluid in brain cavity contained animal spirit
a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it.
scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Francis Bacon
British scientist, one of the founders of modern science
Cognitive component
conscious experience of intense feelings that can be difficult to control. Includes evaluative aspect (characterize emotions as pleasant or unpleasant.)
giving priority to the goals of one's group (often one's extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly.
reaction range
heredity sets certain limits on intelligence and environmental factors determine where individuals fall within these limits.
sympathetic division
increase, mobilizes body's resources for emergencies
humanistic psychology
historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people; used personalized methods to study personality in hopes of fostering personal growth.
teacher of Plato
unselfish regard for the welfare of others.
agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
Erikson's stage Childhood - 2nd & 3rd
autonomy vs. shame & doubt (can I do things myself or must I rely on others)
Herbert Simon
Nobel prize for cognition work
John Locke
Brit political philospher, one of history's greatest papers (An Essay Concerning Human Understanding), blank slate at birth. Combined with Bacon's ideas, formed modern empircism (knowledge originates in experience and science should rely on observation & experimentation)
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others.
Sternberg's types of relationships
8 different types of relationships that can result from presence or absence of these components (infatuation, fatuous love, empty love, companionate love, liking, romantic love, consumate love, nonlove)
John Alan Lee love theory style -mania
possessive - obsessive, passionate, jealous, need attention
3 methods used to disentangle the affects of heredity & environment
family studies, twin studies, adoption studies
the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein.
applied research
scientific study that aims to solve practical problems.
biopsychosocial approach
an integrated perspective that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis.
natural selection
the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience.
the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth.
Piaget's Stage 1
Sensorimotor stage - coordination of sensory input & motor response, little or no capacity for symbolic representation, development of object permanence (Piaget believed signs at 7 or 8 months, but fully realized at around 18 months, but research indicates earlier)
cognitive development
age related changes in a child's intelligence, memory, and language.
Stanley Milgram
Obedience to authority work, establishes social psych
interpreting one's new experience in terms of one's existing schemas.
cerebral cortex
convoluted outer layer of the cerebrum
World War II
created need for clinical services, stimulated growth of clinical psych-diagnosis and treatment of psych disorders
Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction-- strategy designed to decrease international tensions.
Increased global interdependence & cultural diversity
spark surge of interest in how cultural factors mold behavior
clinical psychology
a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders.
levels of analysis
the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon.
concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
Hypothalamus, amygdala and limbic system (subcortical structures)
are the brain structure that are viewed as the seat of emotions
Rogers & Maslow
Humanism is developed as a school of thought
Asserts that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements. an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind; emphasized the study of mental processes alone
Twin studies
researchers assess hereditary influence by comparing the resemblance of identical and fraternal twins with respect to a trait.
Mary Calkins
student of William James, should have been awarded Harvard PhD., (was offered one from Radcliffe) would have been first. First female APA pres.
Ivan Pavlov
launched study of classical conditioning, demonstrated stimulus-response bonds
two-factor theory
Schachter-Singer's theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal.
John Alan Lee love theory style -storge
slow burning, fall in love gradually, prefer stable calm relationships
Rather than acting as blueprints that lead to the same result no matter the context, genes react.
correlation coefficient
a statistical measure of a relationship - It reveals how closely two things vary together and thus how well either one predicts the other.
in Erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood.
Behavioral component of emotion
expressions, body language, nonverbal signals
3 components: Cognitive, physiological and behavioral components
independent variable
condition or event that an experimenter varies to see its impact on another variable
a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy.
Cannon-Bard theory
subcortical brain structures send signals simultaneously to cortex and ANS creating visceral arousal. the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion. James-Lange couldn't be right because the autonomic responses are too slow to trigger the emotional response.
social-responsibility norm
an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them.
Fundamental emotions
the small # of innate emotions with proven adaptive value
Roger Sperry, David Hubel & Torsten Wiesel
shared Nobel prize for work on neuroscience
Mere exposure effect
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking them
Margaret Floy Washburn
published Animal Mind which served as an impetus to emergence of behaviorism and the rise of animal research in psych
John Alan Lee love theory-style pragma
pragmatic-practical, rational, look for compatability
arranging objects in some order
Piaget's Stage 2
Preoperational stage (characterized by lack of conservation, egocentrist in thinking)
what do results of twin studies show
that identical twins are more similar than fraternal demonstrated by a greater mean correlation
Physiological component
autonomic arousal (sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions)
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes.
Piaget's model of cognitive development
4 stages as we age
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.
non-genetic influences
changing mental structures in response to new experiences (differentiate between similar but different items
placebo effect
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent.
in psychology, the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female.
midpoint or 50th percentice
World War I
created huge demand for testing of military recruits. Combined with Lewis Terman's Stanford-Binet intelligence scale combined to make psych testing routine
reciprocity norm
an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them.
the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo.
Wilhelm Wundt
Set up first formal lab for research in psych, machine to measure time lag in hearing a ball hit a platform and pressing a telegraph key. Wanted to measure mental processes
Socrates & Plato
philosopher-teacher-student, mind is separble from body, continues after body dies
mental operations
logical thoughts that are reversible
experimental condition
the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
loved data (distinguished him from socrates & plato)
John B Watson
asserted that mental processes are not suitable subjects for scientific study because they cannot be observed. Argued that psych should redefine itself as science of behavior. Launched behaviorism and contrib to growth of animal research.
