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CD

Terms

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habituation
the decrease in the response to a stimulus that occurs after repeated presentations of the same stimulus
anoxia
a restriction of oxygen to the baby, lasting a few minutes during the birth process, which can produce brain damage
DNA
the substance that genes are composed of that determine the naure of every cell in the body and how it will function
in vitro fertilization
a procedure in which a women's ova are removed from her overies and a mans sperm are used to fertilize the ova in a laboratory
Sickle-cell
a blood disorder that gets its name from the shape of the red blood cells
x-linked genes
genes that are considered recessive and located only on the X chromosome
3rd stage of labor
occurs when the childs umbilical cord and the placenta are expelled from the mother and happens fast
Klinefleters syndrome
a disorder resulting from the presence of an extra x chromosome that produces underdevelpment genitals, extreme height, and enlarged breasts
walking epidural
smaller needles and a system for continuous doses
Ultra sound
a process in which high frequency sound waves scan the mothers womb to produce and image of the unborn baby and size and shape can be determined
Dizocotic Twins
twins that are produced when two seperate ova are fertilized by two seperate sperm at roughly the same time
behavioral genetics
the study of the effects of heredity on hehavior
Monozygotic twins
twins who are genetically identical
hemophilia
a blood disorder
Chromosomes
Rod shaped portions of DNA that are organized in 23 pairs
Genetic Counseling
the disciplin that focuses on helping people deal with issues relating to inherited disorders
Heterozygous
Inheriting from parents different forms of a gene for a given trait
Fragile X syndrome
a disorder produced by injury to a gene on the x chromosome producing a mild mental retardation
classical conditioning
a type of learing in which an organism responds in a particular way to a neutral stimulus that normally does not bring about that type of response
teratogen
a factor that produces a birth defect
episiotomy
an incision sometimes made to increase the size of the opening of the vagina to allow the baby to pass
Embryonic stage
the period from 2 to8 weeks following fertilization during which significant growth occurs in the major organs and body systems
Placenta
a conduit between the mother and fetus providing nurishment and oxygen via the umbillical cord
cortincotropin releasing harmone CRH
triggers the release of various harmones and the process that leads to birth
vernix
smooths the passage through the birth canal and is wipped off the baby
tay-sachs
a disorder that produces blindness and muscle degeneration prior to death no treatment
recessive trait
a trait within an organism that is present, but is not expressed
Chorionic villus sampling CVS
a test used to find genetic defects that involves taking samples of hairlike material that surrounds the enbryo
low birth weight
infants who weigh less than 5.5 pounds
Homozygous
inheriting from parents similar genes for a given trait
1st stage of labor
the uterine contractions initally occur around every 8 to10 minutes and last 30 seconds. labor could take 16 to 24 hours
Amniocentesis
the process of identifying genetic defects by examining a small sample of fetal cells drawn by a needle inserted into the amniotic fluid surrounding the unborn fetus
Infertility
the inability to concieve after 12 to 18 months of trying to become pregnant
lamaze
these classes that teaches parents relaxations techniques to prepare for childbirth
very low birthweight
infants who weigh less than 2.25 pounds and fewer than 30 weeks
Threats to development
mothers diet, age, prenatal support, health, drug use, alcohol and tobacco use, and fathers prenatal environment
multifactorial transmission
the determination of traits by a combinations of both genetic and envioronmental factors in which a genotype provides a range within which a phenotype may be expressed
2nd stage of labor
lasts 90 minutes the babys head emerges farther from the mother with each contraction, increaising the size of the vaginal opening
Fertilization
the process by which a sperm and an ovum the male and female gametes respectively join to form a single cell
age of viability
point at which an infant can survive which is 22 weeks
Germinal stage
the first and shortest stage of the prenatal period takes place in the first two weeks
PKU
an inherited disored in which a child is unable to use a certain acid in their intestional amino acid that is found in milk
Down syndrome
a disorder produced by the presence of an extra chromosome on the 21st pair
infant mortatlity
death within the first year of life
preterm infants
infants who are born prior to 38 weeks
Dominate Trait
the one trait that is expressed when two competing traits are present
family birthing center
look more like bedrooms producing a more relaxing atmosphere
apgar scale
apperance, pulse, grimace, activity, respiration: a standard measurement system that looks for a variety of indications of good health in newborns. 7-10 is considered to be normal
reflexes
unlearned, organized involuntary reponses that occur automatically in the presence of a certain stimuli
Zygote
The new cell formed by the process of fertilization
Gametes
The sex cells from the mother and father that form a new cell at conception
bonding
close physical and emotional contact between parent and child during the period immediately following birth
Phenotype
an observable trait
epidural
numb from waist down
neonate
the term used for newborns
lanugo
fuzz on babies that quickly dissappears
states of arousal
different degrees of sleep and wakefulnees through which newborns cycle ranging from deep sleep to great agitation
fetal monitor
a device that measures the babies heartbeat duing labor
artifical insemination
a process of fertilization in which a mans sperm is placed directly into a womens vagina by a dr.
Polygenic Inheritance
inheritance in which a combination of multiple gene pairs is responsible for the production of a particular trait
fetus
a developing child from 8 weeks after conception until birth
operant conditioning
a form of learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened, depending on its association with positive or negative consequences
Genotype
the underlying combination of genetic material present in an organism
Temperment
patterns of arousal and emotionallity that represent consistent and enduring characteristic in an individual
still birth
the delivery of a child who is not alive
fetal stage
the stage that begins at 8 weeks after conception and continues till birth
small for gestational age
infants who because of delayed fetal growth weigh less than normal infants
Genes
The basic unit of genetic information

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