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Central (CNS) vs. Peripheral (PNS) Nervous System
CENTRAL NS: spinal cord and brain with sensory (afferent) neurons carrying info into the CNS and motor (efferent) neurons carrying info away from CNS to muscles/glands; PERIPHERAL NS: Somatic NS (sends and receives sensory messages for voluntary motor movement of skeletal muscles) and Autonomic NS (controls automatic/involuntary functions of smooth muscles/glands: Sympathetic=mobilizing/"fight or flight" and Parasympathetic="energy conserving")
Autonomic (ANS) vs. Somatic (SNS) Nervous System
AUTONOMIC NS: controls automatic/involuntary fx of smooth muscles/glands (Sympathetic and Parasympathetic); SOMATIC NS: controls voluntary fx of skeletal muscles
Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic Nervous System
SYMPATHETIC NS: mobilizing, "fight or flight"; releases hormones into bloddstream that result in increased heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure and decreased digestion and elimination; PARASYMPATHETIC NS: "energy conserving system" that is dominant during relaxation; main fx is body maintenance; slows heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration, and increases digestion and elimination
Quadriplegia vs. Paraplegia vs. Paresis
SPINAL CORD: C1-C5 (Cervical)=Quadriplegia (paralysis in all 4 limbs); C6-C7 (cervical)=Paraplegia (paralysis in legs and partial arms); T1-> (Thoraic, Lumbar, Sacral)=Paresis (muscle weakness)
Left vs. Right Hemisphere
LEFT HEMISPHERE=dominant in 97% of all people; dominant hemisphere controls language fx--usually in the L hemisphere; alos associated with being rational, analytical, logical and abstract; RIGHT HEMISPHERE=involved with perceptual, visuospatial, artistic, musical, and intuitive activities; also has been associated with emotion
Broca's vs. Wernicke's Aphasia vs. Conduction Aphasia vs. Global Aphasia
BROCA'S APHASIA=located in left frontal lobe and controls speech production muscles;"broken speech" WERNICKE'S APHASIA=located in left temporal lobe and responsible for thinking about an interpreting language; "weirdly wordy": frequently misuse words and misproduced speech sounds and poor comprehension, while being fluent; CONDUCTION APHASIAS=due to lesions in the connections between expressive and receptive speech areas; resemble Wernicke's EXCEPT for well-preserved language comprehension; GLOBAL APHASIA=damage to much of the cortex and most language fx are impaired
Parietal Lobes
Somatosensory Processing, Proprioception
Frontal Lobes
Personality, Abstract Thinking, Planning, Ability to Shift Sets
Occiptal Lobes
Temporal Lobes
Hearing, Emotions, Memory
Corpus Callosum and Split Brain Patients
CORPUS CALLOSUM (bridge between 2 hemispheres): SPLIT BRAIN PTS: "heart" with "HE" in left visual field and "ART" in right visual field; could only verbalize ART (flashed to R hem and registered in L hem)
Thalamus vs. Hypothalamus
THALAMUS: major sensory relay center for brain (except smell) and critical in pain perception, possibly linked to schizophrenia; HYPOTHALAMUS: major fx is homeostasis achieved by regulating endocrine system (Five F's: fever, feeding, fornicating, fighting, falling asleep); controls cyclic sex hromone secretion and gonads
Kluver-Bucy Syndrome vs. Septal Rage Syndrome
KLUVER-BUCY SYNDROME: damage to the amygdala=reduced aggression and placidity, apathy, hyperphagia, hypersexuality, agnosias; SEPTAL RAGE SYNDROME: damage to the septum results in aggression and rage
Cerebellum, Pons, Medulla, RAS
CERELLUM: smooth movement, coordination, balance; PONS & MEDULLA: facial expressions, sleep, initation of REM sleep, respiration, movement, cardiovascular activity (damage can lead to failure of bodily fx and death); RAS: diffuse set of cells in medulla, pons, hypothalamus, thalamus; stimulation leads to alert wakefulness