BF Skinner
believed that free will is an illusion because behavior is determined by lawful principles
Early adulthood
intimacy vs. isolation (shall I share my life with another or should I live alone?)
facial feedback hypothesis
muscular feedback from facial expressions may contribute to one's own experience of emotions
ANS (Autonomic nervous sys)
regulation of the activity of glands, smooth muscles and blood vessels. Controls involuntary visceral functions. Sympathetic and Parasympathetic divisions
dependent variable
thought to be affected by the manipulation of the independent variable
natural selection
the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
the view that (a) knowledge comes from experience via the senses, and (b) science flourishes through observation and experiment.
Romantic love studies
studies by Ellen Berscheid and Elaine Hatfield
companionate love
the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
Noam Chomsky
advanced study of language
control condition
the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
Middle adulthood
generativity vs. self-absorption (will I produce something of real value?)
late adulthood
Integrity vs. despair (have I lived a full life or have I failed?)
student of Socrates, teacher of Aristotle
Flynn Effect
increase in avg intelligence test scores, possibly because of genetics and natural selection, possibly other environmental factors
passionate love
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship.
double-blind procedure
an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies.
Plutchik love models
his models shows that these blends results from varying degrees of intensity, sometimes of on single emotion
independent variable
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
John Alan Lee love theory-styles
ppl are characterized by different styles of love - like color mixing, many varieties emerging out of mixtures of basic emotions. Six basic (ludus, eros, storge, mania, pragma, agape.
social exchange theory
the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs.
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience.
(1) a sense of one's identity and personal worth. (2) all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"
Psych should investigate consciousness instead of structure
the heritability of intelligence
50% consensus estimate
Alfred Binet
developed first successful intelligence test
(emotions detector more than a lie detector) records autonomic fluctuations in response to questions (respiration, blood pressuer/pulse, and galvanic skin response-GSR)
random sample
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.
Cannon-Bard theory
theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion.
Max Wertheimer
established Gestalt psych
parasympathetic division
conserves bodily resources, reduce reactions, calming
dependent variable
the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.
John Alan Lee love theory style -agape
altruistic-unselfish, undemanding, giving
most frequently occurring score or scores
Broca's area
brain area in the left frontal lobe involved in language production
superordinate goals
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation.
gender schema theory
the theory that children learn from their cultures a concept of what it means to be male and female and that they adjust their behavior accordingly. Gender then became a lens through which you viewed your experiences.
developmental psychology
a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span.
bystander effect
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.
interpreting new experiences in terms of existing mental structures without changing them.
limited ability to share another person's viewpoint
mirror neurons
class of neurons that react while watching an action that mirrors the neural excitation while performing an action. Important for observational learning, may play an important role in empathy
what is the genetic relatedness of identical twins
two-factor theory
1960's- Schachter-Singer's theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal.
Piaget's Stage 3
Concrete operational period - mental operations can be applied, reversibility and decentration, mastery of conservation and hierarchical classification
reward theory of attraction
that we will like those whose behavior is rewarding to us and that we will continue relationships that offer more rewards than costs
Humanistic school of thought
emphasizes unique qualities of humans and their potential for personal growth
Adoption studies
assess hereditary influence by examing the resemblance betw adopted children and both their biological and their adoptive parents.
secondary sex characteristics
nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair.
a random error in gene replication that leads to a change.
Identity vs. role confusion (who am I and where am I going?)
research method in which investigator manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions & observes if any changes occur in a 2nd variable as a result
Edward Titchener
student of Wundt, joined Cornell, introduced structuralism, research method introspection
Martin Seligman
positive psych - increased research on resilience, well-being, human strengths & positive emotions (not pathology & suffering)
Piaget's Stage 4
Formal operational period ~ age 11, apply mental operations to abstractions, thinking becomes more logical & systematic
random assignment
assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups.
stage theory
Erik Erikson-theory of personality development that built upon Freud, development period during which characteristic patterns of behavior are exhibited and certain capacities become established.
Sternberg's Triangular theory
subdivides companionate love into intimacy and commitment
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
changing the shape or form of an object doesn't change the amount
basic trust
according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers.
basic research
pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.
Physiological component
bodily arousal component of emotion
the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied. We can never say what percentage of an individual's personality or intelligence is inherited. As environment become more equal, heritability increases
John Alan Lee love theory style -eros
love of beauty-equate love with strong physical attractions, select partners based upon looks
the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life.
tendency to focus on just one feature of a problem, while neglecting other important aspects
counseling psychology
a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being.
behavior genetics
the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior.
Cognitive component
conscious experience of intense feelings that can be difficult to control. Includes evaluative aspect (characterize emotions as pleasant or unpleasant.)
evolutionary emotion theorists propose
that the many emotions that ppl experience are produced by blends of primary (think primary colors and the color wheel)
a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors.
sexual response cycle
the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson—excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.
emotions developed because of their adaptive value - e.g. Fear will help an organism avoid danger and aid in survival.
Family studies
researchers assess hereditary influence by examining blood relatives to see how much they resemble one another on a specific trait.
nature-nurture issue
the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors.
heretability ratio
an estimate of the proportion of trait variability in a population that is determined by variations in genetic inheritance.

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