All or None Law
The phenomenon that guides neuronal fire: a neuron, if sufficiently stimulated, will fire to its fullest extent; if not sufficiently stimulated, it won't fire at all (either it fires or it doesn't fire--w/no difference in strength)
Inhibitory vs. Excitatory Neurotransmitters
INHIBITORY NT: decrease likelihood of action potential (e.g., GABA, endorphin); EXCITATORY NT: increase likelihood of action potential (e.g., acetylcholine, norepinephrine)
Agonists vs. Antagonists
AGONIST: any substance that enhances the effects of a NT; ANTAGONIST: any substance that inihibits the NT effect
Acetylcholine, Catecholamines, Serotonin
ACETYLCHOLINE (Ach)=most common NT; involved in voluntary mvmt and memory&cognition; particularly prevalent in the hippocamus and most notable disorder=Alzeheimer's; CATECHOLAMINES=Dopamine and Norepinephrine (synthesized from dietary tyrosine and phenylalanine): dopamine hyp of schizophrenia and Parkinson's; catecholamine hypothesis of affective d/o; SEROTONIN (5-HT): significantly involved in mood disorders, aggression, sexual activity, sleep onset, pain perception, and possibly schizophrenia; produced by dietary modification of tryptophan; theory that mania and depression characerized by low levels of serotonin (and differing levels of norepinephrine); dysregulation ass with suicidality and associated impulsivity
Role of Dopamine in Schizophrenia and Parkinson's
DOPAMINE: excess=schizophrenia (traditional antipsychotics were dopamine antagonists); too little=Parkinson's Disease (degeneration of neurons in Substantia Nigra, decreased dopamine available in basal ganglia; tx wit L-Dopa (Levodopa)
Role of Serotonin and Norepinephrine in Depression and Mania
Serotonin=low levels with both mania and depression; Norepinephrine=low levels=depression, high levels=mania
Role of GABA in Anxiety
GABA=major inhibitory neurotrasmitter with calming effect; Anxiety due to low levels of GABA; Benzodiazepines are GABA agonists (increase levels of GABA and thus reduce overarousal); epileptic seizures also associated with low GABA
Enkephalins and Endorphins
Endogenous Opioids, body's natural painkillers; involved in regulation of stress and pain
Hypothyroidism vs. Hyperthyroidism
HYPOTHYROIDISM: undersecretion of thyroxin: unexplained weight gain, sluggishness, fatigue, impaired memory and cog fx, sensivitiy to cold--can lead to myxedema madness; HYPERTHYROIDISM: oversecretion of thyroxin: weight loss despite increased appetite, heat sensitivity, sweating, diarrhea, tremor and palpitations, fatigue, agitated depression, insomnia, impaired mem and judgment, can involve hallucination/delusions, and can lead to Grave's Disease
Dementia vs. Delirium vs. Amnestic Disorder
DEMENTIA=impairment in memory plus one of four conditions (aphasia-language disturbance, apraxia-motor dysfunction, agnosia-difficulty in object recognition, disturbance in executive fx) and caused by medical condition, equal rates in men and women; DELIRIUM=acute confusional state resulting from disturbances in brain fx involving Ach, acute onset and fluctuating course and reversible, use Haldol; AMNESTIC DISORDERS=disturbance in memory due to gen med cond or substance effects (head trauma and alcohol abuse most common); problems with "memory only"
Alzheimer's vs. Vacular Dementia
ALZHEIMER'S: most common form of dementia; more prevalent in owmen; progressive course (early=recent memory, irritability, poor problem solving; middle=more memory, cognitive deficits, confusion; late=motor problems, mute, bedridden); cortical dementia; strong genetic component; VASCULAR DEMENTIA: 10-15% of all dementia and can coexist w/Alzheimer's; twice as common in males; result of numerous small CVA's and generalized cerebrovascular disease; abrupt onset and marked by rapid changes with "stepwise" plateaus; 1/2 die w/in 2-3 yrs of diagnosis; earlier age of onset; lifestyle changes arrest progress
Subcortical vs. Cortical Dementia
CORTICAL DEMENTIA=memory, language, and praxis affected; SUBCORTICAL DEMENTIA=affecting speed of processing and executive functions
Huntington's Disease
Involves the basal ganglia, results from autosomal-domninant gene; Ach and GABA implicated; does not become apparent until 35-45 yo w/50% hereditability; personality change 1st sign in 50% of cases; progressively deteriorating dementia; months to years after onset=choreiform movements (frequent, discrete, brief jerking), athetosis (slow writhing mvmts) and facial grimaces begin; genetic counseling recommended
Concussion vs. Contusion
CONCUSSION: most common head injury; results from blow to head, hard enough to cause temporary neural dysfunctoin but not hard enough to cause bruising; may cause short-term loss of CS as well as both anterograde and retrograde amnesia (recent, not remote); CONTUSION: far more serious blow to head w/coup-countrecoup injuries (brusing below point of impact and on opposite side of brain); may lose CS for minutes to an hour and if CS may be drowsy, confused, agitated, even violent; upon regaining CS may experience temporary aphasia, slight hemiparesis, or unilateral numbness
Post Concussion Syndrome
Constellation of somatic and psychological sx including headache, dizziness, fatigue, diminished concentration, memory deficit, irritabilty, anxiety, insomnia, hypochondriacal concern, hypersensitivity to noise and photophobia; most common sx are irritability, fatigue, headache, and dizziness
Open Head vs. Closed Head Injuries
OPEN HEAD INJURIES: (e.g., gunshot wounds) involve penetration of skull, many don't lose CS, neurological signs often highly specific; CLOSED HEAD INJURIES: skull is not pierced or cracked; most common=concussions and contusions; impairment can be discrete or general
Dementia vs. Pseudodementia
DEMENTIA=impairment in memory plus one of four conditions (aphasia-language disturbance, apraxia-motor dysfunction, agnosia-difficulty in object recognition, disturbance in executive fx) and caused by medical condition, equal rates in men and women; PSEUDODEMENTIA: cognitive impairments due to depression that resemble dementia (slower processing speed, difficulties w/concentration and attention, psychomotor retardation, social w/drawal, giving up); acute onset w/precise date of onset, ass with loss or distress, rapid progression, subjective complaints of memory loss, may have insight; may later develop dementia (misdiagnosed)
Korsakoff's Syndrome
Amnestic syndrome cuased by chronic thiamin deficiency associated w/alcoholism; anterograde amnesia (difficulty forming new memories) and often retrograde amnesia (esp remote memory); confabulation; lack of insight and limited spontaneous conversation; most have normal IQs and are alert, attentive, and generally motivated
Retrograde vs. Anterograde Amnesia
RETROGRADE AMNESIA: difficulty remembering past events/memories (recent or remote); ANTEROGRADE AMNESIA: difficulty forming new memories
Effects of Bilateral vs. Unilateral ECT
BILATERAL ECT: frequently induces memory changes; UNILATERAL ECT: less effect on memory but some evidence that on L side disturbs verbal memory and on R side disturbs nonverbal memory; most memory problems are reversible w/return to pre-tx fx within six months
Gate Control Theory of Pain
Proposes that sensations of pain are not directly related to activation of pain receptiors, but are mediated by neural gate in spinal cord that allows signals to continue on to the brain; pressure stimulation tends to close the gate (e.g., rubbing hurt area) and psychological factors can open the gate
Stages of Sleep: REM vs. Non-REM
ALERT: BETA; RELAXED: ALPHA (8-12 Hz); STAGE 1: THETA (4-8 Hz); STAGE 2: sleep spindles (12-16 Hz); greatest amt of sleep time; STAGE 3 & 4: hard to awaken, slow waves, DELTA (1-2 Hz); REM SLEEP (newborns=50% of time is REM sleep; old age=18% REM sleep); NREM SLEEP=physically restorative; REM SLEEP=psychologically restorative
Generalized vs. Partial Seizures
GENERALIZED SEIZURES (Tonic Clonic and Petit Mal); PARTIAL SEIZURES (Jacksonian, Complex Partial)
Tonic Clonic vs. Petit Mal Seizures
TONIC CLONIC=tonic stage (continuous tension/contraction) followed by clonic stage (rapid, involuntary, contractions and relxaction) and occur during Grand-Mal Seizure; PETIT MALE=aka Absence Seizures, occur most frequently in children, last 1-10 sec and begin w/brief change in CS followed by blinking/rolling eyes, blank stare, slight mouth mvmts
PET scan vs. MRI vs. CAT scan
PET SCAN: brain functioning; MRI: brain structure (radio waves); CAT SCAN: brain structure (x-ray like pictures)
Positive vs. Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia
POSITIVE SX: delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, grossly disorganized or catatonic bx; NEGATIVE SX: flat affect, poverty of speech, avolition
Side Effects of Antipsychotics and Mechanisms of Action
LOW POTENCY MEDS: Sedation, anticholinergic effects ("drying out" or "holding in"), orthostatic hypotension (dizziness, lightheadedness), lowering of seizure threshold; HIGH POTENCY MEDS: extrapyrimidal effects (movement-related sx), NMS, tardive dyskinesia (dystonia, parkinsonism, akathisia-agitation); ALL TRADITIONAL MEDS: tardive dyskinesia (ab; ALL MEDS: weight gain and sexual dysfunction; CLOZAPINE: agranulocytosis (potentially lethal)
EPS vs. Tardive Dyskinesia vs. Agranulocytosis
EPS (Extrapyramidal Symptoms): movement-related symptoms (Dystonia=muscle spasms; Parkinsonism; Akathisia=agitation, dysphoria; NMS: 1%, potentially lethal; severe muscle rigidity, altered CS, autonomic instability, high fever); TARDIVE DYSKINESIA: abbornal movements; gnerally arises after at least 6 mo of tx and plateaus after 3-6 yrs, often sx emerge after termination of med or dosage is lowered, not progressive and can be reversible (50% remission); AGRANULOCYTOSIS: potential lethal side effect to Clozapine, sudden drop in granulocyte count w/in hrs to 12 wks of inital administration and manifests as sore throat and high fever
TCAs vs MAOIs vs SSRIs
TCA (Tricyclics): best tx for psychotic, inpatient, melancholic, and geriatric depressio, likely to induce mania w/BPD, panic disorder (Imipramine), OCD, Chronic Pain Disorders, SE=manic episodes, severe anticholinergic effects, sedation, orthostatic hypotension, weight gain, nausea, sexual dsyf; MAOIs (Monoamine-Oxidase Inhibitors): best tx for atypical depressions, panic disorder, SE=orthostatic hypotension, weight gain, edma, sexual dys, insomnia, tyrasine-induced hypertensive crisis (alcohol, fava beans, aged cheese, liver, organe pulp, processed, yeast stuff, meat extracts, dry sausage); SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors): may also be good for atypical depression, can be used with Bipolar D/O (may induce mania), panic disorder, OCD, SE=very low, low lethality w/overdose
Mechanisms of Action of Antidepressants
To block reuptake of norepinephrine and/or serotonin
Withdrawal from Alcohol and Benzodiazepines
Seizures, hallucinations, and possibly fatal
Lithium Toxicity
Potentially fatal and always an emergency; sx may mimic the flu initially, and also include severe tremor, ataxia, coma, seizures, confusion, irregular heart beat, can occur when pt is on a stable dose and complying precisely but also can result from overdose

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